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THE   PHILIPPINES    PAST   AND   PRESENT 


•The^)<i^ 


THE  MACMILLAN  COMPANY 

NEW  YORK    ■    BOSTON  •    CHICAGO  ■    DALLAS 
ATLANTA   •    SAN   FRANCISCO 

MACMILLAN  &  CO.,  Limited 

LONDON  •    BOMBAY   ■   CALCUTTA 
MELBOURNE 

THE  MACMILLAN  CO    OF  CANADA,  Ltd. 

TORONTO 


9   -3 


THE  PHILIPPINES 
PAST  AND  PRESENT 


BY 


DEAN   C.   WORCESTER 

SECBETABT    OF    THE    INTERIOR    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    ISLANDS 

1901-1913  ;    MEMBER    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE 

COMMISSION,   1900-1913 

AUTHOR    OF    "  THE    PHILIPPINE    ISLANDS 
AND    THEIR    PEOPLE" 


IN  TWO  VOLUMES  — WITH  128  PLATES 


VOLUME    11 


MILLS   &    BOON,    LIMITED 

49    RUPERT   STREET 

LONDON.  W. 


COPTKISBT,   1914, 

bt  the  macmillan  company. 

Set  up  and  elcctrotyped.     Published  February,  1914. 


Notbjiioti  ]9rmi 

J.  8.  Cashing  Co.  —  Berwick  &  Smith  Co. 

Norwood,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 


CONTENTS 
VOL.  II 

CHAPTER  FASH 

XIX.    Education .501 

XX.    The   Exploration  of  Non-Christian  Territory  532 
XXI.     The  Govern.ment  of  Non-Christian  Tribes          .  559 
XXII.    The  Government  of  Non-Christian  Tribes  (Con- 
tinued)        591 

XXIII.  Corrigenda 637 

XXIV.  Non-Christian  Tribe  Problems       .        .        .        .660 
XXV.     Slavery  and  Peonage 676 

XXVI.    Murder  as  a  Governmental  Agency    .        .        -  7.30 

XXVII.     The  Philippine  Legislature 768 

XXVIII.     The  Picturesque  Philippines 792 

XXIX.     Rod,  Shotgun  and  Rifle 806 

XXX.     Philippine  Lands 829 

XXXI.     Philippine  Forests 846 

XXXII.    Improved  Means  of  Communication       .        .        .  861 

XXXIII.  Commercial  Possibilities  of  the  Philippines      .  884 

XXXIV.  Peace  and  Prosperity 911 

XXXV.    Some  Results  of  American  Rule  ....  921 

XXXVI.    Is  Philippine  Independence  now  Possible?         .  933 

XXXVIL    What  Then? 961 


APPENDIX 

Instructions  to  the  First  Philippine  Commission  .        .  975 

Proclamation  of  the  First  Philippine  Commission       .        .  977 

Instructions  to  the  Second  Philippine  Commission       .         .  980 
Past   and   Present   Organization   of   the   Courts   of    the 

Philippine  Islands 988 

Present  accepted  Estimate  of  the  Non- Christian  Popula- 
tion OF  THE  Philippines 999 

INDEX 1005 

V 


LIST   OF  ILLUSTRATIONS 

VOL.   II 
The  Metamorphosis  of  a  Bontoc  Igorot     ....        Frontispiece 

FACING    PAGE 

Head-hunters'  Weapous 508 

The  Three  Leading  Men  in  the  Funeral  Procession  of  an  Ifugao 

who  has  lost  his  Head  to  the  Enemy 516- 

The  Sacred  Tree  of  the  Ifugaos 524 

Entrance  to  the  Quiangau  Schoolhouse 534 

An  Ifugao  School 540 

The  Sub-provincial  Building  at  Quiangan 546 

Ifugao  Constabulary  Soldiers 554 

Bontoc  Igorot  Head-huuters 562 

Bontoc  Igorot  Women  in  Banana-leaf  Costume         ....  570 

A  Bontoc  Igorot  Tug-of-war 578 

Bontoc  Igorot  Boys  learning  to  make  Furniture       ....  586 

A  Conference  with  Ifugao  Chiefs 594 

Finished  Trail  built  by  Ifugaos 602 

A  Difficult  Bit  of  Rock  Work  on  the  Mountain  Trail  in  Benguet    .  610 

A  Flying  Ferry  in  Operation 618 

A  Wild  Tingian  of  Apayao 626 

Tingian  Girls  threshing  Rice 634 

Typical  Manobos 640 

An  Old  Bukidnon  Chief 650 

Typical  Street  in  a  Filipino  Town 656 

A  Typical  Bukidnon  Village  Street 656 

A  Typical  Improved  Bukidnon  House 664 

A  Typical  Neglected  Filipino  House 664 

Making  Friends  with  the  Mandayas 670 

A  Mandayan  Boy 678 

A  Group  of  Bagobos 686 

Moro  Boats  coming  out  to  meet  the  Philippine  Commission  at  Jolo  692 

Among  the  Moros 700 

A  Moro  Chief  with  his  Wives  and  Daughter 706 

Lieutenant-Governor  Manuel  Fortich  of  Bukidnon  ....  708 

Governor  Frederick  Johnson  of  Agusan 714 

A  Typical  Peon 722 

vii 


viii  LIST  OF   ILLUSTRATIONS 

FAOWO  PAOK 

The  Penalty  for  Loyalty  to  the  United  States 728 

The  Philippine  Assembly  in  Session 738 

Senor  Sergio  Osmena,  Speaker  of  the  Philippine  Assembly      .         .  742 

The  Manila  Hotel 750 

Mayon  Volcano 756 

The  Crater  of  Taal  Volcano 764 

A  Bit  of  the  Pagsanjan  Gorge 772 

A  Giant  Tree  Fern 780 

Scene  on  a  Bird  Island 788 

A  Day's  Catch 796 

After  the  Hunt 804 

Typical  Scene  at  the  Edge  of  a  Hardwood  Forest     ....  812 

A  Typical  Forest  Scene 820 

Old-style  Road  across  Lowlands 826 

New-style  Road  across  Lowlands 826 

Typical  Old-style  Country  Road .  836 

Typical  New-style  Country  Road 836 

A  Canga,  or  Carabao  Sledge 844 

A  New-style  Cart,  with  Broad-tired  Wheels,  which  does  not  injure 

the  Roads 844 

Road  Destroyers  at  Work 852 

An  Old-style  Culvert 858 

The  Old  Way  of  Crossing  a  River 868 

The  New  Way  of  Crossing  a  River 868 

A  Typical  Old-style  Bridge 878 

A  Typical  Reenforced  Concrete  Bridge 878 

A  Collapsible  Bridge 886 

Slap  :  Manila,  the  Future  Distributing  Centre  for  the  Far  East       .  888 

Preparing  Rice  Land  for  Planting 892 

Planting  Rice 892 

A  Three-year-old  Coffee  Bush 902 

A  Ceara  Rubber  Tree 906 

A  Typical  Cocoanut  Grove 918 

A  Typical  Filipino  Town 922 

A  Typical  Group  of  Filipinos 930 

A  Typical  Spanish  Mestiza 938 

A  Strange  Couple 946 

A  Member  of  the  Cabaruan  Trinity 954 

A  Typical  Old-style  Provincial  Government  Building      .         .        .  962 

A  Modern  Provincial  Government  Building 962 

A  Refuge  from  the  Moros 968 

A  Possible  Office-holder 972 


THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 


CHAPTER   XIX 

Education 

No  work  accomplished  since  the  American  occupation 
is  of  more  fundamental  and  far-reaching  importance  than 
that  of  the  Bureau  of  Education.  In  order  to  appreciate 
it  one  must  gain  some  familiarity  with  the  conditions 
which  prevailed  in  Spanish  times. 

The  first  evidence  of  the  Spanish  governmental  attitude 
toward  education  in  the  Philippines  is  found  in  a  royal 
edict  of  March  21,  1634,i  in  which  Felipe  IV  orders  all 
archbishops  and  bishops  to  take  steps  for  the  education 
of  the  Filipinos  in  the  Spanish  language  and  in  Christian 
doctrine. 

That  this  decree  was  more  honoured  in  the  breach  than 
in  the  observance  is  evident  from  another  royal  decree 
of  June  20,  1686,-  in  which  the  king  reminds  civil  and 
religious  authorities  that  the  non-observance  of  the  decree 
of  1634  will  be  charged  against  them. 

Neither  of  these  documents  provided  for  financing 
the  scheme  of  education  ordained,  but  a  decree  of  Decem- 
ber 22,  1792,^  did  make  financial  provision  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  Spanish  schools  for  natives.  The  salaries 
of  teachers  were  to  be  paid  from  the  royal  treasury,  and 
deficits  were  to  be  made  up  from  the  communal  prop- 
erties and  treasuries. 

Although  this  was  the  first  practical  attempt  to  in- 
troduce general  native  education,  there  are  evidences 
that  individual  opportunities  were  offered  to,  and  em- 
braced by,  Filipinos.     It  is  probable,  too,  that  in  certain 

•  Blair  and  Robertson,  Vol.  45,  p.  184. 

»  Ibid.,  Vol.  45,  p.  186.  '  Ibid.,  Vol.  45,  p.  222. 

VOL.    II  —  B  501 


502  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

localities  the  most  generous  of  the  Spaniards  opened 
private  schools. 

The  College  of  San  Jose  was  founded  in  1601,  the  Uni- 
versity of  Santo  Tomas  in  1619.  Neither  made  provi- 
sion for  educating  natives.  They  were  established  for 
the  children  of  Spaniards  only,  although  both  later  ad- 
mitted Filipinos.  But  in  the  rules  for  the  short-lived 
college  of  San  Fehpe  (1641-1645),^  Corcuera  lays  down 
the  following:  "The  college  servants  shall  be  of  influ- 
ential Pampango  families,  and  they  shall  be  taught  to 
read  and  write  in  the  Spanish  language,  and  shall  be  given 
clerkships  if  they  show  aptitude  therefor."  We  learn  that 
when  the  charity  school  of  San  Juan  de  Letran  passed 
under  the  control  of  the  Dominicans  in  1640,  native  boys 
were  admitted,  on  payment  of  fees,  to  share  the  advan- 
tages offered  charitably  to  Spanish  orphans.^ 

Primary  education  for  Filipinos  secured  no  real  foothold 
until  1863.^  In  that  year,  by  royal  decree,  a  school  system 
originally  planned  for  Cuba  was  extended  to  the  Philip- 
pines. It  made  provision  for  the  beginnings  of  primary 
instruction  in  all  municipalities  of  the  islands.  A  sum- 
mary ^  called  forth  by  a  circular  of  March  1,  1866,  gives 
information  with  regard  to  the  progress  actually  made. 
This  summary  fixes  the  number  of  towns  at  nine  hundred, 
the  number  of  children  attending  school  at  one  hundred 
thirty-five  thousand  boys  and  twelve  thousand  two  hun- 
dred sixty  girls,  and  the  number  of  schools  at  sixteen 
hundred  seventy-four,  but  it  gives  the  number  of  build- 
ings actually  in  use  for  schools  as  only  six  hundred 
forty-one.  Instruction  in  Spanish  was  not  always,  or 
even  generally,  given. 

In  1863  provision  was  also  made  for  the  establishment 
of  a  normal  school  at  Manila.     In  1893,^  forty  years  later, 

'  Blair  and  Robertson,  Vol.  45,  p.  175. 

2  Ibid.,  Vol.  45,  pp.  213-265. 

2  Census  of  the  Philippines,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  578-590. 

*  Ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  p.  591.  '  Ibid.,  Vol.  Ill,  pp.  579-580. 


EDUCATION  503 

the  actual  appropriation  for  the  Normal  School  was 
$5525.  Fourteen  years  after  the  American  occupation, 
the  appropriation  for  the  Normal  School  was  $56, 476.42, 
in  addition  to  $224,500  spent  for  new  buildings  and 
furniture.' 

In  1892  there  were  two  thousand  one  hundred  seventy- 
three  schools.  The  attendance  of  these  schools  was 
small  and  irregular.  In  1896,  at  the  outbreak  of  the 
insurrection,  the  Spanish  had  in  operation  a  public 
school  system  which  could  call  upon  the  Normal  School 
for  teachers  and  also  upon  such  graduates  of  private 
schools  as  cared  to  undertake  the  work.  Naturally  the 
latter  were  few.  Between  1863  and  1893,  the  Normal 
School  had  enrolled  two  thousand  and  one  students. 

This  may  be  contrasted  with  the  number  of  schools 
which,  under  the  present  regime,  prepare  the  pupils  for 
teaching,  as  well  as  for  other  occupations.  Including  the 
students  of  the  Phihppine  Normal  School,  the  Philippine 
School  of  Arts  and  Trades,  the  Provincial  High  and  Inter- 
mediate Schools,  nearly  thirty-seven  thousand  pupils  are 
now  following  studies  which  fit  them  more  or  less  to  un- 
dertake the  work  of  giving  instruction  to  others. 

In  addition  to  the  Normal  School,  the  Spanish  estab- 
lished a  Nautical  School  in  1820,  a  School  of  Commercial 
Accounting  and  of  the  French  and  English  Languages  in 
1839,  and  an  Academy  of  Drawing  and  Painting.  Their 
final  system  of  public  instruction  was  not  badly  planned, 
but  it  was  never  actually  put  into  full  operation. 

From  the  beginning  of  the  insurrection  against  Spain 
in  1896  until  the  beginning  of  the  insurrection  against 
the  United  States  in  1899,  most  of  the  public  schools  were 
closed.  The  schooUiouses  were  used  for  barracks,  prisons, 
or  hospitals.  No  attempt  was  made  to  keep  them  in 
repair,  and  what  scanty  equipment  they  had  once  pos- 
sessed was  for  the  most  part  destroyed  or  stolen. 

Between  1899  and  1901,  many  of  these  buildings  were 
'  Report  of  Director  of  Education,  1911-1912. 


504  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

repaired  in  towns  which  were  occupied  by  American 
soldiers,  and  the  beginnings  of  a  public  school  system  were 
made  by  our  victorious  army.  Wlierever  our  flag  was 
raised  a  public  school  was  soon  established,  soldiers 
often  serving  as  teachers,  and  the  moral  effect  of  this 
upon  the  Filipinos  was  very  great. 

The  city  of  Manila  was  natiu-ally  the  first  place  to 
receive  attention.  Three  weeks  after  our  army  entered 
it  on  August  13,  1898,  seven  schools  were  opened 
under  the  supervision  of  Father  W.  D.  McKinnon,  chap- 
lain of  the  first  Cahfornia  Regiment.  In  June,  1899,  Lieu- 
tenant George  P.  Anderson  was  detailed  as  city  superin- 
tendent of  schools  for  Manila,  and  during  the  following 
school  year  he  had  an  average  of  forty-five  hundred  pupils 
enrolled  in  the  primary  schools.  Captain  Albert  Todd 
was  detailed  to  act  as  superintendent  of  schools  for  the 
islands,  but  on  May  5,  1900,  in  anticipation  of  the  transfer 
of  the  islands  from  mihtary  to  civil  government,  he  gave 
way  to  Dr.  Fred  W.  Atkinson,  who  had  been  chosen 
by  the  Philippine  Commission  as  superintendent  of  pub- 
lic instruction.  This  title  was  changed  later  to  that 
of  director  of  education. 

On  January  21,  1901,  the  commission  passed  Act  74, 
the  basis  of  the  present  school  law.  It  provided  for  the 
appointment  of  one  thousand  American  teachers  to  begin 
the  work  of  establishing  a  school  system  carried  on  in 
English.  Appointments  were  made  as  rapidly  as  possible. 
By  the  end  of  the  year,  seven  hundred  sixty-five  Ameri- 
can teachers  were  at  work. 

When  provision  was  made  for  the  appointment  of  this 
large  number  of  Americans,  it  was  with  the  idea  that  they 
should  act  as  teachers  of  Enghsh  in  schools  over  which 
there  should  be  FiUpino  principals,  but  there  was,  at 
that  time,  no  body  of  Filipino  teachers  properly  pre- 
pared to  carry  on  school  work,  and  by  force  of  cu-cum- 
stances,  this  plan  was  soon  altered. 

Ten  school  divisions  were  established,   covering  the 


EDUCATION  505 

archipelago.  Each  was  presided  over  by  a  division 
superintendent  of  schools.  The  teachers  were  theoreti- 
cally subject  to  his  control,  but  the  divisions  were  so  large 
that  it  was  impossible  for  him  to  exercise  control  very 
effectively.  It  is  perhaps  well  that  many  of  the  teachers 
were  left  free  to  employ  their  o\\ti  ingenuity  in  meeting 
local  conditions. 

The  school  system  finally  established  represents  a 
composite  of  the  recommendations  of  hundreds  of  teachers 
scattered  throughout  the  archipelago,  and  these  recom- 
mendations were  based  on  hard-earned  experience. 

One  of  the  first  duties  of  teachers  was  to  begin  the 
training  of  Filipino  assistants.  This  took  form  in  the 
organization  of  so-called  aspirante  classes,  into  which 
the  best  of  the  Filipino  youth  who  were  old  enough  to 
teach,  and  who  had  already  received  some  education, 
were  gathered.  These  aspirante  classes  were  often  held 
side  by  side  with  classes  in  the  primarj^  schools  first 
estabUshed  by  American  teachers,  and  by  the  beginning 
of  the  year  1902  some  of  the  brightest  pupils  were  able 
to  assist  in  primary  school  work.  These  classes  made 
possible  the  establishment  of  organized  primary  schools 
under  the  control  of  American  teachers  with  Filipino 
teachers  in  the  lower  grades.  Their  graduates  formed  the 
nuclei  of  the  first  secondary  schools,  which  were  estab- 
lished in  1903. 

The  difficulties  which  teachers  had  to  overcome  at  the 
outset  were  numerous.  In  some  of  the  older  and  richer 
towns  there  were  stone  or  brick  schoolhouses  more  or 
less  fit  for  occupation.  In  such  cases  a  small  number  of 
old  wooden  benches  and  a  few  square  feet  of  blackboard 
were  usually  available.  Sometimes  there  were  books 
provided  by  the  army :  Baldwin's  readers  in  English 
or  in  rudely  translated  vernacular ;  Frye's  geographies 
translated  into  Spanish  ;  and  possibly  Spanish  editions 
of  the  history  of  the  United  States.  This  stock  was 
greatly  improved  during  the    latter  half  of   1902,   and 


506  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

teachers  were  furnished  books  and  supplies  as  rapidly 
as  transportation  facilities  penrdtted. 

In  1901  the  number  of  school  divisions  was  increased 
to  eighteen,  and  in  1902  to  thirty-six,  making  the  school 
divisions  identical  with  the  thirty-six  then  existing  poUt- 
ical  subdivisions  of  the  islands.  The  organization  of  the 
public  school  system  gradually  crystallized  and  assumed 
something  of  the  form  which  it  has  to-day.  Barrio  ^ 
schools  were  opened,  and  the  work  of  American  teachers 
who  were  detailed  to  supervise  them  was  thus  greatly 
increased. 

The  school  system  took  permanent  shape  in  1903  and 
1904.  As  it  now  stands  it  is  controlled  by  the  director 
of  education,  who  is  responsible  for  its  conduct.  Serving 
with  him,  and  subject  to  his  control,  are  an  assistant 
director  and  a  second  assistant  director.  The  directors 
have  immediate  charge  of  the  general  office,  which  has 
the  following  divisions :  records,  accounting,  buildings, 
property,  academic,  industrial  and  publications.  Each 
has  a  chief  who  is  directly  responsible  for  its  work. 

The  islands  are  now  divided  into  thirty-four  school 
divisions,  corresponding,  except  in  two  cases,  to  provinces. 
Each  has  its  superintendent  of  schools. 

The  divisions  are  subdivided  into  districts,  over  each 
of  which  there  is  a  supervising  teacher  who  is  responsible 
for  the  conduct  of  its  work.  Certain  of  the  intermediate 
schools  are  under  supervising  teachers,  while  others  are 
directly  under  division  superintendents. 

The  school  system  to-day  extends  to  the  remotest 
barrios.  It  is  organized  and  equipped  for  effective  work, 
and  ready  to  carry  out  promptly  and  effectively  the  policies 
determined  upon  by  the  central  office. 

In  each  province  there  is  a  central  provincial  school 

offering  intermediate  and  secondary  courses.     Only  twelve 

of  them  now  give  a  full  four-year  course.     Others  offer 

three  years,  two  years  or  one  year  of  secondary  work. 

•  Barrios  are  small  outlying  villages. 


EDUCATION  507 

There  is  also  a  manual  training  department  attached  to 
the  provincial  school,  or  a  trade  school.  So  much  for 
the  provincial  school  system. 

At  JVIanila  we  have  the  PhiUppine  Normal  School,  with 
an  attendance  of  six  hundred  sixty-nine,  and  the  Phil- 
ippine School  of  Arts  and  Trades,  with  an  attendance 
of  six  hundred  fortj^-one.  Also,  there  are  the  School 
of  Commerce  and  the  School  for  the  Deaf  and  Blind, 
both  supported  directly  from  insular  funds.  The  School 
of  Household  Industries  has  recently  been  established 
for  the  training  of  adult  women  in  embroidery,  lace- 
making  and  smiilar  arts,  so  that  they  may  return  to 
their  provinces  to  estabUsh  little  centres  for  the  produc- 
tion of  articles  of  this  nature.  This  is  most  important 
work.  The  FiUpinos  are  endowed  with  great  patience,  and 
with  extraordinary  delicacy  of  touch  and  manual  dexter- 
ity. If  productive  household  industries  based  on  these 
valuable  characteristics  are  generalized,  the  prosperity 
of  the  common  people  will  be  very  greatly  increased. 

Of  the  school  system  in  general  it  can  be  said  that 
Filipino  teachers  have  been  gradually  employed  for  the 
lower  grades,  and  Americans  have  thus  been  freed  to  take 
charge  of  the  higher  instruction.  Priniary  instruction 
is  now  in  the  hands  of  Filipinos,  and  intermediate  in- 
struction is  rapidly  being  tiu-ned  over  to  them.  In  July, 
1913,  there  were  about  eighty-five  hundi-ed  Filipino 
teachers,  with  an  estimated  total  enrolment  of  five 
hundred  thirty  thousand  pupils.  The  total  enrolment 
in  primary  schools  was  approximately  four  hundred 
ninety  thousand,  in  intermediate  schools  thirty  thousand 
nine  hundred,  and  in  secondary  schools  sLx  thousand. 
'When  we  compare  these  figures  with  the  hundred  and 
seventy-seven  thousand  reported  by  the  Spanish  govern- 
ment in  1897,  and  when  we  consider  the  fact  that  attend- 
ance at  that  time  was  extremely  irregular,  it  is  e\ddent 
that  noteworthy  progress  has  been  made.  Mere  figiu-es, 
however,  come  far  short  of  telhng  the  whole  story.     There 


508  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

has  been  very  great  improvement  in  the  qiiaHty  of  the 
instruction  given.  In  the  old  days  children  ' '  studied  out 
loud,"  and  the  resulting  uproar  was  audible  at  quite  a 
distance. 

On  their  arrival  in  these  islands,  Americans  found  that 
the  educated  Filipinos  as  a  rule  held  honest  manual  labor 
in  contempt,  while  many  of  those  who  had  managed  to 
secure  professional  educations  did  not  practise  their 
professions,  but  preferred  to  live  a  life  of  ease.  There 
were  doctors  who  made  no  pretence  of  treating  the  sick, 
and  lawyers  who  had  studied  simply  for  the  standing 
which  the  title  would  give  them.  The  Bureau  of  Educa- 
tion has  brought  about  a  profound  change  in  public 
sentiment ;  a  change  of  basic  importance  to  the  country. 
It  was  apparent  at  the  outset  that  any  educational  sys- 
tem adhering  closely  to  academic  studies  would  simply 
serve  to  perpetuate  this  condition  of  affairs.  Fortunately, 
those  in  charge  of  the  situation  were  untrammelled  by 
tradition,  and  were  free  to  build  up  a  sj'stem  that  would 
meet  actual  existing  needs.  The  objection  to  manual 
labor  offered  much  difficulty,  but  it  has  been  largely 
overcome.  There  was,  furthermore,  a  feeling  against 
industrial  work  on  the  part  of  the  people  in  many  regions, 
based  on  the  idea  that  teachers  meant  to  supplement  their 
salaries  by  the  sale  of  the  industrial  i:)roducts  of  the 
schools.  This  prejudice,  which  seemed  formidable  at  first, 
disappeared  when  the  bureau  took  up  in  earnest  the  intro- 
duction of  industrial  education  and  vocational  training. 

Just  as  the  academic  organization  grew  out  of  local 
conditions,  so  did  industrial  education  accommodate  itself 
to  existing  circumstances.  In  the  Spanish  colegios, 
girls  had  been  taught  to  do  exquisite  embroidery  and  to 
make  pillow  lace.  In  various  parts  of  the  islands,  hat 
weaving  was  carried  on  by  families  or  groups  of  famiUes. 
The  making  of  petates,^  of  rough  but  durable  market  bas- 
kets and  of  sugar  bags  constituted  widespread  local 
•  Sleeping  mats. 


■i|Uti«irib«iHuiM 


EDUCATION  509 

industries.  American  teachers  were  quick  to  see  how 
these  vagrant  arts  could  be  organized  and  commercialized. 
An  intense  rivalry  sprang  up  between  supervising 
teachers,  and  as  a  result  the  arts  of  pillow  lace-making, 
embroidery,  Irish  crochet,  hat  weaving,  basketry  and 
macrame  work  have  been  introduced  and  standardized 
throughout  the  primary  and  intermediate  schools.  The 
excellence  of  the  output  is  truly  astonishing. 

Courses  in  housekeeping  and  household  arts  also  re- 
ceived early  attention.  The  social  and  economic  condi- 
tions in  the  Philippines  are  such  that  the  so-called 
"domestic  science"  course  of  .American  schools  is  quite  in- 
adequate to  meet  the  needs  of  Filipina  girls.  Specialized 
instruction  in  hygiene,  in  the  care  of  the  sick,  in  house- 
hold sanitation  and  in  the  feeding  and  care  of  infants  is 
included  in  this  course  of  housekeeping  and  household 
arts,  which  was  taken  by  fifteen  thousand  two  hundred 
twenty-seven  girls  during  1912-1913. 

School  gardening  was  introduced  at  an  early  date. 
This  course  now  includes  the  school  garden,  in  which 
each  pupil  has  his  own  indi\idual  three  and  a  fourth 
by  thirteen  foot  plot,  and  home  gardens  which  are  not 
less  than  four  times  the  size  of  the  school  plot.  By  this 
arrangement  eighty  per  cent  of  the  garden  work  is  carried 
on  at  the  homes  of  the  pupils  or  on  vacant  lots  under  the 
direct  supervision  of  teachers. 

In  the  beginning  much  of  the  school  agricultural  work 
was  not  very  practical.  Teachers  who  themselves  knew 
nothing  about  agriculture  were  wedded  to  the  small 
"individual  plot"  idea,  which  I  regret  to  say  still 
continues  to  prevail  in  some  of  the  schools.  On  a  bit  of 
ground  about  three  feet  by  si.x  the  pupil  might  plant 
one  tomato  plant,  one  camote  vine,  one  grain  of 
rice,  two  or  three  eggplants  and  a  flowering  plant 
or  two.  This  gave  him  helpful  open-air  exercise,  but 
taught  him  nothing  about  agriculture.  Weeks  after  the 
school  year  had  opened  I  once  visited  a  number  of  school 


510  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

gardens  in  Mindoro  and  found  that  several  of  them  con- 
sisted of  rectangular  plots  marked  off  on  soUd  sod  with 
shells  picked  up  on  the  beach  !  On  my  return  I  told  the 
director  of  education  that  three  active  hens  would  have 
done  far  more  toward  preparing  soil  for  cultivating  than 
had  all  the  childi-en  in  these  towns. 

These  conditions  have  changed  rapidly  since  the  adop- 
tion, three  years  ago,  of  a  definite  policy  of  agricultural 
education  consisting  of  standard  school  and  home  gar- 
dens and  farm  schools  for  Filipinos ;  and  large  com- 
munal tracts  of  land  cultivated  at  the  Settlement  Farm 
Schools  for  non-Christians. 

Lieutenant-Governor  Frederick  Lewis  of  Bukidnon 
was  as  deeply  disgusted  with  the  former  play  agriculture 
as  was  I.  Exercising,  I  fear,  rather  arbitrary  authority 
over  the  local  Filipino  teachers,  but  with  my  connivance, 
he  persuaded  them  to  tm'n  their  active,  strong  school- 
boys loose  on  large  tracts  of  the  beautiful  prairie  land 
found  near  almost  every  school  in  the  sub-province,  and 
raise  crops.  As  a  result  of  this  experiment,  first  carried 
out  at  Tankulan,  each  boy  took  home  a  bushel  or  two  of 
unhulled  rice.  Parents  were  enthusiastic,  and  so  were  the 
boys.  From  this  small  beginnmg  came  the  so-called  farm- 
settlement  schools,  of  which  there  are  thirty-eight  among 
the  non-Christian  tribes.  On  large,  well-fenced,  carefully 
cultivated  tracts  of  ground  the  schoolboys  grow  camotes, 
upland  rice,  corn,  bananas,  cowpeas,  beans,  pineapples, 
egg  plants,  arrowroot,  and  in  some  cases,  cacao  and  coffee. 
Instead  of  learning  what  incUiddual  plants  will  do  when 
grown  quite  by  themselves  under  abnormal  conditions, 
they  learn  to  produce  real  crops.  They  become  interested 
in  the  introduction  of  American  sweet  potatoes  in  place 
of  the  less  nutritious  camotes,  in  the  selection  of  seed 
corn,  in  the  generalization  of  the  better  varieties  of 
bananas,  and  in  other  practical  matters.  Incidentally 
they  largely  furnish  the  school  food  supply. 

It  is  of  course  true  that  in  many  of  the  Fihpino  towns 


EDUCATION  511 

sufficiently  extensive  tracts  of  land  cannot  be  had  near 
the  schools  to  make  such  a  system  possible,  but,  wherever 
it  can  be  done,  school  children  should  be  taught  how  to 
raise  crops  on  a  commercial  scale,  instead  of  spending 
their  time  on  small  individual  plots  of  ground.  Even 
the  latter  procedure  has  good  results.  It  teaches  them 
not  to  be  ashamed  to  work.  It  also  makes  possible  the 
introduction  of  home  gardens,  and  through  this  means 
brings  the  practical  production  of  vegetables  into  the 
home  life  of  the  people,  with  the  result  that  imused  yards 
and  vacant  lots  are  put  under  cultivation. 

The  system  of  establisMng  home  gardens  is  one  which 
meets  with  my  unquaUfied  approval.  In  1911-1912 
there  were  no  less  than  twenty-two  thousand  nine  hun- 
dred fifty-eight  of  these.  It  is  said  to  be  true  that  a 
large  percentage  of  them  soon  pass  into  family  care,  and 
thus  not  only  help  to  educate  parents,  but  become  a  per- 
manent additional  soui'ce  of  food  supply. 

The  schools  have  proved  a  useful  medium  through 
which  to  bring  about  the  introduction  of  new  and  valu- 
able plants.  There  are  many  school  nurseries  in  which 
grow  thousands  of  seedUngs,  and  these  are  distributed 
at  opportmie  times. 

Woodworking  is  one  of  the  industrial  branches  which 
received  first  attention.  As  previously  stated,  every  one  of 
the  thirty-eight  provinces  has  either  a  trade  school  with 
first-class  equipment,  or  a  manual  training  department  at- 
tached to  the  provincial  school.  Eighteen  schools  have  al- 
ready been  established  as  regularly  equipped  trade  schools. 
The  Phihppine  Normal  School  and  the  Philippine  School 
of  Commerce  offer  special  advantages  to  those  studying 
for  the  profession  of  teaching,  or  for  a  business  career. 

Previous  to  1909,  industrial  instruction  was  only  par- 
tially organized.  Experience  had  shown,  by  that  time, 
that  it  was  expedient  to  introduce  a  degree  of  specializa- 
tion into  the  courses  of  study  at  an  early  stage  of  the 
child's  development.     Special  intermediate  courses  were 


512  THE    PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

therefore  organized  to  meet  this  need.  After  finishing  the 
four-year  primary  course,  the  child  may  choose  between  a 
course  in  teaching,  a  course  in  farming,  a  trade  course, 
a  course  in  liousekeeping  and  household  arts  and  a 
general  intermediate  course.  Relatively  few  children 
are  at  present  able  to  take  up  secondary  courses,  and  it  is 
therefore  necessary  to  provide  in  the  lower  grades  for 
instruction  which  will  prepare  them  for  some  vocation. 
So  important  has  become  tliis  hne  of  instruction  that  it 
has  been  found  necessary  to  maintain,  in  the  general 
office,  an  industrial  information  department,  under  a 
division  chief,  which  employs  a  botanist,  a  designer, 
four  native  craftsmen  and  a  force  of  travelling  super- 
visors who  inspect  trade  schools,  machinery,  school  gar- 
dens, building  sites  and  the  general  industrial  work  done 
throughout  the  public  school  system.  This  system  of 
industrial  instruction  receives  the  fullest  support  from 
the  Filipino  people. 

The  following  quotation  from  the  twelfth  annual 
report  of  the  director  of  education  serves  to  give  some 
idea  of  the  extent  to  which  industrial  instruction  has  been 
developed  in  the  Philippines  :  — 

"As  is  at  once  evident,  with  requirements  so  definitely  fixed 
for  industrial  work  in  the  schools,  the  great  majority  of  the 
pupils  who  are  enrolled  must  be  engaged  in  some  branch  of 
this  work.  An  examination  of  the  figures  included  among  the 
statistical  tables  of  this  report  will  show  that  of  the  total  en- 
rolment of  235,740  boys  and  138,842  girls  during  the  month 
of  February,  1912  (an  average  month),  216,290  boys  and  125,203 
girls  —  91  per  cent  of  the  entire  monthly  enrolment  —  were 
doing  some  form  of  industrial  work.  More  specifically,  it  will 
be  found  that  21,420  boys  were  taking  manual  training  and 
trade  work;  96,167  boys  were  engaged  in  school  gardening 
and  farming ;  15,463  girls  were  also  engaged  in  garden  work ; 
and  68,194  girls  were  taking  up  various  lines  which  go  under 
the  general  caption  of  minor  industries.  .  .  .  Further  in  this 
connection  it  \\'ill  be  found  that  in  the  subject  of  lace-making 
alone  16,439  girls  were  receiving  instruction;  in  embroidery, 
12,339;    and  in  cooking  4768.      There  were  22,965  boys  and 


EDUCATION  513 

7709  girls  making  hats  in  the  industrial  classes,  40,264  pupils 
making  mats,  and  104,424  studying  the  art  of  basketry. 

"...  1309  pupils  were  enrolled  in  the  regular  trade  school 
classes ;  924  in  regular  trade  courses  in  other  schools ;  and 
7360  in  the  shops  operated  in  connection  with  provincial  and 
other  intermediate  schools.  In  401  school  shops  having  an 
enrolment  of  19,949  boys,  articles  to  the  value  of  P142,189.74 
were  fabricated  and  from  this  product,  sales  to  the  amount  of 
P131,418.13  were  made  during  the  school  year  1911-12.  In 
addition  to  the  above,  10,3.56  pupils  were  doing  work  in  236 
primary  woodworking  shops  conducted  in  connection  with 
municipal  primary  schools  in  all  parts  of  the  Islands.  The 
figures  for  trade  and  manual  training  are  taken  from  the  March 
report." 

This  most  important  result  is  due  in  very  large  measure 
to  the  determination  of  the  Honourable  Newton  W.  Gil- 
bert, while  secretary  of  public  instruction,  to  give  a  practi- 
cal turn  to  the  activities  of  the  Bureau  of  Education.  I 
must  confess  that  at  first  I  was  profoundly  dissatisfied 
with  the  work  which  this  bureau  was  doing,  for  the 
reason  that,  in  my  opinion,  it  tended  to  produce  a  horde 
of  graduates  fitted  to  be  clerks,  in  which  event  they 
would  naturally  desire  to  feed  at  the  public  crib,  or  be 
likely  to  become  abogadillos,^  who  would  be  constantly 
stirring  up  trouble  in  their  owti  tow^ls,  in  order  to  make 
business  for  themselves. 

Much  of  the  industrial  work  originally  provided  for 
was  at  the  outset  carried  out  in  a  haphazard  and  half- 
hearted way.  Under  Mr.  Gilbert's  administration  it 
has  been  hammered  into  shape,  and  we  now  see  in  pros- 
pect, and  in  actual  realization,  practical  results  of  vital 
importance  to  the  country. 

Personally,  I  feel  especialh'  indebted  to  Mr.  Gilbert 
for  his  attitude  relative  to  school  work  among  the  non- 
Christian  tribes.  The  children  of  the  hill  people  are 
naturally  hard-working.  In  some  places  they  were  being 
actually  taught  idleness  in  the  schools,  and  in  most  the 

'  Literally,  "little  lawyers."  This  designation  is  commonly  applied 
to  pettifoggers. 


514  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

education  given  them  was  of  little  practical  value.  I 
found  Igorot  children  in  Lepanto  studying  geography. 
I  asked  a  boy  what  the  world  was,  and  was  told  that  it 
was  a  little  yellow  thing  about  the  size  of  his  hand  !  This 
was  a  fairly  accurate  description  of  a  map,  the  significance 
of  which  had  utterly  failed  to  penetrate  his  understanding. 
Filipino  teachers  who  were  not  considered  fit  for  appoint- 
ments in  the  lowlands  were  being  foisted  off  on  to  the 
unfortunate  hill  people,  as  they  were  wilUng  to  accept 
very  small  salaries  in  lieu  of  none  at  all.  Prior  to  Mr. 
Gilbert's  assumption  of  office,  my  frequent  complaints 
had  produced  no  practical  result.  He  was  kind  enough 
to  say  to  me  at  the  outset  that  he  would  give  very  serious 
consideration  to  my  opinions  in  the  matter  of  educational 
work  among  the  people  of  the  non-Christian  tribes. 
To-day  industrial  work  has  taken  its  proper  place  in 
schools  estabhshed  for  them,  and  considerable  numbers  of 
them  are  being  fitted  for  lives  of  usefulness,  although  it  is 
still  ti'ue  that  school  facilities  among  them  are,  as  a  rule, 
grossly  inadequate.  In  Ifugao,  for  instance,  with  at 
least  a  hundred  and  twenty-five  thousand  inhabitants, 
there  are  but  two  schools.  In  Kalinga,  with  some 
seventy-six  thousand  inhabitants,  the  first  school  has 
just  been  opened.  However,  this  condition  will  doubt- 
less be  remedied  in  time. 

The  former  tendency  of  FiUpinos  to  prepare  themselves 
for  trades  or  professions  and  then  not  follow  them  has  been 
largely  overcome.  IVIost  of  the  students  graduating  from 
the  Philippine  Normal  School  take  up  the  profession  of 
teaching,  and  practically  all  of  the  graduates  of  the 
Philippine  School  of  Arts  and  Trades  are  following  the 
lines  of  work  which  they  have  studied.  And  now  I 
come  to  what  I  deem  to  be  one  of  the  most  important  ac- 
complishments of  the  Bureau  of  Education. 

Before  the  American  occupation  of  the  Philippines  the 
Filipinos  had  not  learned  to  play.  There  were  no  athletics 
worthy  of  the  name.     Athletic  sports  had  their  begin- 


EDUCATION  515 

nings  in  the  games  played  between  soldiers.  Gradually 
Filipinos  became  interested  enough  to  attend  contests  of 
this  nature.  Later,  through  the  influence  of  American 
teachers,  they  began  to  take  part  in  them.  As  soon  as 
athletic  sports  reached  a  point  where  competition  be- 
tween towns  and  provinces  was  possible,  they  aroused 
the  greatest  enthusiasm  among  the  people.  To-day, 
the  athletic  policy  of  the  Bureau  of  Education  is  heartily 
approved  by  all  classes.  At  first,  highly  specialized 
sports  were  introduced,  but  the  necessity  for  develop- 
ing some  form  of  group  athletics  in  which  a  large  percent- 
age of  the  pupils  would  take  part  was  soon  niade  manifest. 
For  the  past  few  years  this  programme  has  been  pushed. 
Eighty  per  cent  of  the  pupils  now  participate  in  some  form 
of  athletics,  and  the  number  steadily  increases. 

The  results  are  justifying  the  hope  of  the  original  pro- 
moters of  this  athletic  programme.  The  physical  develop- 
ment of  the  participants  has  been  wonderful.  The  spirit 
of  fair  play  and  sportsmanship,  hitherto  lacking,  has 
sprung  into  being  in  every  section  of  the  islands.  Base- 
ball not  only  strengthens  the  muscles  of  the  players,  it 
sharpens  their  wits.  Furthermore  it  empties  the  cock- 
pits to  such  an  extent  that  their  beneficiaries  have  at- 
tempted to  secure  legislation  restricting  the  time  during 
which  it  may  be  played.  It  has  done  more  toward  abol- 
ishing cockfighting  than  have  the  laws  of  the  conamission 
and  the  efforts  of  the  Moral  Progress  League '  combined. 
It  is  indeed  a  startling  sight  to  see  two  opposing  teams 
of  youthful  savages  in  Bukidnon  or  Bontoc  "playing  the 
game"  with  obvious  full  knowledge  of  its  refinements, 
while  their  ordinarily  silent  and  reserved  parents  "root" 
with  unbridled  enthusiasm  ! 

Annual  meets  between  athletic  teams  from  various 
groups  of  pro\'inces,  and  a  general  interscholastic  meet 
held  each  year  at  the  Philippine  Carnival,  offer  advan- 

'  An  organization  wliich  long  vigorously  combated  the  coek-pits, 
but  failed  to  bring  about  their  abolition. 


^ 


516  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

tages  of  travel  to  boys  who  have  seldom  if  ever  left  their 
homes,  and  promote  a  general  understanding  between 
the  various  FiUpino  peoples.  In  the  "  Far  Eastern 
Olympiad  "  held  at  Manila  in  1913,  in  which  China,  Japan 
and  the  Philippines  participated,  the  victorious  teams 
representing  the  Phihppines  were  largely  composed  of 
schoolboys. 

When  the  American  school  system  was  organized,  it 
was  found  that  adequate  accommodations  for  school 
children  were  almost  entirely  lacking.  In  some  of  the 
towns  there  were  long,  low  stone  or  brick  buildings, 
small  and  poorly  hghted.  They  were  usually  located  in 
the  larger  centres  of  population,  and  had  no  grounds  that 
could  be  used  for  play  or  garden  purposes.  In  most  of 
the  barrios,  there  were  no  schooUiouses  at  all. 

The  American  teachers  at  once  set  to  work  to  put  the 
old  buildings  into  decent  condition.  Some  private 
houses  were  rented,  and  others  were  donated,  for  school 
purposes.  In  a  number  of  cases  the  teachers  attempted, 
as  best  they  could,  to  construct  buildings  for  the  thousands 
of  pupils  who  wished  to  avail  themselves  of  school  priv- 
ileges. At  that  time  the  whole  burden  of  such  con- 
struction fell  upon  the  municipalities.  The  insular 
government  had  given  them  no  aid.  Many  mistakes 
were  made  during  these  early  days,  and  many  of  the 
buildings  then  erected  have  long  since  fallen  into  ruin. 
The  experience  gained  has  demonstrated  the  folly  of 
spending  large  sums  of  money  on  anything  but  strong, 
permanent  construction.  It  will  be  necessary,  for  a  long 
time,  to  depend  to  some  extent  upon  temporary  buildings ; 
and  when  these  can  be  erected  at  low  cost  they  are  good 
provisional  expedients,  but  destructive  storms  and  the  rav- 
ages of  wood-eating  insects  quickly  reduce  them  to  ruins. 

The  demand  upon  local  funds  for  the  maintenance  of 
schools  was  so  pressing,  and  these  funds  were  so  limited, 
that  it  was  found  impossible  to  erect  modern  buildings 
without  insular  aid.     Wlien  the  necessity  for  help  was 


s 
a 
z 
w 

u 

s 


EDUCATION  517 

brought  to  the  attention  of  the  insular  authorities,  the 
commission  responded  by  enacting  a  bill  which  ap- 
propriated $175,000  from  the  congressional  reHef  fund 
for  the  construction  of  school  buildings.  Two  years 
later  $150,000  were  appropriated  and,  in  August,  1907, 
an  additional  $175,000  were  voted  for  this  purpose. 
A  total  of  $500,000  was  thus  made  available  by  the  Com- 
mission before  the  Philippine  assembly  came  into  existence. 
This  amount  was  augmented  by  provincial  and  munic- 
ipal funds  and  voluntary  contributions,  and  the  erection 
of  twenty-two  buildings  for  provincial  high  schools, 
twenty-sLx  for  trade  and  manual  training  schools,  and 
fifty-seven  for  intermediate  schools  other  than  provincial 
was  thus  made  possible. 

The  first  act  of  the  Phihppine  Assembly  was  to  vote 
for  an  appropriation  of  $500,000,  available  in  four  equal 
annual  instalments,  to  aid  municipalities  in  constructing 
school  buildings.  The  bill  was  duly  approved  by  the 
commission  and  became  a  law.  Under  its  terms,  munici- 
paUties  received  $2  for  every  dollar  furnished  locally,  the 
maximum  insular  allotment  for  one  project  being  $2500. 
This  bill  was  later  supplemented  by  an  act  which  appro- 
priated an  additional  $500,000  under  similar  conditions. 
Three  subsequent  acts  have  been  passed,  each  appro- 
priating the  sum  of  $175,000  for  the  aid  of  municipalities 
in  constructing  school  buildings  under  such  conditions  as 
the  secretary  of  public  instruction  may  see  fit  to  prescribe. 
The  funds  made  available  by  the  three  appropriations 
last  mentioned  are  being  used  chiefly  for  the  erection 
of  large  central  school  buildings  at  provincial  capitals. 

The  sums  appropriated  by  the  Philippine  Legislature 
since  the  assembly  was  established  have  made  possible 
the  construction  of  five  hundred  twenty-nine  school  build- 
ings, of  which  two  hundred  seventy-thi'ee  are  finished 
and  three  hundred  nineteen  are  being  buUt. 

There  have  been  additional  appropriations  for  the  con- 
struction of  a  Philippine  Normal  School  already  com- 

VOL.    II  —  C 


518  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

pleted  at  a  cost  of  $225,000,  a  girls'  dormitory  now  build- 
ing to  cost  $147,000  and  a  building  for  the  Philippine 
School  of  Arts  and  Trades  to  cost  approximately  $250,000. 

The  bureau  has  required  that  school  sites  for  central 
schools  shall  have  a  minimum  of  one  hectare'  of  land,  and 
the  barrio  schools  a  minimum  of  one-half  hectare,  for 
playgrounds  and  gardens.  There  have  been  secured  to 
date  three  hundred  eighty-nine  school  sites  of  ten  thou- 
sand or  more  square  metres,  and  six  hundred  forty-three 
sites  of  at  least  five  thousand  square  metres.  These  rep- 
resent the  results  obtained  during  the  past  three  years. 

The  Bureau  has  formulated  a  very  definite  construc- 
tion policy.  Its  programme  may  be  outlined  briefly  as 
follows :  — 

1.  The  preparation  of  a  set  of  standard  plans  for  permanent 
buildings  which  provide  for  a  unit  system  of  construction 
whereby  additions  may  be  made  ^vithout  injury  to  the  original 
structure,  and  which  shall  be  within  the  limited  means  available. 

2.  The  selection  of  suitable  school  sites. 

3.  A  decent  and  creditable  standard  in  temporary  buildings. 

4.  The  proper  care  and  maintenance  of  schoolhouses  and 
grounds. 

5.  The  equipment  of  every  school  with  the  necessary  furniture 
and  appliances  of  simple  but  substantial  character. 

From  the  beginning,  other  branches  of  the  government 
have  clearly  seen  that  no  agency  is  so  effective  as  the 
Bureau  of  Education  in  the  dissemination  of  knowledge 
among  the  people.  It  has  therefore  been  called  upon 
frequently  to  spread  information,  either  through  class- 
room instruction  or  through  the  system  of  civico-ed- 
ucational  lectures  established  by  an  act  of  the  Philip- 
pine Legislature.  The  Bureau  of  Health  has  frequently 
requested  it  to  instract  the  people  in  the  means  to  be 
used  for  the  prevention  of  diseases,  particularly  cholera, 
smallpox  and  dysentery,  and  has  always  met  with  a  ready 
response.     Great  good  has  doubtless  been  accomplished 

1  A  hectare  is  equivalent  to  two  and  a  half  acres. 


EDUCATION  519 

in  this  way,  but  with  regret  I  must  call  attention  to  the 
fact  that  in  connection  with  a  matter  of  fundamental 
importance  the  Bureau  of  Education  has  signally  failed  to 
practice  what  it  preached,  or  at  all  events  what  it  was  re- 
quested to  preach.  The  Philippines  are  constantly  men- 
aced by  epidemic  diseases,  such  as  cholera  and  bacillary 
dysentery,  while  amoebic  dysentery  occurs  in  every  munic- 
ipality in  the  islands  and  is  a  very  serious  factor  in  the 
annual  death-rate,  hook-worm  disease  is  common,  and 
typhoid  fever  is  gradually  increasing  in  frequency.  The 
question  of  the  proper  disposition  of  human  feces  is  there- 
fore one  of  fundamental  importance.  It  seems  incredible, 
but  is  nevertheless  true,  that  in  connection  with  a  large 
majority  of  the  modern  school  buildings  which  have  been 
erected  there  are  no  sanitary  facilities  of  any  sort  whatso- 
ever. The  condition  of  the  ground  in  the  rear  of  many 
of  these  buildings  can  better  be  imagined  than  described. 
This  state  of  affairs  not  only  sets  an  evil  example  to  the 
children,  but  exposes  them  to  actual  danger  of  infection 
with  the  above-mentioned  diseases.  In  many  of  the  special 
provincial  government  towns  where  a  great  effort  has 
been  made  to  have  the  people  clean  up,  I  have  found 
school  grounds  and  the  private  premises  of  school  teachers, 
including,  I  regret  to  say,  those  of  American  school 
teachers,  to  be  in  a  more  unsanitary  state  than  were  any 
others  in  town  ;  and  finally,  in  despair  of  securing  improve- 
ment in  any  other  way,  I  have  fallen  back  on  the  courts 
and  caused  teachers  responsible  for  such  conditions  to  be 
brought  before  justices  of  the  peace  and  fined. 

The  Teachers'  Camp  at  Baguio  was  long  maintained 
in  a  shockingly  unsanitary  condition  ;  and  as  a  result 
many  persons  who  went  there  seeking  health  and  recrea- 
tion became  infected  with  intestinal  diseases,  and  were 
incapacitated  for  work  during  more  or  less  prolonged 
periods.  In  deahng  with  this  situation  I  finally  resorted 
to  radical  measures,  but  got  results. 

Such  a  state  of  affairs  is  wholly  incomprehensible  to 


520  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

me.  School-teachers  should  be  the  first  to  set  the  people 
practical  examples  in  sane  living,  which  means  sanitary 
living,  and  should  improve  the  great  practical  opportunity 
afforded  by  the  public  schools  to  bring  home  to  their  pupils 
certain  homely  but  much-needed  lessons  in  ordinary  decency. 

In  another  important  particular  the  Bureau  of  Education 
has,  in  my  opinion,  fallen  short  of  performing  its  manifest 
duty.  Not  only  does  beri-beri  kill  some  five  thousand  Fili- 
pinos outright,  annually,  and  cripple  ten  times  as  many, 
but  it  is  believed  to  be  a  determining  factor  in  the  deaths 
of  large  numbers  of  infants  through  its  untoward  in- 
fluence upon  their  mothers.  As  previously  stated,  the 
fact  that  it  is  due  to  a  diet  made  up  too  largely  of  polished 
rice  has  been  demonstrated  beyond  a  reasonable  doubt. 
Persons  who  eat  unpoUshed  rice  do  not  contract  it. 
Tiqui-tiqui,  the  substance  removed  from  rice  in  the  process 
of  polishing,  has  proved  to  be  a  very  effective  remedy  for  it. 
The  use  of  polished  rice  should  therefore  be  discouraged, 
yet  at  the  Phihppine  Normal  School,  where  the  brightest 
and  best  youths  of  the  land  receive  their  final  education 
before  going  out  to  teach  their  fellows,  polished  rice  is  fur- 
nished the  students ;  and  the  director  of  health,  and  I 
myself,  have  sought  in  vain  to  have  the  unpolished 
article  substituted  for  it. 

The  secretary  of  public  instruction  has  stated,  with 
obvious  truth,  that  it  is  only  when  polished  rice  forms 
a  very  large  element  in  the  diet  that  there  is  actual  danger 
of  its  causing  beri-beri,  and  so  far  as  I  am  aware  no  case 
of  beri-beri  has  occurred  at  this  school ;  but  the  practical 
result  of  the  present  practice  will  be  that  the  graduates, 
while  instructing  their  pupils  in  the  dangers  of  the  use 
of  polished  rice,  will  themselves  continue  to  use  it.  There 
exists  at  the  present  time  a  foolish  prejudice  against 
unpolished  rice,  which,  although  far  more  nutritious 
and  actually  more  palatable  than  the  polished  article, 
does  not  look  so  attractive  and  is  commonly  considered 
"poor  man's  food."     So  long  as  the  instructors  in  the 


EDUCATION  521 

public  schools  continue  to  teach  by  precept  that  its  use 
is  dangerous,  and  by  example  that  it  is  safe,  the  undis- 
criminating  and  ignorant  Filipino  public,  which  does  not 
draw  fine  distinctions,  will  be  encouraged  to  continue 
to  eat  it,   will  eat  it  in  excess,  and  will  pay  the  penalty. 

The  Bureau  of  Education  has  cooperated  with  the 
Bureau  of  Lands  in  instructing  the  people  as  to  the  right 
to  acquire  homesteads  and  free  patents.  It  has  also 
given  the  Bureau  of  Public  Works  assistance  in  promoting 
the  campaign  for  good  roads.  Its  system  of  civico- 
educational  lectures  has  met  with  fair  results.  Thousands 
of  people  have  secured  information  relative  to  the  rights 
and  duties  of  citizens,  the  prevention  of  human  and 
animal  diseases,  and  the  growing  of  corn,  coconuts  and 
other  useful  crops.  A  corn-raising  contest  in  1912  was 
participated  in  by  more  than  thirty  thousand  boys,  and 
thousands  of  people  attended  the  demonstrations  which 
formed  a  part  of  the  campaign.  This  is  a  most  important 
matter.     Corn  is  a  far  better  food  than  rice. 

At  first  the  only  books  available  for  use  in  the  schools 
were  those  prepared  for  American  children.  These  were 
soon  found  to  be  unsuited  to  the  needs  of  Filipino  children, 
and  teachers  were  set  to  work  to  prepare  more  suitable 
text-books.  Book  companies  in  the  United  States 
quickly  interested  themselves,  and  as  a  result  there  is  now 
in  general  use  a  comprehensive  series  of  text-books  partic- 
ularly adapted  to  the  needs  of  Filipinos. 

In  the  secondary  grades  American  text-books  are  quite 
generally  used,  although  a  few  special  texts  deahng  with 
literature,  rhetoric,  economic  conditions  and  colonial 
history  have  been  prepared  in  the  islands. 

In  order  to  keep  the  teacher  in  the  field  well  informed, 
the  Bureau  of  Education  has  issued  a  large  number  of 
bulletins  and  circulars  on  matters  of  current  interest. 
These  bulletins  have  covered  instruction  in  domestic 
science,  drawing,  manners  and  right  conduct,  school 
buildings    and    grounds,  embroidery  and    athletics,  and 


522  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

have  conveyed  information  as  to  the  general  and  special 
courses  of  study  followed  in  such  schools  as  the  School 
of  Arts  and  Trades,  the  School  of  Commerce  and  the 
Normal  School.  They  have  received  much  commenda- 
tion from  educators  in  the  United  States  and  the  Orient. 

When  pubhc  schools  were  first  opened  children  crowded 
into  them  by  thousands.  With  them  came  many  adults 
who  beheved  that  they  could  learn  English  in  a  period 
of  a  few  weeks,  or  in  a  few  months  at  the  most.  No  doubt 
they  entered  the  schools  in  many  cases  with  the  idea  of 
thus  conciliating  the  victorious  American  nation.  It  was 
not  long  until  they  realized  that  there  was  no  royal  road 
to  learning.  Then  came  a  slump  in  attendance.  Largely 
through  the  influence  of  the  American  teacher  and  his 
Filipino  assistants,  the  attendance  was  again  built  up. 
This  time  the  people  clearly  understood  that  education 
is  not  a  matter  of  a  few  months  or  weeks.  It  is  greatly 
to  their  credit  that  they  have  now  settled  down  to  a  realiza- 
tion of  what  public  education  is,  and  are  giving  the  public 
school  system  most  loyal  support. 

The  industrial  programme  has  been  accepted  with 
enthusiasm,  and  without  doubt  there  are  in  the  islands 
to-day  thousands  of  people  who  believe  that  it  is  a  Filipino 
product. 

There  is  an  interest  in  athletic  sports  that  can  hardly 
be  equalled  in  any  other  country.  The  crowds  of  en- 
thusiastic spectators  that  attend  every  meet  of  importance 
testify  to  the  hold  that  such  sports  have  taken  upon  the 
people,  whose  attitude  toward  all  forms  of  education 
is  such  that  it  needs  only  adequate  revenue  to  develop 
an  effective  school  system  along  the  broadest  lines. 

Manhood  suffrage  does  not  exist  in  the  Philippines. 
The  qualifications  for  an  elector  are  as  follows :  he  must 
be  a  male  citizen  at  least  twenty-three  years  of  age,  with 
a  legal  residence  of  six  months  previous  to  election  in  the 
municipality  where  his  vote  is  cast,  and  must  belong 
to  at  least  one  of  the  three  following  classes :  — 


EDUCATION  523 

1.  Those  who,  previous  to  August  13,  1898,  held  the  office  of 
municipal  captain,  gobernadorcillo,  alcalde,  lieutenant,  cabeza 
de  barangay,  or  member  of  any  ayuntamiento. 

2.  Those  who  hold  real  property  to  the  value  of  S250  or 
annually  pay  $15  or  more  of  established  taxes. 

3.  Those  who  speak,  read  or  write  English  or  Spanish. 

With  a  population  of  approximately  eight  million 
people,  there  were,  in  1912,  two  hundred  forty-eight 
thousand  qualified  voters.  Of  these  a  large  number  had 
obtained  the  franchise  because  they  belonged  to  class  1 
or  class  2.  Death  yearly  claims  its  quota  from  both 
these  classes,  but  the  public  schools  more  than  make  up 
the  decrease  by  their  yearly  contribution.  Any  boy 
who  finishes  the  primary  course  possesses  the  Uterary 
qualifications  of  an  elector,  and  will  become  one  on  at- 
taining legal  age. 

In  1912  there  were  graduated  from  the  primary  schools 
11,200  pupils,  of  whom  approximately  7466  were  males; 
from  the  intermediate  schools  3062  pupils,  of  whom  2295 
were  males ;  and  from  the  secondary  schools  221  pupils, 
of  whom  175  were  males.  In  that  year  alone  the 
schools  therefore  contributed  9936  to  the  contingent  of 
persons  qualified  by  literary  attainments  to  vote.  Of  these 
175  are  perhaps  capable  of  intelligently  holding  municipal 
and  provincial  offices,  and  to  this  number  may  probably 
be  added  half  of  the  2295  intermediate  male  graduates, 
making  an  increase  of  1362  in  the  possible  leaders  of  the 
people. 

The  pubUc  schools,  however,  do  not  limit  their  con- 
tributions to  that  part  of  the  electoral  body  having  lit- 
erary qualifications  only.  Vocational  training,  it  is 
true,  is  limited  in  the  primary  grades  to  cottage  indus- 
tries ;  but  no  pupil  is  graduated  from  the  primary  schools 
with  only  literary  quaUfications.  In  some  form  or  other, 
he  has  had  a  vocational  start.  His  own  energy  must 
determine  the  use  he  makes  of  it. 

The  intermediate  schools  add  vocational  training  to 


524  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

increased  academic  training.  All  their  graduates  have 
done  three  years'  work  in  the  general  course,  leading  to  a 
literary  course  in  the  high  schools,  the  course  in  farming, 
the  course  in  teaching,  the  business  course,  the  course 
in  housekeeping  and  household  arts  or  the  trade  course. 

Of  the  graduates  of  secondary  schools  a  small  part  have 
highly  specialized  vocational  training;  but  the  great 
majority  have  followed  the  literary  course  and  have 
undoubtedly  done  this  with  the  idea  of  entering  pohtical 
life.  Rome  was  not  built  in  a  day,  and  in  spite  of  her- 
culean American  efforts,  it  will  be  a  long  time  before 
Filipinos  cease  to  regard  a  certain  kind  of  literary  culture 
as  the  proper  basis  for  statesmanship.  It  has  been  said 
of  them  that  they  have  "the  fatal  gift  of  oratory"  !  The 
future  leaders  of  the  Filipino  people,  dependent  or  in- 
dependent, must  be  the  output  of  the  pubhc  schools. 
The  danger  is  that  the  number  of  would-be  leaders  will 
be  disproportionately  great  in  comparison  with  that  of 
the  useful  but  relatively  inconspicuous  rank  and  file. 

There  are  in  the  Philippine  Islands  fully  twelve  hundred 
thousand  children  of  school  age.  The  present  available 
resources  are  sufficient  to  educate  less  than  one-half  of 
that  number. 

The  claim  has  been  made  that  a  due  proportion  of  the 
very  limited  revenues  of  the  insular  government  has  not 
been  expended  for  educational  purposes.  It  is  not  justi- 
fied by  the  facts.  It  is  certainly  important  to  keep  the 
Filipinos  alive,  and  if  this  is  not  done,  they  can  hardly  be 
educated.  The  expenditure  to  date  ^  from  insular  funds 
for  health  work,  including  cost  of  necessary  new  buildings, 
has  been  approximately  S9,630,000 ;  that  for  educational 
purposes,  also  including  buildings,  approximately 
$21,376,000. 

As  a  simple  matter  of  fact,  the  Bureau  of  Education 
has  been  treated  not  only  with  liberality  but  in  one  re- 
gard with  very  great  leniency.  Taking  advantage  of 
'  End  of  fiscal  year  1913. 


The  Sacred  Thee  uf  the  Iflgai;*. 

This  great  tree  at  Quiangan  is  considered  sacred  by  the  Ifugaos  of  that  region. 

They  believe  that  when  it  dies  they  too  will  perish. 


EDUCATION  525 

the  friendly  attitude  of  the  legislative  body  and  of  the 
people  toward  education,  one  of  its  earlier  directors  in- 
curred expense  with  utter  disregard  for  appropriations. 
He  repeatedly  made  deficits  of  $150,000  to  $250,000  and 
then  in  effect  calmly  asked  us  what  we  were  going  to  do 
about  it.  After  stating  that  I,  for  one,  would  never  vote 
to  make  good  another  deficit  incurred  by  him  while  he  was 
allowed  to  remain  in  the  service,  and  at  a  time  when  I 
was  threatening  to  hold  the  director  of  forestry  per- 
sonally responsible  for  a  deficit  of  S5000  resulting  in 
his  bureau  from  unforeseen  expenditures  by  forest  offi- 
cers in  remote  places,  and  therefore  more  or  less  excusable, 
I  learned  that  the  usual  shortage  in  the  Bureau  of  Edu- 
cation had  again  occurred  and  was  being  covered  by  the 
quiet  transfer  of  a  sum  approximating  $200,000. 

The  present  director  of  education  believes  that  the 
total  number  of  children  who  would  enter  the  pubhc 
schools  without  compulsion,  if  adequate  facihties  were 
provided,  is  approximately  eight  hundred  thousand. 
Until  revenues  materially  increase  not  many  more 
than  five  hundred  thousand  of  these  can  be  educated, 
if  due  regard  is  had  for  other  imperative  necessities 
of  the  government  and  the  people.  If  the  people  of 
the  United  States,  or  any  political  body  composed 
of  them,  really  desire  to  help  the  Filipinos  toward  the 
practical  realization  of  their  ideal  of  an  independent, 
self-sustaining  government,  let  them  stop  talking  about 
the  advisability  of  now  conferring  upon  the  present 
generation  of  adults  additional  rights  and  privileges,  and 
provide  the  hard  cash  necessary  to  make  mtelligent, 
well-trained  citizens  out  of  the  three  hundred  thousand 
children  who  are  now  annually  left  without  educational 
advantages  which  they  earnestly  desire,  and  greatly  need. 

Under  the  Spanish  regime  private  education  as  dis- 
tinguished from  that  provided  for  by  the  government 
attained  considerable  importance.  At  the  time  of  the 
American  occupation,  Santo  Tomas,  the  oldest  univer- 


626  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

sity  under  the  American  flag,  had  colleges  of  medicine 
and  surgery,  theology,  law,  engineering  and  philosophy. 
There  were  also  numerous  private  so-called  "colleges" 
for  boys  and  girls  and  very  numerous  smaller  private 
institutions.  At  first  the  establishment  of  pubUc  schools 
had  no  apparent  effect  on  those  conducted  privately  other 
than  to  induce  them  to  introduce  the  study  of  EngUsh, 
but  as  years  went  by,  the  organization,  modern  methods 
and  industrial  development  of  the  public  schools  forced 
the  private  institutions  into  activity.  The  law  provides 
that  the  secretary  of  public  instruction  may  give  ap- 
proval and  recognition  to  such  private  schools  as  meet 
certain  requirements,  and  in  1910  a  division  superintend- 
ent of  schools  was  detailed  to  assist  him  in  carrying  out 
this  provision.  His  report  for  the  period  ending  Septem- 
ber 1,  1912,  is  a  very  interesting  document.  It  compares 
the  Philippine  private  schools  with  those  of  South  America, 
very  much  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  former.  It  notes 
particidarly  the  lack  of  manual  training  in  boys'  schools 
and  the  lack  of  standardization  in  the  manual  training 
of  girls'  schools ;  and  speaks  of  the  allegiance  of  the 
Filipino  institution  to  the  classical  programme  of  mediae- 
val institutions  of  learning.  It  is  a  notable  fact,  however, 
that  English  is  gaining.  Thirty-four  private  schools  are 
giving  their  entire  primary  and  intermediate  courses  in 
that  language ;  nine  are  giving  primary,  intermediate 
and  high  school  courses  in  it,  and  two  are  so  giving 
all  courses,  including  the  college  course. 

These  private  institutions  are  employing  pubhc  and 
normal  school  graduates  as  teachers  to  a  constantly  in- 
creasing extent.  They  are  bringing  their  courses  of 
study  into  conformity  and  competition  with  those  of  the 
public  schools ;  are  introducing  athletics ;  using  stand- 
ard patterns  and  materials  in  their  industrial  work,  and 
rapidly  improving  their  buildings  and  equipment.  Dur- 
ing the  year  1911-1912  improvements  to  the  value  of 
$100,000  were  made  in  four  of  the  Manila  private  schools  : 


EDUCATION  527 

the  Jesuits  are  planning  a  new  college  to  cost  81,000,000 ; 
the  Dominicans  an  expenditure  of  3500,000  on  a  new  uni- 
versity, and  the  Liceo  de  Manila  looks  forward  to  becom- 
ing the  most  modern  and  best  equipped  school  in  the 
islands. 

Twenty-five  private  schools  have  already  received 
government  recognition  and  approval. 

No  account  of  education  would  be  complete  without 
mention  of  the  University  of  the  Philippines.  Higher 
education  is  the  great  conscious  goal  of  Filipino  desire ; 
and  to  meet  the  growing  need  for  it,  an  act  passed  June 
IS,  1908,  established  this  institution.  Subsequent  amend- 
ments authorized,  when  practicable,  colleges  of  liberal  arts, 
law,  social  and  political  science,  medicine  and  siu-gery,  phar- 
macy, dentistry,  veterinary  science,  engineering,  mines, 
agriculture  and  fine  arts.  At  present  there  are  in  actual 
operation  the  colleges  of  hberal  arts,  veterinary  science, 
engineering,  medicine  and  surgery',  law,  agriculture  and 
the  school  of  fine  arts.  Instruction  in  pharmacy  is  given 
in  the  College  of  Liberal  Arts,  and  instruction  in  forestry 
is  given  in  the  College  of  Agriculture.  By  special  acts 
of  the  Philippine  legislature,  several  scholarships  have 
been  provided,  but  for  the  most  part  the  university  is 
open  only  to  those  who  can  afford  to  live  in  Manila  dur- 
ing their  period  of  attendance. 

The  opening  of  some  of  these  colleges  has  served  sharply 
to  call  attention  to  one  of  the  present  weaknesses  of  the 
Filipino  people.  It  is  but  a  few  years  since  agriculture 
was  well-nigh  prostrated  as  a  result  of  the  decimation  of 
cattle  and  horses  throughout  the  islands  by  contagious 
diseases.  The  need  for  well-trained  veterinarians  was, 
and  is,  imperative.  Filipinos  properly  qualified  to  under- 
take veterinary  work  would  be  certain  of  profitable  em- 
ployment. A  good  veterinary  course  was  offered  in 
1909.  At  the  same  time  the  School  of  Fine  Arts  was 
opened.  No  one  took  the  veterinary  course  the  first 
year.     Admissions    to    the    School    of    Fine    Arts    were 


528  THE  PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

closed  when  they  reached  seven  hundred  fourteen.  At 
the  end  of  the  school  year  1912-1913  the  students  in  the 
Veterinary  College  numbered  twenty-seven  as  compared 
with  six  hundred  ninety-four  in  the  School  of  Fine  Arts. 
The  grand  total  enrolment  of  this  latter  institution  since 
its  organization  is  thu'ty-two  hundred  twenty-nine,  while 
that  of  the  Veterinary  College  during  the  same  period  is 
forty-seven.  It  is  necessary  to  restrict  attendance  at 
the  School  of  Fine  Arts.  Until  there  is  a  livelier  and 
more  general  interest  in  saving  carabaos  than  in  paint- 
ing them,  the  country  will  not  attain  to  a  high  degree 
of  material  prosperity  through  the  efforts  of  its  own 
people. 

I  take  genuine  pleasure  and  pride  in  briefly  describing 
the  work  of  the  Philippine  Training  School  for  Nurses. 
I  have  always  beUeved  that  young  Fihpina  women  would 
make  excellent  trained  nurses,  and  I  earnestly  endeavoiu-ed 
to  have  a  certain  number  of  them  included  among  the 
first  government  students  sent  to  the  United  States 
for  education  soon  after  the  establishment  of  civil 
government.  In  this  effort  I  rather  ignominiously  failed. 
The  prejudices  of  the  Filipino  people  were  then  radically 
opposed  to  such  a  course,  and  my  colleagues  of  the  com- 
mission were  not  convinced  that  it  would  lead  to  useful 
practical  results. 

To  the  Bureau  of  Education  must  be  given  credit  for 
inaugurating  the  movement  which  has  resulted  in  the 
firm  establishment  of  the  profession  of  nursing  in  the 
Philippine  Islands  as  an  honourable  avocation  for  women. 
At  an  early  date  it  employed  an  American  trained  nurse 
to  give  instruction,  and  inaugurated  a  preparatory  course 
at  its  Normal  School  dormitory.  The  work  at  the  out- 
set could  not  be  made  of  a  very  practical  nature,  but 
after  a  number  of  bright  and  well-trained  young  women 
had  become  interested  in  it  arrangements  were  perfected 
for  giving  them  actual  training  at  the  government  in- 
stitution then  known  as  the  Civil  Hospital.     Here  strong 


EDUCATION  529 

racial  prejudices  of  the  Filipinos  were  gradually  over- 
come, and  the  student  nurses  soon  showed  themselves 
to  be  unexpectedly  practical,  faithful  and  efficient. 

Later  when  the  great  Philippine  General  Hospital  was 
estabUshed  it  became  possible  for  the  Bureau  of  Health 
to  open  a  school  under  the  immediate  control  of  the  chief 
nurse,  and  to  take  over  all  the  work  of  training  nurses. 
Students  at  this  school  are  supported  at  government 
expense  while  in  training.  Its  opportunities  and  advan- 
tages are  open  to  young  men,  as  well  as  to  young  women, 
and  may  be  extended  to  a  number  not  exceeding  one 
hundred  six  of  each  sex  at  a  given  time. 

The  training  of  young  women  began  sooner,  and  thus 
far  has  resulted  more  satisfactorily,  than  has  that  of 
young  men,  although  many  of  the  latter  are  now  making 
good  progress. 

The  work  is  popular,  and  as  there  are  more  candidates 
than  places  only  the  more  promising  are  admitted.  They 
have  shown  that  they  possessed  common-sense  bj^  avoid- 
ing the  traps  set  for  them  by  Filipino  politicians  and 
newspaper  reporters.  Their  tact  and  self-respect  have 
brought  them  safely  through  many  embarrassing,  and  a 
few  cruelly  trjdng,  situations  forced  upon  them  by  the 
unkindness  or  brutality  of  those  whom  they  have  sought 
to  serve.  Their  gentleness  and  kindness  have  endeared 
them  to  their  patients,  and  it  is  now  a  common  thing  for 
Americans  to  request  the  services  of  Filipina  nurses. 
Their  faithfulness  and  efficiency  have  won  the  confidence 
of  patients  and  physicians  aUke.  Their  courage  has 
enabled  them  to  triumph  over  the  prejudices  of  their 
own  people,  and  to  perform  many  hard,  disagreeable 
tasks,  and  meet  some  very  real  dangers,  -without  faltering. 
The  gratefulness  which  they  have  shown  for  the  oppor- 
tunity to  help  their  people,  no  less  than  for  the  interest 
taken  in  them  by  Americans,  has  won  them  many  friends. 
The  training  of  Filipina  nurses  has  passed  far  beyond  the 
experimental  stage ;   it  is  a  great  success. 


530  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Instruction  in  the  Philippine  Nurses'  Training  School  is 
now  largely  given  by  members  of  the  university  faculty 
and  the  graduates  of  this  school  must  certainly  be  num- 
bered among  the  most  highly  educated  women  of  the  Philip- 
pines. More  of  them  are  sadly  needed,  not  only  in  gov- 
ernment institutions,  but  in  private  hospitals,  and  es- 
pecially in  the  provincial  towns,  where  a  few  of  them  are 
already  engaging  in  district  nursing  with  unqualified 
success.  The  country  might  well  get  on  for  the  present 
with  fewer  lawyers,  and  fewer  artists,  if  the  number  of 
nurses  could  be  increased. 

Equally  praiseworthy  is  the  work  of  the  students  and 
graduates  of  the  College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  which 
is  housed  in  a  commodious  and  adequate  building.  Their 
theoretical  instruction  is  of  a  very  high  character,  and 
they  have  almost  unrivalled  facilities  for  practical  clini- 
cal work  in  the  Philippine  General  Hospital.  Entrance 
requirements  are  high  and  the  course  of  study  is  severe. 
A  number  of  the  best  students  do  post-graduate  work  in 
the  hospital,  where  they  are  employed  as  internes  and 
assistants.  As  a  result,  the  college  is  turning  out  grad- 
uates admirably  qualified  for  the  great  work  which  awaits 
them  among  their  own  people. 

The  other  colleges  of  the  university  are,  for  the  most 
part,  doing  their  work  efficiently  and  well,  and  as  a  rule 
their  students  are  showing  appreciation  of  the  opportu- 
nities afforded  them,  and  are  utilizing  them  to  good 
advantage. 

Important  educational  work  is  being  carried  on  by 
various  bureaus  of  the  government.  The  Bureau  of 
Lands  has  an  excellent  school  for  surveyors.  The  Bureau 
of  Printing  is  in  itself  a  great  industrial  school,  and 
ninety-five  per  cent  of  its  work  is  now  done  by  Filipinos 
trained  within  its  walls,  while  many  others  who  have 
had  practical  instruction  there  have  found  profitable 
private  employment. 

An  excellent  school  is  conducted  in  Bilibid  Prison  with 


EDUCATION  531 

convicts  as  teachers.  A  very  large  proportion  of  the 
prisoners  receive  practical  instruction  in  manual  training 
and  are  fitted  to  earn  honest  livings  when  their  sentences 
expire.  Furthermore,  they  readily  secure  employment, 
as  the  men  discharged  from  this  institution  have  in  many 
cases  earned  well-deserved  reputations  for  honesty  and 
industry. 

All  the  women  confined  at  Bilibid  are  taught  to  make 
pillow  lace. 

At  the  Bontoc  Prison,  the  non-Christian  tribe  convicts 
of  the  islands  are  taught  useful  industries,  and  so  satis- 
factoiy  are  the  results  that  I  have  formed  the  habit  of 
calling  the  institution  my  "university." 

At  the  Iwahig  agricultural  penal  colony  convicts  are 
taught  modern  agricultural  methods  under  a  system  such 
that  they  gradually  become  owners  of  houses,  land  and 
agricultural  implements  and  may  in  the  end  have  their 
families  with  them  so  that  they  are  well  settled  for  life 
when  their  sentences  expire,  if  they  take  advantage  of 
the  opportunities  given  them. 

The  educational  policy  which  the  United  States  has 
adopted  in  dealing  with  the  Filipinos  is  without  a  parallel 
in  history'.  I  am  glad  to  have  assisted  in  its  inauguration, 
and  I  am  proud  of  its  results,  which  will  make  themselves 
felt  more  and  more  as  the  years  go  by.  Even  now  Eng- 
lish is  far  more  widely  spoken  in  the  Philippine  Islands 
than  Spanish  ever  was,  and  this  is  a  boon  the  magnitude 
of  which  cannot  be  appreciated  by  those  who  have  not 
had  brought  home  to  them  by  experience  the  disadvan- 
tages incident  to  the  existence  of  very  numerous  dialects 
among  the  inhabitants  of  one  country. 

WTien  it  is  remembered  that  in  the  present  instance 
each  of  these  dialects  is  very  poor  in  hterature,  and  that 
its  use  is  limited  to  a  million  or  two  of  human  beings  at 
the  most,  the  enormous  value  of  instruction  in  English 
will  be  realized,  to  some  extent  at  least. 


CHAPTER  XX 

The  Exploration  of  Non-Chkistian  Territory 

At  the  time  of  their  discovery  the  Philippine  Islands 
were  inhabited  by  a  very  large  number  of  distinct  tribes 
the  civilization  of  which  was  directly  comparable  with  that 
of  the  Negritos,  the  Igorots  and  the  Moros  as  they  exist 
to-day.  Do  not  understand  me  to  imply  that  the  Negritos, 
the  Igorots  and  the  Moros  have  attained  to  the  same  stage 
of  civilization. 

The  Negritos  belong  to  a  distinct  race.  They  are 
woolly-headed,  nearly  black,  and  of  ahnost  dwarfish 
stature.  They  seem  to  be  incapable  of  any  considerable 
progress  and  cannot  be  civilized.  Intellectually  they 
stand  close  to  the  bottom  of  the  human  series,  being  about 
on  a  par  with  the  South  African  bushmen  and  the  Austra- 
lian blacks. 

The  Igorots  are  of  Malayan  origin.  They  are  un- 
doubtedly the  descendants  of  the  earlier,  if  not  the  ear- 
liest, of  the  Malay  invaders  of  the  Philippines,  and  up  to 
the  time  of  the  .\merican  occupation  had  retained  their 
primitive  characteristics. 

The  Moros,  or  Mohammedan  Malays  of  the  southern 
Philippines,  exemplify  what  may  be  considered  the 
highest  stage  of  civilization  to  which  Malaj's  have  ever 
attained  unaided.  They  are  the  descendants  of  the  latest 
Malay  invaders  and  were,  at  the  time  of  the  discovery 
of  the  islands,  rapidly  prosecuting  an  effective  campaign 
for  their  mohammedanization. 

At  the  outset  the  Spaniards  made  extraordinary  progress 
in  subduing,  with  comparatively  little  bloodshed,  many  of 
these  different  peoples,  but  the  Moros  at  first  successfully 

532 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       533 

resisted  them,  were  not  brought  under  anything  approach- 
ing control  until  the  day  of  steam  gun-boats  and  modem 
firearms,  and  were  still  causing  serious  trouble  when 
Spanish  sovereignty  ended. 

As  time  elapsed  the  political  and  military  estabhsh- 
ments  of  Spam  in  the  Philippines  seem  to  have  lost  much 
of  their  virility.  At  all  events  the  campaign  for  the 
control  and  advancement  of  even  the  non-j\Iohammedan 
wild  peoples  was  never  pushed  to  a  successful  termination, 
and  there  to-day  remains  a  very  extensive  territory, 
amounting  to  about  one-half  of  the  total  land  area, 
which  is  populated  by  non-Christian  peoples  so  far 
as  it  is  populated  at  all.  Such  peoples  make  up  ap- 
proximately an  eighth  of  the  entire  population. 

When  civil  government  was  established  I  was  put  in 
general  executive  control  of  matters  pertaining  to  the  non- 
Christian  tribes.  Incidentally,  a  word  about  that  rather 
unsatisfactory  term  "non-Christian."  It  has  been  found 
excessively  difficult  to  find  a  single  word  which  would 
satisfactorily  designate  the  peoples,  other  than  the 
civilized  and  Christianized  peoples  commonly  known  as 
Filipinos,  which  inhabit  the  Philippines.  They  cannot 
be  called  pagan  because  some  of  them  are  ]VIohammedan, 
while  others  seem  to  have  no  form  of  religious  worship. 
They  cannot  be  called  wild,  for  some  of  them  are  quite 
as  gentle,  and  as  highly  civilized,  as  are  their  Christian 
neighbours.  The  one  characteristic  which  they  have  in 
common  is  their  refusal  to  accept  the  Christian  faith,  and 
their  adherence  to  their  ancient  refigious  beliefs,  or  their 
lack  of  such  beliefs  as  the  case  may  be.  I  am  therefore 
forced  to  employ  the  term  "non-Christian"  in  designating 
them,  although  I  fully  recognize  its  awkwardness. 

While  serving  with  the  First  Philippine  Commission 
I  was  charged  with  the  duty  of  writing  up  the  non- 
Christian  tribes  for  its  report,  and  tried  to  exhaust  all 
available  sources  of  information.  The  result  of  my  investi- 
gations was  most  unsatisfactory  to  me.     I  could  neither 

VOL.    H D 


534  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

find  out  how  many  wild  tribes  there  were,  nor  could  I 
learn  with  any  degree  of  accuracy  the  territory  which 
the  kno\vn  tribes  occupied,  much  less  obtain  accurate 
information  relative  to  their  physical  characteristics,  their 
customs  or  their  beliefs. 

The  most  satisfactory  source  of  information  was  the 
work  of  Blumentritt,  an  Austrian  ethnological  writer  ; 
but  Blumentritt  had  never  set  foot  in  the  Philippines,  and 
I  suspected  at  the  outset  what  later  proved  to  be  the 
case,  that  his  statements  were  very  inaccurate.  He 
recognized  more  than  eighty  tribes  of  which  thirty-six 
were  said  by  him  to  be  found  in  northern  Luzon. 

As  it  was  obviously  impossible  to  draft  adequate  legisla- 
tion for  the  control  and  civilization  of  numerous  savage 
or  barbarous  peoples  without  reliable  data  on  which  to 
base  it,  and  as  such  data  were  not  available,  I  had  to  get 
them  for  myself,  and  undertook  a  series  of  explorations, 
carried  out  during  the  dry  seasons  so  far  as  possible,  in 
order  to  gather  my  information  on  the  ground. 

I  first  visited  Benguet  in  July  and  August,  1900. 

On  my  second  northern  trip  I  traversed  the  province  of 
Benguet  from  south  to  north,  arrived  at  Cervantes  in 
Lepanto,  and  was  about  to  leave  for  the  territory  of  the 
Bontoc  head-hunters  when  I  received  a  telegraphic  sum- 
mons to  return  to  Manila  for  the  inauguration  of  Governor 
Taft  on  July  4,  1901. 

The  following  year  such  time  as  could  be  spared  from 
my  duties  at  Manila  was  necessarily  devoted  to  the  search 
for  a  suitable  island  for  the  site  of  a  proposed  leper  colony  ; 
but  in  1903  I  was  able  to  make  a  somewhat  extended  ex- 
ploring trip,  traversing  the  country  of  the  Tingians  in 
Abra,  passing  through  the  mountains  which  separate 
that  province  from  Lepanto,  visiting  the  numerous 
settlements  of  the  Lepanto  Igorots  and  continuing  my 
journey  to  Cayan,  Bagnin,  Sagada  and  Bontoc;  and 
thence  through  various  settlements  of  the  Bontoc  Igorots 
to  Banaue  in  the  territory  of  the  Ifugaos. 


Entrance  to  the  Quiangax  8cHOOL-HorsE. 
The  Ifugao  boys  on  either  side  of  the  stairway  helped  build  this  remarkable 
structure.     Most  of  their  companions  in  the  work  were  older,  but  ail  were 
of  school  age. 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       535 

The  latter  portion  of  the  trip  was  not  unattended  with 
excitement.  A  few  weeks  before  a  fairlj^  strong  con- 
stabulary detachment,  anned  with  carbines,  had  been 
driven  to  the  top  of  a  conical  hill  in  the  Ifugao  country 
and  besieged  there  until  a  runner  made  his  way  out  at 
night  and  brought  assistance.  We  felt  that  there  was 
some  uncertainty  as  to  the  reception  which  would  be 
accorded  us.  The  Bontoc  Igorots  who  accompanied 
us  did  not  feel  that  there  was  any  uncertainty  whatever 
as  to  what  awaited  them,  but  were  more  than  anxious  to 
go  along  with  us,  as  they  were  spoiling  for  a  fight  with 
their  ancient  enemies. 

We  had  to  use  them  for  carriers  to  transport  our  bag- 
gage, and  each  carrier  insisted  on  having  an  armed  com- 
panion to  lug  his  lance  and  shield.  As  a  precautionary 
measure  we  took  with  us  twenty-five  Bontoc  Igorot 
constabulary  soldiers  armed  with  carbines,  while  each  of 
the  five  American  members  of  the  party  carried  a  heavy 
six-shooter.  We  also  had  with  us  a  dog  which  was 
supposed  to  be  especially  clever  at  seasonably  discovering 
ambushes  and  giving  warning. 

We  were  able  to  use  horses  more  or  less  as  far  as  the 
top  of  the  Polis  range,  but  the  trail  down  its  eastern 
slopes  was  impracticable  for  horses  and  dangerous  for 
pedestrians. 

We  shivered  for  a  night  on  a  chilly  mountain  crest,  and 
the  next  day  continued  our  journey  to  Banaue.  When 
still  several  miles  from  the  town,  we  were  met  by  an  old 
Ifugao  chief  with  two  companions.  They  marched 
boldly  up  to  us  and  inquired  whether  we  were  planning 
to  visit  Banaue.  On  receiving  an  affirmative  reply, 
the  chief  asked  if  our  visit  was  friendly  or  hostile.  I 
assured  him  that  we  were  friends  who  had  come  to  get 
acquainted  with  the  Ifugaos.  He  said  he  was  glad  to 
hear  this,  but  that  after  all  it  did  not  really  matter.  If 
we  wished  to  be  friends,  they  were  willing  to  be  friendly ; 
but  if  we  wanted  to  fight,  they  would  be  glad  to  give 


536  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

US  a  chance.  As  he  and  his  companions  were  facing  a 
column  of  eighty-seven  armed  men  I  rather  admired  his 
courage. 

He  next  presented  me  with  what  I  now  know  to  be  an 
Ifugao  gift  of  friendship,  to  wit,  a  white  rooster  and  six 
eggs,  after  which"  he  took  from  one  of  his  companions  a 
bottle  filled  with  bubud,^  and  having  first  taken  a  drink 
to  show  me  that  it  was  not  poisoned,  handed  it  to  me. 
I  did  my  duty,  and  we  were  friends. 

We  then  proceeded  on  our  way  to  Banaue,  being  obliged 
to  plunge  down  through  the  rice  terraces  to  the  bottom  of 
a  deep  canon  and  then  climb  two  almost  perpendicular 
earthen  walls  before  reaching  the  house  of  the  chief. 

I  was  completely  exhausted  when  I  began  this  climb, 
and  did  not  feel  comfortable  clinging  like  a  tree  frog  to 
the  face  of  a  clay  bank  with  nothing  to  support  me  except 
rather  shallow  holes  which  could  be  better  negotiated  by 
Ifugaos,  possessed  of  prehensile  toes,  than  by  men  wearing 
shoes.  Seeing  my  predicament,  an  Ifugao  climbed  down 
from  above,  pulled  my  coat-tails  up  over  my  head  and 
hung  on  to  them,  while  another  came  up  behind  me, 
put  his  hands  on  my  heels  and  carefully  placed  my  toes 
in  the  holes  prepared  for  their  reception.  Thus  aided,  I 
finally  reached  the  top. 

The  Ifugaos  did  not  invite  us  to  enter  their  houses, 
but  allowed  us  to  camp  under  them.  I  was  assigned 
quarters  under  the  house  of  the  chief.  It  was  tastefully 
ornamented,  at  the  height  of  the  floor,  with  a  very  striking 
frieze  of  alternating  human  skulls  and  carabao  skulls. 

One  of  my  reasons  for  coming  to  Banaue  at  this  time 
was  that  I  had  heard  that  the  people  of  seven  other 
towns  had  recently  formed  a  confederation  and  attacked 
it,  losing  about  a  hundred  and  fifty  heads  before  they  were 
driven  off.  I  therefore  thought  that  there  might  be  a 
favourable  opportunity  to  learn  something  of  head-hunting, 
and    to   secure   some   photographs   illustrating   customs 

■  A  fermented  alcoholic  beverage  made  from  rice. 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       537 

which  I  hoped  would  become  rare  in  the  near  future,  as 
indeed  they  did. 

Trouble  promptly  arose  between  our  Bontoc  friends 
and  the  Ifugaos.  The  Bontocs  wanted  to  purchase  food. 
Some  baskets  of  camotes  were  brought  and  thrown  down 
before  them  and  they  were  told  that  they  were  welcome 
to  camotes,  which  were  suitable  food  for  Bontoc  Igorots 
and  pigs,  but  that  if  they  wanted  rice  they  would  have  to 
come  out  and  get  it.  As  twenty-five  of  them  were  armed 
with  carbines  and  all  the  rest  had  lances,  shields  and 
head-axes,  they  were  more  than  anxious  to  go,  but  this  we 
could  hardlj-  permit !  So  we  put  them  in  a  stockade  under 
guard,  and  subsisted  them  ourselves,  a  thing  which  neces- 
sarily rendered  our  stay  brief,  as  provisions  soon  ran  low. 

The  Ifugaos  of  Banaue  showed  themselves  most 
friendly,  but  warned  us  that  a  large  hostile  party  was 
waiting  to  attack  us  at  Kababuyan,  a  short  distance 
down  the  trail.  ]My  mission  to  the  Ifugao  country  was 
to  estabUsh  kindly  relations  with  the  people  rather  than 
kill  them,  so  I  did  my  best  to  get  on  good  terms  with  the 
inhabitants  of  the  more  friendly  settlements. 

The  day  before  we  left,  people  came  in  haste  from  a 
neighbouring  village  to  advise  us  that  one  of  their  men 
had  lost  his  head  to  the  Ifugaos  of  Cambiilo,  and  begged 
us  to  join  them  in  a  punitive  expedition,  assuring  us  that 
there  were  numerous  pigs  and  chickens  at  Cambiilo  and 
that  our  combined  forces  would  have  no  difficulty  in 
whipping  the  people  of  that  place,  after  wliich  we  could 
have  a  most  enjoyable  time  plundering  the  town,  while 
they  would  secure  a  goodly  toll  of  heads  wliich  might 
be  advantageously  emploj-ed  in  further  ornamenting 
their  Banaue  homes.  They  were  greatly  disgusted  when 
we  declined  to  join  them,  and  said  they  would  do  the  job 
anyhow,  as  no  doubt  they  did. 

First,  however,  they  insisted  that  we  come  with  them 
to  see  that  the  story  they  had  told  us  was  true.  We  soon 
overtook  a  procession  carrying  a  very  much  beheaded 


538  THE  PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

man  who  was  being  borne  out  for  burial  on  his  shield, 
and  were  readily  granted  permission  to  attend  his  funeral. 
It  was  an  interesting  and  weird  affair.  After  it  was  over 
we  hastened  back  to  Banaue,  in  constant  fear  of  breaking 
our  necks  by  falling  down  the  high,  nearly  perpendicular, 
walls  of  the  rice  terraces,  on  the  tops  of  v/hich  we  had  to 
walk.  Most  of  us  discarded  our  shoes,  in  order  to  mini- 
mize the  danger  of  a  fall.  One  member  of  the  party, 
who  insisted  on  wearing  his,  glissaded  down  a  steep 
wall  and  had  to  be  pulled  out  of  the  mud  and  water  at 
the  bottom.     Fortunately  he  was  not  injured. 

Having  succeeded  beyond  our  expectations  in  establish- 
ing friendly  relations  with  the  Ifugaos  of  Banaue  we  took 
our  departure,  requesting  them  to  tell  their  neighbours 
about  us  and  promising  to  visit  them  again.  I  returned 
to  Bontoc  and  made  my  way  to  Baguio  in  Benguet  through 
the  Agno  River  valley,  stopping  at  numerous  settlements 
of  the  Benguet  Igorots  on  the  way. 

It  was  not  possible  for  me  to  make  further  explorations 
in  the  territory  of  the  Luzon  wild  people  until  1905.  In 
this  year  I  set  out,  accompanied  by  Mr.  Samuel  E.  Kane, 
an  American  who  spoke  Ilocano  exceptionally  well,  and 
Colonel  Bias  Villamor,  a  former  Insurgent  officer,  who 
was  more  familiar  with  the  territory  which  I  desired  to 
visit  than  any  one  else  of  whom  I  could  learn.  He  had 
established  friendly  relations  with  some  of  its  inhabitants 
during  the  insurrection. 

We  visited  several  of  the  wilder  settlements  of  the 
Tingians  in  Abra,  then  made  a  hard  climb  over  Mount 
Pico  de  Loro  and  descended  its  eastern  slopes  to  the 
Tingian  village  of  Balbalasan  in  the  Saltan  River  valley. 
Its  people,  while  not  really  head-hunters,  were  often  obUged 
to  defend  themselves  against  their  Kalinga  neighbours, 
and  were  consequently  well  armed. 

After  a  brief  rest  we  continued  our  journey  down  the 
Saltan  River,  visiting  settlements  on  the  high  hills  in 
its  immediate  vicinity. 


THE  EXPLORATION   OF  NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       539 

At  Salecsec  we  had  an  extended  conference  with  an  old 
chief  named  Atumpa,  a  very  acute  man  of  wide  ex- 
perience and  sound  judgment,  who  exercised  great  in- 
fluence in  the  territory  through  which  we  had  just  passed. 

Atumpa,  satisfied  as  to  our  good  intentions,  consented 
to  accompany  us  into  the  Kalinga  countrJ^  A  Kalinga 
chief  named  Saking,  whom  Villamor  had  known  during 
the  insurrection,  met  us  here,  and  told  us  of  a  war  trail 
into  his  territory  which  would  greatly  shorten  our  pro- 
posed journey,  and  make  it  possible  for  us  to  reach  in 
one  day  the  first  of  the  previously  unknown  Kalinga 
settlements  of  the  Mabaca  River  valley. 

Saking,  observing  that  the  people  in  the  Saltan  valley 
had  cleaned  off  their  old  trails,  and  in  some  cases  had 
built  new  ones  for  our  convenience,  went  ahead  of  us  to 
his  own  country  in  order  to  tr}^  to  j^ersuade  his  people 
to  do  some  trail  work,  leaving  us  to  follow  him. 

Our  route  lay  over  the  top  of  a  high  peak  called  "Dead 
Man's  Mountain"  because  a  good  many  people  who 
tried  to  climb  it  never  came  down,  the  true  explanation 
of  their  failure  to  appear  being  no  doubt  that  they  perished 
from  exposure  during  violent  storms. 

While  ascending  this  mountain  I  suffered  an  attack  of 
partial  paralysis  of  the  legs,  due,  as  I  now  have  reason 
to  beheve,  to  heart  strain,  but  was  able  to  continue  the 
journey  after  a  brief  rest  and  the  use  of  stimulants. 

A  considerable  part  of  our  trip  down  the  steep  northern 
slopes  of  this  mountain  was  made  by  utihzing  a  stream 
bed  in  lieu  of  a  trail,  and  was  in  consequence  very  un- 
comfortable and  somewhat  dangerous,  as  the  chance 
for  broken  bones  was  good.  Fortunately,  however,  no  one 
was  badly  hurt. 

At  the  first  Kalinga  village  we  found  about  a  hundred 
and  twenty  fighting  men  armed  with  shields  and  head- 
axes,  but  Saking  and  his  brother  Bakidan  at  once  came 
forward  to  greet  us  and  we  did  not  suspect  mischief. 

I  had  brought  with  me  from  Manila  a  great  bag  of 


540  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

newly  coined  pennies.  They  looked  like  gold,  and  we 
distributed  them  among  the  warriors,  who  were  greatly 
dehghted  and  promptly  proceeded  to  place  them  in  the 
ends  of  the  huge  ear  plugs  which  the  men  of  this  tribe 
are  so  fond  of  wearing.  Every  one  seemed  friendly  enough 
at  the  outset,  but  soon  a  rather  disturbing  incident 
occurred. 

There  were  eight  chiefs  present.  I  noticed  that  they 
suddenly  withdrew  a  short  distance  and  squatted  all 
together  in  a  circle  as  if  by  word  of  command.  After  a 
brief  but  very  animated  discussion  they  rose  simulta- 
neously, and  six  of  them  started  down  the  trail  at  a  run, 
while  Bakidan  and  Saking  came  to  us  and  somewhat 
anxiously  suggested  that  it  was  time  to  be  moving  on. 

Our  way  lay  through  enormous  runo  grass  which  closed 
in  over  our  heads,  so  that  we  were  marching  in  a  rather  low 
tunnel  through  the  vegetation.  Bakidan  went  ahead 
of  us,  Saking  brought  up  the  rear,  and  both  were  evidently 
on  the  alert.  Bakidan  suggested  that  we  keep  our  re- 
volvers handy,  which  we  did. 

A  short  march  brought  us  to  Saking's  place.  Here  a 
still  larger  body  of  fighting  men  awaited  us,  and  there  were 
no  women  in  evidence  except  Saking's  wife,  who,  at  the 
direction  of  her  husband,  came  forward,  and  under  his 
instructions  sought  to  shake  hands  with  us.  This  was  a 
new  ceremony  to  the  Kahngas,  and  she  gave  us  her  left 
hand. 

Standing  in  a  conspicuous  place  in  front  of  Saking's 
house  were  two  baskets  filled  with  flowers  which  were  wet 
with  blood.  We  surmised,  rightlj^  as  it  later  proved, 
that  these  baskets  had  contained  human  heads  just 
before  our  arrival,  and  that  we  had  interrupted  a  head- 


'  Canao  is  the  word  commonly  used  by  the  northern  Luz6n  wild  men 
in  designating  a  feast  or  ceremony.  In  Ahayao  it  is  also  used  as  an 
adjective  to  designate  a  place  which  may  not  be  approached,  being 
then  equivalent  to  "taboo." 


0       3 


a: 

z    »^ 

<  .2 


ft. 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       541 

One  did  not  need  to  be  an  expert  in  the  moods  of  wild 
men  to  see  that  the  people  of  this  place  were  feeling  ugly, 
and  after  shaking  hands  with  Saking's  wife  we  promptly 
marched  on. 

It  was  fortunate  for  us  that  we  did  so.  We  later  learned 
that  the  conference  of  the  eight  chiefs  which  aroused  our 
suspicion  had  been  held  to  discuss  our  fate.  Six  of  them 
were  in  favor  of  kilhng  us  immediatelj^,  arguing  that  we 
were  the  first  white  men  to  penetrate  their  country ; 
that  they  might  have  to  carry  our  baggage,  which  would 
be  a  lot  of  trouble ;  and  that  if  they  allowed  us  to  pass 
through  others  might  follow  us,  whereas  if  they  killed 
us  they  would  have  no  further  trouble  with  strangers. 
Saking  was  severely  criticized  for  having  told  us  the  where- 
abouts of  the  war  trail  over  which  we  had  come,  and  was 
appointed  a  committee  of  one  on  extermination,  with 
power  to  act.  In  fact,  he  was  directed  to  take  liis  people 
and  kill  us,  but  he  dechned  to  obey  instructions,  and  the 
other  chiefs  had  run  down  the  trail  ahead  of  us  in  order 
to  gather  a  sufficient  force  to  wipe  our  party  out.  Sak- 
ing's people  were  somewhat  loath  to  act  under  the  orders 
of  any  one  else,  and  our  sojourn  among  them  was  so  brief 
that  they  did  not  have  time  definitely  to  make  up  their 
minds  to  attack  us. 

We  now  rapidly  completed  our  journey  to  Bakidan's 
place,  where  we  were  to  spend  the  night.  Here  again  a 
crowd  of  armed  fighting  men  awaited  us.  It  was  momen- 
tarily augmented  by  the  arrival  of  recruits  from  the 
villages  through  which  we  had  just  passed. 

Still  unsuspicious  of  mischief,  we  turned  our  revolvers 
over  to  one  of  our  Ilocano  companions,  a  man  named 
Lucio,  who  had  served  as  Aguinaldo's  mail-carrier  during 
the  latter  days  of  the  insurrection.  We  then  walked 
into  the  middle  of  the  crowd  and  sat  down  on  pieces  of 
our  own  luggage. 

Bakidan  immediately  brought  me  a  small  wicker  basket 
of  very  dirty  looking  bananas.     I  was  nauseated  as  a 


542  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

result  of  severe  exertion  in  climbing  Dead  Man's  Moun- 
tain, and  the  bananas  did  not  look  appetizing,  so  I  thanked 
him  and  put  the  basket  on  my  lap.  Instantly  I  felt 
strong  tension  rising  in  the  crowd.  We  had  brought  along 
chief  Atumpa  and  several  friendly  Kalingas  from  the 
Saltan  Eiver  valley.  They  seized  their  head-axes  and 
stepped  in  beliind  us,  facing  out.  Bakidan  instantly  with- 
drew into  his  own  house,  and  from  a  point  where  hardly 
any  one  except  myself  could  see  him  made  emphatic 
gestures,  indicating  that  I  was  to  eat.  Little  suspecting 
the  significance  of  the  act,  but  desirous  of  placating  his 
outraged  feelings  if  he  felt  that  his  hospitality  had  not 
been  appreciated,  I  hastily  peeled  a  banana  and  took  a 
bite.  To  my  amazement,  there  was  an  instant  and  ob- 
vious relaxation  of  tension  in  the  crowd.  The  Kalinga 
warriors  loosened  their  grip  on  their  head-axes  and  began 
to  walk  about  and  talk.  My  own  old  men  also  assumed 
an  air  of  indifference. 

Much  puzzled,  I  made  up  my  mind  to  look  into  this 
matter  further,  and  later  learned  that  when  people  from 
one  Kalinga  settlement  visit  those  of  another  if  the  latter 
wish  to  be  friendly  it  is  customary  for  them  to  offer  the 
visitors  salt  if  they  have  it,  bananas  if  salt  is  lacking,  and 
water  in  the  event  that  neither  salt  nor  bananas  are 
available.  If  the  visitors  wish  to  accept  the  friendship 
thus  profTered,  they  promptly  eat  or  drink,  as  the  case 
may  be ;  otherwise  it  is  understood  that  they  have  come 
looking  for  trouble. 

Bakidan  had  ceremonially  proffered  the  friendship  of 
himself  and  his  people,  and  in  my  ignorance  I  had  practi- 
cally declared  war  on  the  whole  outfit !  When  I  learned 
these  facts  I  asked  Bakidan  why  they  did  not  kill  us  at 
once.  He  said  they  were  afraid.  I  expressed  my  sur- 
prise that  they  should  be  afraid  of  three  unarmed  men,  and 
he  explained  that  it  was  very  bad  etiquette  in  the  Kalinga 
country  for  a  person  with  a  head-axe  to  go  behind  another, 
and  that  we  had  amazed  every  one  when  we  walked  into 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       543 

the  midst  of  that  gathering  of  armed  men  and  sat  down 
with  our  backs  to  half  of  them.  They  instantly  concluded 
that  we  had,  concealed  about  our  persons,  some  new  and 
strange  device  with  which  we  could  annihilate  a  crowd, 
hence  they  were  afraid  ! 

Here,  as  at  Saking's  place,  we  had  interrupted  a  head- 
cahao.  The  head  had  been  smuggled  out  of  sight  just 
before  our  arrival.  The  canao  was  now  renewed  and 
continued  all  night,  although  the  head  was  not  again  put 
in  evidence.  It  is  needless  to  say  that  we  attended.  We 
witnessed  one  of  the  weirdest  sights  I  have  ever  seen. 

The  following  day  was  spent  in  distributing  presents  to 
the  Kahnga  head-men,  in  taking  photographs,  and  in 
getting  a  Uttle  much  needed  rest.  As  evening  drew 
near  Bakidan  suggested  that  it  was  about  time  we  formally 
made  friends  with  each  other.  We  were  beginning  to 
feel  rather  far  away  from  home,  and  wanted  all  the  friends 
we  could  get,  so  promptly  acceded  to  his  suggestion  and 
repaired  to  his  house  at  eight  o'clock,  the  hom-  he  had  in- 
dicated. 

The  ceremony  proved  very  simple.  His  wife  fried 
some  boiled  rice  in  fat  —  dog  fat  as  we  afterward  learned, 
but  fortunately  we  did  not  know  this  at  the  moment ! 
We  all  squatted  on  the  floor,  Bakidan  facing  us,  and  the 
dish  of  fried  rice  was  placed  between  us.  He  squeezed 
a  mass  of  it  into  a  ball  and  gave  it  to  me.  I  ate  it,  and 
then  rendered  him  a  similar  service.  He  ate  in  turn,  and 
we  were  friends  !  The  same  procedure  was  followed  with 
each  of  my  companions. 

In  the  midst  of  the  ceremony  there  came  a  very  unex- 
pected interruption.  A  KaUnga  woman  was  standing 
near  me  holding  a  torch.  She  had  been  silent  and  had 
seemed  timid.  I  chanced  to  stretch  out  my  right  hand 
palm  up.  To  my  surprise  she  uttered  an  exclamation 
which  was  almost  a  shriek,  seized  my  wrist  and  began  to 
point  excitedly  to  the  lines  in  my  palm.  The  other 
Kahngas  gathered  about,   evidently  greatly  interested. 


544  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Several  of  them  showed  the  lines  in  the  palms  of  their  own 
hands,  and  an  animated  conversation  ensued.  I  asked 
what  it  all  meant,  and  was  informed  that  I  was  going  to 
become  a  man  of  great  influence  !  I  had  ah'eady  modestly 
introduced  myself  as  the  ruler  of  all  non-Christians,  so 
found  this  reply  unsatisfactory,  but  could  get  no  other. 

It  was  fortunate  indeed  for  us  that  we  made  friends  with 
Bakidan.  On  the  following  day  we  continued  our  journey 
down  the  valley.  Our  baggage  was  carried  by  women, 
children  and  a  few  old  and  more  or  less  decrepit  warriors 
who  obviously  felt  deeply  insulted  at  being  required  to 
render  such  a  menial  service,  and  were  decidedly  resent- 
ful toward  Bakidan  for  having  ordered  them  to  do  it. 

Before  we  started  Bakidan  warned  us  that  the  KaUngas 
were  queer  people,  and  in  consequence  it  would  be  well 
for  us  very  quietly  to  go  around  certain  of  their  settle- 
ments. Others  we  would  visit.  Their  inhabitants  would 
be  sm'e  to  invite  us  to  stay  and  enjoy  their  hospitaUty. 
He  would  second  every  such  invitation.  We  were  to 
pay  no  attention  to  his  words,  but  were  to  note  whether 
or  not  he  sat  down.  If  he  did,  we  might  accept  the  invi- 
tation. Otherwise  we  must  plead  an  urgent  engagement 
farther  down  the  valley  and  move  on. 

Things  came  out  exactly  as  he  had  foretold.  In 
several  villages  we  heard  noises  decidedly  suggestive  of 
head  canaos,  and  discreetly  circled  these  places.  We 
declined  all  invitations  seconded  by  Bakidan  when  he 
did  not  seat  himself,  and  rested  comfortably  for  a  time 
in  several  ^'illages  where  he  did. 

Toward  noon  we  walked  straight  into  an  ambush  laid 
for  us  in  the  runo  grass,  discovering  it  only  when  Bakidan 
began  to  dehver  a  forceful  oration  in  which  he  set  forth 
the  fact  that  he  had  a  right  to  stroll  down  his  own  valley 
with  a  partj^  of  friends  without  being  annoyed  by  having 
his  fellow  tribesmen  hide  beside  the  trail  and  prepare  to 
throw  lances. 

Bakidan,  who  was  himself  a  famous  warrior,  told  these 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       545 

men  that  they  might  kill  us  if  they  saw  fit  to  do  so, 
but  must  kill  him  first.  Apparently  rather  ashamed  of 
themselves,  they  came  out  on  to  the  trail  and  slunk  off  to 
their  town.  Bakidan,  greatly  disgusted,  suggested  that 
we  follow  ithem  and  lunch  in  their  village  just  to  show 
that  we  were  not  afraid  of  them,  and  we  did  this. 

After  lunch  I  photographed  a  number  of  our  late 
opponents,  and  we  then  continued  our  journey,  escorted 
by  a  Kahnga  chief  named  Bogauit  from  Took-Took. 
This  man  had  previously  descended  to  the  Cagayan 
valley,  where  he  had  seen  white  people,  and  hearing  of 
our  advent  in  the  Kahnga  country,  and  fearing  that  we 
might  have  trouble  in  getting  carriers  for  our  baggage, 
had  come  with  his  fighting  men  to  help  us  out. 

The  people  of  his  village  received  us  in  a  most  friendly 
spirit,  and  after  attending  a  bit  of  a  canao  organized  in 
our  honour,  and  doing  our  best  to  entertain  the  crowd  with 
a  few  simple  experiments  in  physics,  and  some  sleight-of- 
hand  tricks,  we  retired,  as  we  supposed,  for  a  peaceful 
night's  rest. 

No  such  good  fortune  awaited  us.  We  were  aroused  in 
the  middle  of  the  night  by  a  fearful  din  only  to  find  our 
hut  surrounded  by  a  great  circle  of  armed  men.  The 
people  who  had  attempted  to  ambush  us  earlier  in  the 
day  had  repented  of  their  action  in  letting  us  pass  through 
unharmed,  had  gathered  a  strong  force  of  fighting  men, 
had  surrounded  our  house  and  were  now  vociferously 
demanding  to  be  allowed  to  take  our  heads. 

Old  Bakidan  was  apparenth'  fighting  a  duel  with  their 
chief  in  the  midst  of  the  circle.  The  two  men  were  dancing 
around  each  other  with  cat-like  steps,  occasionally  coming 
to  close  quarters  and  clashing  shields,  then  leaping  apart, 
swinging  their  head-axes  and  obviously  watching  for 
an  opportunity  to  strike  home.  Had  either  of  them 
gained  any  decided  advantage  of  position  he  would 
doubtless  have  used  his  head-axe,  and  this  would  have 
started  a  fight  which  could  have  had  but  one  ending. 


546  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Owing  to  a  mistake  made  when  the  ammunition  for 
our  trip  was  purchased,  we  had  just  twenty-two  revolver 
cartridges  amongst  us,  and  in  the  darkness  they  would 
have  been  worth  about  as  much  as  so  many  firecrackers. 
The  roof  of  the  house  was  dry  as  tinder ;  a  blazing  brand 
thrown  on  it  would  promptly  have  forced  us  into  the 
open.  We  should  have  been  met  by  a  flight  of  head-axes 
and  lances,  and  this  book  would  not  have  been  written ! 

The  majority  of  the  crowd  were  determined  to  take  our 
heads.  The  Took-Took  people,  greatly  outnumbered, 
were  evidently  on  the  fence,  and  Bakidan  was  our  only 
advocate.  He  still  insisted  that  any  one  who  wished 
to  kill  us  must  kill  him  first.  His  reputation  stood  him 
in  good  stead,  and  no  one  tackled  the  job.  The  uproar 
continued  until  nearly  morning.  Bdsi,  a  strong  native 
liquor,  was  constantly  passed.  Indeed,  every  one  but 
Bakidan  had  been  drunk  when  we  were  first  awakened. 
Finally  food  was  handed  around,  and  when  the  excited 
warriors  stopped  yelling  in  order  to  eat  it  the  liquor  had 
a  chance  to  work,  and  most  of  them  went  to  sleep. 

We  might  probably  have  then  effected  our  escape  for 
the  time  being,  but  it  was  utterly  impossible  for  us  to 
get  out  of  the  country  without  the  assistance  of  the 
Kalingas,  and  we  decided  to  see  the  thing  out  right 
there. 

In  the  morning  the  crowd  was  uglier  than  ever.  As 
we  crossed  the  little  plaza  they  suddenly  closed  in  on  us 
with  the  obvious  intention  of  doing  for  us,  and  we  thought 
the  end  had  come.  At  this  critical  moment  a  diversion 
was  created  in  our  favour  by  the  wholly  unexpected  arrival 
of  a  letter  brought  in  by  a  Kalinga  runner.  It  had  fol- 
lowed us  all  the  way  from  Abra,  and  contained  information 
about  two  pieces  of  baggage  which  were  missing  when  we 
started.  Its  arrival  greatly  alarmed  the  hostiles,  who 
interrogated  me  as  to  whether  soldiers  were  coming. 
They  had  heard  of  soldiers,  but  had  never  seen  them.  I 
assured  them  that  the  arrival  or  non-arrival  of  soldiers 


ill 

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i    3-3 

1.      M    CT 


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^ 

S 


THE  EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN  TERRITORY       547 

would  depend  on  the  way  they  treated  us,  and  to  our 

utter  amazement,  they  presently  faded  away. 

The  Took-Took  people  again  showed  themselves 
friendly  when  their  unwelcome  visitors  had  departed, 
and  made  us  bamboo  rafts  on  which  we  descended  the  river. 

Our  voyage  was  a  decidedly  adventurous  one.  Our 
rafts  were  repeatedly  smashed  by  the  swift  current.  As 
we  approached  each  Kalinga  village  we  were  met  by  a 
reception  committee  carrying  a  bunch  of  bananas,  fol- 
lowed at  a  short  interval  by  a  crowd  of  fighting  men  fully 
armed,  and  were  thus  given  an  opportunity  to  decide 
whether  there  should  be  peace  or  war.  Needless  to  say, 
we  voted  for  peace  every  time.  I  ate  bananas  vmtil  it 
was  difficult  to  find  room  for  more  ! 

We  spent  the  night  at  the  rancheria  of  a  friendly, 
white-haired  old  chief  who  had  been  to  Tuguegarao,  the 
capital  of  Cagayan,  and  knew  a  few  words  of  Spanish. 
The  next  day  we  reached  the  settlement  of  Chief  Doget, 
who  had  a  wonderful  house  of  red  narra,  a  wood  which 
closely  resembles  mahogany.  It  was  furnished  with  beds, 
chairs  and  tables  obtained  from  the  Spaniards.  Here 
we  were  able  to  rest  in  peace. 

After  sleeping  the  clock  twice  around,  we  continued  our 
journey,  and  at  dusk  reached  the  Filipino  town  of  Tuao, 
glad  enough  to  get  back  to  civilization  and  feehng  that 
the  kindly  Providence  which  watches  over  fools,  drunken 
men  and  children  had  had  its  eye  on  us.  Without  es- 
cort, and  armed  only  with  six-shooters  rendered  almost 
useless  by  lack  of  ammunition,  we  had  completed  the 
first  trip  ever  made  through  the  Kalinga  country,  and 
had  done  it  without  firing  a  shot  and  without  losing  a  man. 

This  trip  marked  for  me  the  beginning  of  friendly  re- 
lations with  the  Kalingas.  They  have  never  since  been 
interrupted,  and  now,  when  I  ride  a  fast  American  horse 
rapidly  over  the  splendid  trails  which  cross  their  country 
from  south  to  north  and  from  west  to  east,  or  meet  at 
Lubuagan  the  fighting  men  who  were  once  so  anxious  to 


548  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

take  my  head  but  now  make  a  long  journey  yearly  in 
order  to  see  me,  I  realize,  as  perhaps  no  one  else  does,  how- 
very  materially  conditions  in  Kahnga  have  changed. 

It  had  been  our  intention,  after  spending  a  brief  period 
in  recuperation  at  Tuao,  to  proceed  to  Malaueg  and  con- 
tinue our  journey  through  the  absolutely  unknown  coun- 
try of  the  Apayaos,  but  we  found  it  impossible  to  secure 
guides.  The  leading  men  of  Malaueg,  who  came  to  Tuao 
to  meet  us,  assured  us  that  there  were  no  trails  known  to 
them,  which  was  untrue,  and  added  that  they  would  not 
under  any  circumstances  consider  trying  to  enter  the 
territory  of  the  fierce  Apayao  head-hunters. 

We  accordingly  proceeded  to  Tuguegarao,  the  capital 
of  Cagayan,  intending  to  descend  the  Cagayan  River  to 
Aparri,  go  overland  to  Abulug  or  Pamplona  and  there 
get  guides  and  carriers. 

At  Tuguegarao,  however,  we  found  assembled  the  pres- 
identes  of  all  the  Cagayan  towns.  Those  from  Abulug 
and  Pamplona  positively  assured  me  that  there  were  no 
trails  thence  into  the  Apayao  country,  and  that  guides 
and  carriers  would  be  absolutely  unobtainable.  I  in- 
sisted that  I  would  visit  their  towns  and  ask  them  to  ac- 
company me,  whereupon  they  actually  wrung  their  hands 
and  wept,  complaining  that  the  people  of  Apayao  used 
bows  and  poisoned  arrows. 

In  disgust  I  told  them  that  I  would  abandon  the  trip 
for  that  year,  but  the  following  year  would  go  to  Laoag 
in  North  Ilocos,  cross  the  "  Cordillera  Central  "  and  come 
out  through  the  Apayao  country,  taking  with  me  Ilocano 
guides  and  carriers,  as  the  Ilocanos  were  real  men. 

I  then  proceeded  up  the  river  to  Ilagan  and  went  over- 
land through  Nueva  Vizcaya,  ultimately  crossing  Ifugao 
from  east  to  west  and  thoroughly  exploring  the  territory 
from  which  I  had  been  excluded  on  my  previous  trip ; 
proceeding  thence  to  Bontoc  and  Cervantes  over  a  route 
new  to  me,  and  finally  returning  through  Benguet  and 
Pangasinan  to  the  railroad,  where  I  took  train  for  Manila. 


THE   EXPLORATION   OP   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY        549 

The  following  year  I  carried  out  my  promise,  taking 
with  me  Colonel  Villamor,  who  had  rendered  very  valu- 
able and  satisfactory  assistance  on  my  previous  trip.  I 
also  had  three  white  companions,  Dr.  Paul  C.  Freer, 
superintendent  of  government  laboratories,  Major  Samuel 
Crawford  and  Lieutenant  L.  D.  Atkins.  These  officers 
commanded  a  detachment  of  twenty-five  Ilocano  con- 
stabulary soldiers  which  I  reluctantly  took  along, 
warned  by  my  experience  of  the  previous  year  and  con- 
vinced by  the  arguments  of  my  Ilocano  carriers,  who 
declined  to  accompany  me  unless  I  took  an  armed 
escort. 

Prior  to  my  departure  from  Manila  I  had  received  an 
urgent  telegram  from  the  governor  of  North  Ilocos  in- 
forming me  that  one  Abaya,  a  wild  Tingian  from  Apayao, 
had  been  sentenced  to  a  term  of  imprisonment  in  Bilibid, 
the  insular  penitentiary,  and  urging  me  to  arrange  if 
possible  to  have  him  detained  at  Laoag  until  my  ar- 
rival there,  which  I  did. 

On  reaching  Laoag,  I  was  amazed  to  find  a  large  delega- 
tion of  fully  armed  Apayao  men  waiting  for  me  at  the 
river  bank.  They  followed  me  to  the  house  where  my 
quarters  were  to  be,  and  sat  down  on  the  stairway,  with 
the  obvious  intention  of  seeing  that  I  did  not  leave  with- 
out their  knowledge. 

On  asking  the  meaning  of  tliis  occurrence,  I  was  told 
that  they  were  friends  of  Abaya  and  wished  to  talk  with 
me.  When  given  an  opportunity  to  do  so,  they  told  me 
a  singular  tale,  which  admirably  illustrates  the  relations 
prevailing  in  that  region  between  the  wild  men  and  their 
Fihpino  neighbours. 

Abaya  was  one  of  a  few  men  in  Apayao  who  dared  to 
descend  to  the  lowlands.  He  came  down  occasionally, 
bringing  tobacco  and  wax  to  barter  for  cloth,  steel,  salt 
and  other  necessaries  not  obtainable  in  Apayao.  Being 
unable  to  speak  Ilocano  well,  he  obtained  a  Filipino  agent 
known  as  his  "commissioner,"  who  transacted  his  busi- 


550  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

ness  for  him,  withholding  for  himself  a  hberal  percentage 
of  the  proceeds. 

On  the  occasion  of  his  last  visit  to  the  lowlands,  the 
"commissioner"  had  told  Abaya  that  he  had  a  Negrito 
slave  who  was  planning  to  escape,  and  had  directed  him 
to  take  his  head-axe  and  kill  the  Negrito,  promising  him 
half  of  a  large  pig  in  payment  for  this  service. 

Abaya,  nothing  loth,  hastened  to  execute  the  order, 
hunting  up  the  Negrito  and  aiming  a  terrific  blow  at 
him.  Fortunately  the  Negrito  saw  it  coming  and  jumped 
so  that  he  received  it  on  his  shoulder  instead  of  his  neck. 
It  inflicted  a  horrible  wound,  but  he  nevertheless  ran 
away  so  fast  that  Abaya  was  unable  to  catch  him  and 
finish  the  job.  He  returned  and  regretfully  reported 
his  lack  of  success  to  his  "conmiissioner."  To  his  amaze- 
ment he  was  arrested,  taken  to  Laoag  and  held  for  trial. 
Both  he  and  his  friends  were  convinced  that  the  reason 
for  this  was  his  failure  to  kill  the  Negrito,  and  the  friends 
assured  me  in  the  most  positive  terms  that  Abaya  had 
done  his  very  best  and  that  it  was  through  no  fault  of 
his  that  the  Negrito  had  escaped  !  They  demanded  his 
immediate  release. 

Meanwhile  I  had  been  informed  by  the  governor  of 
the  province  that  Abaya's  people  had  threatened  to 
come  and  wipe  out  the  village  where  his  "commissioner" 
lived,  and  also  to  kill  all  of  the  Negritos  in  that  vicinity 
in  revenge  for  the  arrest  and  imprisonment  of  their  chief. 
It  struck  me  that  the  "commissioner"  was  the  man 
who  ought  to  be  in  jail,  but  I  did  not  care  to  allow  the 
Apayao  people  to  think  that  they  could  make  such 
threats  with  impunity,  so  asked  them  whether  it  was 
true  that  they  were  planning  to  wipe  out  the  village  in 
question.  They  said  yes.  I  then  told  them  that  they 
must  not  do  it.  They  expressed  a  willingness  to  obey  any 
instructions  that  I  might  give  to  them.  I  asked  v/hether 
their  promise  to  let  the  village  alone  was  dependent  upon 
Abaya's  being  set  at  liberty,  and  they  answered  no.     We 


THE    EXPLORATION   OF    NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       551 

then  took  up  the  question  of  killing  the  Negritos.  They 
were  greatly  amazed  that  I  should  object  to  this,  urging 
that  they  had  always  fought  the  Negritos,  and  that  the 
latter  were  bad  people  who  constantly  made  trouble 
with  their  poisoned  arrows ;  theretofore  it  had  been 
considered  commendable  to  kill  as  many  as  possible. 
However,  they  said  that  they  would  let  the  Negritos 
alone  if  I  insisted  upon  it,  irrespective  of  whether  or  not 
Abaya  was  released.  Having  duly  impressed  them  with 
the  fact  that  the  matter  of  the  release  of  Abaya  must 
stand  on  its  own  merits,  and  could  not  be  made  to  depend 
on  their  subsequent  good  or  bad  conduct,  and  having 
interviewed  the  Filipino  judge  who  sentenced  Abaya 
and  learned  that  he  had  been  puzzled  to  know  what  to  do 
and  was  heartily  in  favour  of  having  him  pardoned,  I 
telegraphed  to  the  acting  governor-general  requesting 
that  this  be  done,  and  continued  my  journey,  leaving 
word  that  Abaya  should  follow  me  if  set  at  liberty. 

He  was  promptly  pardoned.  His  people  insisted  that 
he  join  them  and  take  to  the  moimtains,  but  he  told  his 
friends  that  since  I  had  secured  his  release  he  would  do 
what  I  had  asked.  He  overtook  me  before  I  had  finished 
my  second  day's  march,  and  stayed  with  me  until  I  gave 
him  leave  to  go  his  way  ! 

Our  climb  over  the  cordillera  was  by  no  means  a  pleas- 
ure trip.  We  were  forced  to  use  beds  of  streams  and 
Tingian  warpaths  in  lieu  of  trails.  At  one  time  our  way 
lay  over  wet  limestone  rocks  which  were  shppery  as  ice. 
Here  our  hobnailed  shoes  were  a  positive  source  of 
danger.  The  feet  of  our  carriers  were  badly  torn,  and  we 
ourselves  suffered  from  occasional  falls  on  the  sharp  rocks. 
We  secured  the  help  of  some  additional-  Tmgians  whom 
we  met  joumejdng  to  the  coast,  paying  them  liberally 
enough  so  that  they  were  wilhng  to  abandon  their  pro- 
posed trip  and  accompany  us. 

We  sent  all  of  our  Tingian  companions  ahead  to  give 
notice  of  our  friendly  intentions  before  reaching  the  first 


552  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

village  in  Apayao,  but  its  inhabitants  nevertheless  ran 
away.  Thoroughly  exliausted,  we  decided  to  spend  a 
night  there.  In  the  course  of  the  afternoon  our  men 
were  able  to  bring  in  some  of  their  fellow  tribesmen  who 
lived  in  the  vicinity,  and  we  made  friends  with  them. 

From  this  point  a  half  day's  march  brought  us  to  the 
head-waters  of  the  Abulug  River  at  a  point  where  it 
was  navigable  for  bamboo  rafts.  We  delayed  at  a-  little 
village  until  we  could  construct  rafts  enough  to  float  our 
large  party,  and  then  started  downstream,  kno'wdng  that 
we  should  meet  plenty  of  people,  for  the  Tingians  of 
Apayao  are  fond  of  placing  their  villages  on  river  banks. 

Our  trip  was  a  wild  and  adventurous  one.  Fortunately 
I  had  purchased  some  twenty  dollars'  worth  of  beads  and 
with  these  I  made  at  least  twenty-five  hundred  presents  ! 
The  friendship  of  the  women  at  the  first  town  which  we 
met  was  thus  secured,  and  thereafter  the  "grapevine 
telegraph ' '  worked  ahead  of  us  and  we  found  waiting 
delegations  of  women  and  girls  on  the  river  bank  at  al- 
most every  village.  So  long  as  they  were  about,  it  was 
reasonably  certain  that  the  men  would  not  make  any 
hostile  demonstration. 

The  trip  proved  a  great  success  in  every  way.  Many 
of  the  numerous  settlements  which  we  visited  were  at 
war  with  each  other.  One  had  just  been  attacked,  and 
a  number  of  its  people  had  lost  their  heads,  literally. 
We  were  constantly  warned  that  the  residents  of  the  next 
town  down  the  river  were  "bad  people"  and  that  "five 
hundred"  of  them  were  waiting  in  the  river  bed  to  attack 
us,  but  only  once  were  we  in  any  real  danger  of  being 
molested,  and  even  then  diplomacj^  prevailed. 

We  were  careful  to  respect  local  customs.  One  town 
was  reported  to  be  canao,  which  is  equivalent  to 
"taboo,"  because  of  the  death  of  the  wife  of  the  headman, 
and  we  religiously  kept  away  from  it.  .\nother  was 
canao  because  of  a  \arulent  epidemic  of  smallpox,  and  we 
were  more  than  willing  to  keep  away  from  that  one  ! 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       553 

We  bumped  down  rapids  and  shot  over  several  low  falls. 
Again  and  again  our  rafts  were  torn  to  pieces  and  we  were 
precipitated  into  the  rushing  stream.  At  one  time  a 
constabulary  soldier  was  under  water  for  some  ten 
minutes,  and  we  thought  him  dead  when  he  was  first 
fished  out,  but  finally  succeeded  in  resuscitating  him. 

We  had  been  told  that  the  trip  would  take  eight  days 
and  had  made  our  plans  accordingly.  It  took  fifteen. 
Food  ran  short.  Shoes  and  clothing  gave  out.  Some 
of  our  soldiers  were  dressed  in  clouts  before  we  reached 
civilization,  and  crawfishes  on  which  our  men  could 
pounce  along  the  edges  of  the  river  were  out  of  luck  ! 

I  shall  long  remember  the  shout  of  delight  which  our 
Filipino  companions  set  up  when  we  finally  passed  through 
the  last  mountain  gap  and  came  out  into  the  open  country, 
but  as  a  matter  of  fact  the  most  disagreeable  part  of  our 
journey  lay  before  us.  Up  to  that  time  our  progress  had 
been  rapid  and  exciting.  Now  the  current  of  the  river 
grew  sluggish,  and  we  were  largely  dependent  on  it,  as 
our  rafts  were  too  heavy  to  paddle  and  the  stream  was  in 
many  places  so  deep  that  we  could  not  pole  them. 

We  found  ourselves  in  the  country  of  very  wild  Negritos. 
Our  Tingian  friends  had  informed  us  that  these  people 
would  certainly  sneak  up  and  shoot  arrows  into  our  camps 
at  night,  but  nothing  of  the  sort  occurred.  On  the  con- 
trary, through  the  liberal  use  of  scarlet  cotton  cloth,  we 
were  able  to  establish  very  friendly  relations  with  the 
Negritos  encountered,  some  of  whom  gave  us  in  exchange 
deer  meat  enough  for  a  feast,  which  was  highly  appreciated 
by  all  concerned. 

On  arrival  at  Abuliig  we  were  received  with  great  sur- 
prise by  the  people,  who  had  heard  that  we  had  been 
attacked  and  killed.  There  I  developed  malaria  and  con- 
tracted bronchitis. 

We  made  our  way  up  the  Cagayan  River  to  Ilagan 
and  thence  proceeded  overland  to  the  Kalinga  villages  in 
the  vicinity  of  Sili.     At  the  latter  place  we  had  an  amusing 


554  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

experience.  ICnowing  that  we  were  going  to  Mayoyao, 
some  Ifugaos  from  that  town  had  joined  our  party  for 
protection.  A  delegation  of  Sili  Kahngas  waited  on  us 
during  the  lunch  hour  and  politely  asked  to  be  allowed 
to  take  the  heads  of  these  Ifugaos,  saying  that  they  needed 
some  fresh  heads,  and  that  it  would  save  a  lot  of  trouble 
if  they  could  have  these,  so  providentially  brought  to 
them  by  their  respective  owners.  I  explained  to  them 
that  we  really  needed  the  Ifugaos,  and  they  pohtely 
waived  their  claim  to  them  in  our  favour  ! 

I  had  been  assured  that  I  could  ride  a  horse  to  Mayoyao 
in  two  and  a  half  days.  The  trip  took  five  days.  Much 
of  the  way  horses  were  worse  than  useless.  Before  we 
reached  our  destination  my  bronchitis  had  developed  into 
pneumonia  and  I  was  very  ill.  My  white  companions 
on  the  Apayao  trip  had  long  since  left  me,  but  at  Ilagan 
I  had  been  jomed  by  Seiior  Claraval,  who  was  later 
elected  governor  of  Isabela,  and  by  an  American  school- 
teacher. Colonel  Villamor  had  stayed  with  me.  Now 
all  my  companions  turned  back  and  I  continued  my 
journey  accompanied  only  by  Ifugaos  and  by  a  young 
lieutenant  of  constabulary  named  Gallman,  who  had 
then  just  come  to  the  Ifugao  country  but  was  later  des- 
tined to  play  a  most  remarkable  part  in  bringing  its  war- 
like people  imder  control  and  starting  them  on  the  road 
toward  ci\'ilization. 

Our  route  from  Mayoyao  to  Banaue  of  necessity  fol- 
lowed the  Ifugao  war  trails,  which  invariably  run  along 
the  crests  of  mountains  so  as  to  command  a  \aew  in  both 
directions.  The  country  through  which  we  passed  was 
frightfully  broken,  and  I  could  hardly  stand. 

Wherever  it  was  humanly  possible  to  do  so,  the  Ifugaos 
carried  me  in  a  blanket  slung  under  a  pole.  They  took 
me  up  almost  perpendicular  ascents  in  this  way,  but  in 
some  cases  the  ascents  were  quite  perpendicular  and  the 
descents  the  same,  so  that  I  had  to  try  to  climb,  con- 
stantly falUng  as  the  result  of  weakness  and  exhaustion, 


a  s^ 


;   J3 

:  a 


_;   o 
?   S 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY       555 

in  spite  of  the  efforts  of  the  Ifugaos  to  keep  me  on  my 
feet.  We  reached  Dukligan  at  dusk  and  there  we  spent 
the  night. 

In  the  morning  I  found  myself  unable  to  rise,  so  took 
a  stiff  dose  of  whiskey.  As  this  failed  to  produce  the 
desired  result,  I  took  a  second  and  fuially  a  third.  Under 
the  potent  influence  of  the  stimulant  I  managed  to  get 
up.  The  willing  Ifugaos  carried  me  clear  to  the  rice 
terraces  near  Banaue,  making  a  joke  of  the  hard  work 
involved.  There  were  always  a  dozen  men  on  the  pole, 
and  whenever  one  set  of  carriers  grew  weary  there  was  a 
scramble,  closely  approaching  a  fight,  to  determine  who 
should  be  allowed  next  to  take  their  places. 

These  jolly  people  constantly  gave  a  peculiar  shout 
which  was  ridiculously  like  an  American  college  cheer. 
Ill  as  I  was,  I  almost  enjoyed  the  trip,  and  conceived  a 
great  liking  for  the  splendidly  developed  men  who  were 
seeing  me  through  in  such  gallant  style.  Had  it  not  been 
for  their  kindness,  I  should  certainly  have  left  my  bones 
somewhere  between  Mayoyao  and  Banaue. 

They  were  determined  to  lug  me  through  the  rice 
terraces,  but  as  it  took  at  least  four  men  to  carry  me,  and 
the  weight  of  the  five  of  us  was  sufficient  to  cause  the  tops 
of  the  high  terrace  walls  to  crumble  so  that  I  had  several 
narrow  escapes  from  falling  down  them,  I  climbed  out 
of  my  extemporized  hammock,  took  one  more  big  drink 
of  raw  wliiskejr  and  on  the  strength  of  it  managed  to 
stagger  along  to  the  river,  where  I  was  amazed  to  find  a 
horse  awaiting  me.  Nothing  ever  looked  better  to  me 
than  did  that  somewhat  decrepit  animal ! 

I  was  absolutely  unfit  to  travel,  but  ha\dng  rested  at 
Banaue  for  half  a  day,  and  realizing  that  it  was  impera- 
tively necessary  that  I  should  get  to  a  doctor  at  once,  I 
made  what  was  then  record  time  to  Banaue,  Bontoc, 
Cerv^antes  and  Baguio,  and  on  arrival  at  the  latter  place 
proceeded  to  go  to  bed  and  be  comfortably  iU. 

Tramping  over   the  northern  Luzon  mountains  with 


556  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

my  lungs  partly  solidified  left  my  pumping  machinery  in 
such  shape  that  I  have  never  since  been  able  to  make  a 
hard  trip  on  foot,  but  that  is  no  longer  necessary.  Splen- 
did horse  trails  now  make  travel  through  this  region  a 
pleasure. 

When  we  crossed  Apayao  only  one  other  white  man  had 
achieved  the  feat.  This  was  a  good  missionary  priest 
who  in  1741  traversed  the  country  between  Abuliig  and 
one  of  the  North  Ilocos  towns. 

Lieutenant  Gilmore's  ^  Filipino  captors  took  him  and 
his  companions  across  a  comer  of  Apayao,  and  instead 
of  murdering  them  in  the  forest,  as  they  had  been  or- 
dered to  do,  turned  them  loose.  They  made  their  way 
across  a  portion  of  the  territory  traversed  by  us,  and  had 
reached  .the  Abulug  River  and  were  attempting  to  build 
rafts  when  overtaken  by  a  rescue  party  of  American 
soldiers.  All  hands  then  descended  the  river  to  the  town 
of  Abulug,  and  proceeded  overland  to  Aparri. 

Colonel  Hood,  who  was  commanding  the  United  States 
forces  there,  declined  to  let  them  enter  the  town  until 
they  had  been  provided  with  decent  clothing,  thinking 
that  the  sight  of  American  soldiers  clad  in  clouts  might 
be  too  much  of  a  shock  to  the  inhabitants  ! 

In  1907  I  was  able  to  land  at  various  points  along  the 
then  absolutely  unknown  Pacific  coast  of  northeastern 
Luzon,  but  failed  to  get  into  touch  with  the  Negritos,  who 
constitute  its  sole  inhabitants,  until  near  Palanan,  the 
northernmost  settlement  of  Filipinos  on  the  east  coast. 

With  this  trip  my  exploration  work  in  northern  Luzon 
ended,  although  I  have  ever  since  made  extended  annual 
trips  through  the  non-Christian  territory  of  the  island. 

During  the  years  covered  by  this  hasty  narrative,  I 
also  made  trips  to  the  territory  of  the  wild  men  in  Min- 
doro,  Palawan,  and  Mindanao,  as  opportunity  offered. 
In  Spanish  days  I  had  lived  among  the  Moros  and  had 

'  Lieutenant  Gilmore,  U.S.N..  was  captured  at  Baler  in  the  summer 
of  1899,  and  held  a  prisoner  for  many  months. 


THE   EXPLORATION   OF   NON-CHRISTIAN   TERRITORY      557 

visited  the  mountains  of  Negros  and  Panay  and  seen 
something  of  the  wild  men  Hving  there,  so  that  I  finally 
gained  a  fairly  comprehensive  knowledge  of  the  non- 
Christian  tribes  of  the  Philippines,  having  seen  represent- 
atives of  nearly  all  of  them,'  and  lived  for  longer  or 
shorter  periods  among  all  except  some  of  the  more  unim- 
portant peoples  in  the  interior  of  Mindanao. 

As  a  result  of  these  personal  investigations  I  was  able 
to  reduce  to  twenty-seven  the  eighty-two  non-Christian 
tribes  said  by  Blmnentritt  to  inhabit  the  Philippines ; 
to  determine  with  reasonable  accuracy  the  territory  oc- 
cupied by  each,  and  not  only  to  become  familiar  with 
the  manners  and  customs  of  the  people  of  each  important 
tribe,  but  to  establish  relations  of  personal  friendship 
with  many  chiefs  and  headmen  which  have  proved  in- 
valuable to  me  in  my  subsequent  work  for  the  betterment 
of  the  non-Christian  peoples  which  has  so  irritated  cer- 
tain Filipino  politicians  who  have  wished  to  continue  to 
oppress  and  exploit  them,  or,  like  Judge  Blount,  have 
sought  to  minimize  their  importance. 

The  latter  individual  seems  to  regard  my  past  efforts  to 
portray  actual  conditions  among  the  wild  men  as  a  per- 
sonal grievance,  and  has  devoted  an  entire  chapter  to  the 
shortcomings  of  "Non-Christian  Worcester."  In  it  he 
says  of  me  that  I  impressed  him  as  "an  overbearing  bully 
of  the  beggar-on-horseback  type"  ;  that  I  am  "the  P.  T. 
Barnum  of  the  'non-Christian  tribe'  industry";  that 
"in  the  earh^  nineties  he  [Non-Christian  Worcester] 
had  made  a  trip  to  the  Philippines,  confining  himself 
then  mostly  to  creeping  things  and  quadrupeds  —  liz- 
ards, alligators,  pythons,  unusual  wild  beasts,  and 
other  forms  of  animal  life  of  the  kind  much  coveted 
as  specimens  by  museums  and  universities,"   and  goes 

'  The  only  tribes  of  which  I  have  not  seen  representatives  inhabit 
the  region  of  the  gulf  of  Davao  in  Mindanao.  It  is  doubtful  whether 
they  are  really  tribally  distinct  from  the  Bagobos,  Bilanes  and  other 
tribes  living  near  the  coast. 


558  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND  PRESENT 

on  to  tell  how  it  was  that  "the  reptile-finder  ulti- 
mately became  a  statesman."  The  Honourable  Judge 
summarizes  his  views  concerning  me  by  stating  that 
he  "considers  Professor  Worcester  the  direst  calam- 
ity that  has  befallen  the  Filipinos  since  the  American 
occupation,  neither  war,  pestilence,  famine,  reconcen- 
tration  nor  tariff -wrought  poverty  excepted."  He  de- 
scribes the  experience  on  which  he  bases  these  statements 
as  follows:  "During  all  my  stay  in  the  Philippines  I 
never  did  have  any  official  relations  of  any  sort  with  the 
Professor,  and  only  met  him,  casually,  once,  in  1901." 

This  latter  statement  is  correct  to  the  best  of  my  recol- 
lection. "A  man  is  known  by  the  company  he  keeps." 
I  feel  that  I  have  been  fortunate  in  my  friends  and  sin- 
gularly blessed  in  my  enemies  !  If  I  do  not  in  turn  attack 
the  Philippine  career  of  Judge  Blount,  it  is  not  for  lack 
of  abundant  anunmaition,  but  for  the  reason  that  I  believe 
that  the  American  public  will  be  more  interested  in  the 
truth  or  falsity  of  the  allegations  concerning  more  im- 
portant matters  which  we  respectively  make  than  in  our 
opinions  of  each  other. 

The  Judge  seems  to  have  overlooked  the  fact  that  in- 
vective is  not  argument.  I  leave  to  him  the  use  of  need- 
lessly abusive  and  insulting  language.  He  has  also  appar- 
ently overlooked  the  further  fact  that  disregard  of  the 
truth  is  apt,  sooner  or  later,  to  bring  its  own  peculiar 
reward.  Later  I  call  attention  to  certain  of  his  misstate- 
ments concerning  the  wild  peoples  of  the  Philippines, 
and  correct  them. 


CHAPTER  XXI 

The  Government  of  the   Non-Christian  Tribes 

When  I  visited  Bengiiet  in  July  and  August  of  1900, 
I  found  conditions  there  such  that  the  early  estabUshment 
of  civil  government  seemed  practicable  and  desirable. 
The  people  had  taken  no  part  in  the  insurrection  and  no- 
where in  the  province  was  there  any  resistance  to  American 
authorit3^  An  act  providing  for  the  government  of  the 
province  and  its  settlements  was  accordingly  passed  on 
November  23,  1900,  Benguet  being  thus  the  first  province 
to  pass  from  the  control  of  the  militaiy. 

In  drafting  this  act  I  was  fortunate  in  having  the  co- 
operation of  Mr.  Otto  Scheerer,  a  German  citizen  who  had 
lived  for  a  number  of  years  among  the  Benguet  Igorots, 
understood  them  fully  and  was  most  kindly  disposed 
toward  them. 

The  Benguet  law,  in  considerably  ampUfied  form,  was 
applied  to  Nueva  Vizcaya  when  that  province  was  or- 
ganized on  January'  28,  1902,  and  on  April  7,  1902,  a  care- 
fully considered  act  entitled  "An  Act  providing  for  the 
Establishment  of  Local  Civil  Governments  in  the  Town- 
ships and  Settlements  of  Nueva  Vizcaya"  was  passed 
by  the  commission. 

On  May  28,  1902,  the  province  of  Lepanto-Bontoc  was 
established.  It  had  thi-ee  sub-provinces,  Amburayan, 
Lepanto  and  Bontoc.  The  two  Nueva  Vizcaya  acts  above 
mentioned  were  made  applicable  to  it,  and  to  its  towns, 
respectively. 

On  June  23,  1902,  an  act  was  passed  organizing  the 
province  of  Palawan  (Paragua)  and  extending  to  it,  and 
to  its  towns,  the  more  essential  provisions  of  the  two  Nueva 
Vizcaya  acts. 

559 


560  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

On  the  same  day  iMindoro  was  incorporated  viith  the 
province  of  ]Marinduque  under  the  regular  Pro^•incial 
Government  Act,  which  was  then  being  made  applicable 
to  all  provmces  populated  chiefly  by  Filipinos.  As 
might  have  been  anticipated,  it  did  not  prove  feasible 
properly  to  administer  the  affairs  of  ^Nlindoro  under  this 
act,  and  on  November  10,  1902,  a  province  of  Alindoro, 
including  the  main  island  and  numerous  neighbouring 
small  islands,  was  established  under  a  law  embodjing 
the  essential  provisions  of  the  Nueva  Vizcaya  Act.  Cer- 
tain provisions  of  the  Nueva  "\'izcaya  to■w^lship  and  settle- 
ment act  were  made  applicable  to  its  municipalities, 
while  on  December  4,  1902,  other  provisions  of  the  same 
act  were  made  applicable  to  the  settlements  of  the  wild 
Mangyans,  who  occupy  the  whole  interior  of  this  great 
island  so  far  as  it  is  occupied  at  all. 

The  desirabihty  of  imiform  legislation  for  the  govern- 
ment of  the  non-Christian  tribes,  except  those  of  the 
Moro  Province,  soon  became  evident,  and  after  much 
experience  in  the  practical  working  of  the  several  acts 
above  mentioned  under  the  conditions  presented  in  the 
five  provinces,  Benguet,  Nueva  Vizcaya,  Lepanto-Bontoc, 
Palawan  and  Mindoro,  I  drafted  the  so-called  "Special 
Provincial  Government  Act,"  and  "The  Township  Gov- 
ernment Act."  The  former  was  made  applicable  to  the 
five  provinces  above  mentioned,  and  the  latter  to  all 
settlements  of  non-Christian  tribes  tlii-oughout  the  Philip- 
pines except  those  of  the  Moro  Province. 

On  August  20,  1907,  an  act  was  passed  carving  the  prov- 
ince of  Agusan  out  of  territor^^  wliich  had  previously  be- 
longed to  Surigao  and  Misamis,  and  organizmg  it  under 
the  Special  Provincial  Government  Act. 

Finally,  on  August  18,  1908,  the  Mountain  Province 
was  established  in  northern  Luzon. 

At  the  same  time  that  the  Ifugao  territory  was  separated 
from  Nueva  Vizcaj-a  there  was  added  to  the  latter  prov- 
ince the  Ilongot  territory  previously  divided  between 
Isabela,  Tayabas,  Nueva  Ecija  and  Pangasindn. 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN    TRIBES         561 

Before  considering  the  details  of  the  work  accomplished 
in  the  several  special  government  provinces  and  sub- 
provinces,  I  will  state  the  general  principles  which  have 
been  found  useful  in  bringing  the  non-Christian  peoples 
under  control  and  in  establishing  friendly  relations  with 
them,  and  will  explain  how  these  principles  have  been 
applied  in  actual  practice. 

I  have  always  considered  the  opening  up  of  adequate 
lines  of  communication  an  indispensable  prerequisite  to 
the  control  and  development  of  any  country,  and  this  is 
especially  true  of  the  territory  of  the  wild  man.  No 
matter  how  unruly  he  may  be,  he  is  apt  to  become 
good  when  one  can  call  on  him  at  2. .30  a.m.,  since  that  is 
the  hour  when  devils,  anitos  and  asudng  are  abroad,  and 
he  therefore  wants  to  stay  peaceably  in  his  own  house  ! 
Again  and  again  we  have  built  a  trail  to  an  ugly,  fighting, 
head-hunting  settlement  whose  people  have  at  first  thrown 
spears  at  our  road  labourers,  but  later,  when  they  found 
that  the  trail  was  really  going  to  arrive,  have  ended  by 
building  one  out  to  meet  it.  Constabulary  garrisons 
which  we  have  expected  to  be  forced  to  establish  have 
often  proved  unnecessary  when  communication  was 
opened  up. 

We  have  had  scanty  funds  for  public  works  in  these 
regions.  At  the  outset  I  had  to  get  along  with  four  or 
five  thousand  dollars  a  year  in  the  territory  now  included 
in  the  Mountain  Province  and  the  task  which  confronted 
me  seemed  utterly  hopeless.  Nevertheless,  I  made  a 
beginning  and  did  the  best  I  could.  Now  the  Mountain 
Province  has  annual  receipts  of  about  $85,000,  of  which 
some  $65,000  ai-e  expended  for  public  works  and  perma- 
nent improvements.  This  is  made  possible  by  the  fact 
that  the  salaries  and  wages  of  the  provincial  officers,  and 
certain  contingent  expenses  as  well,  are  met  by  direct 
appropriation  of  insular  funds. 

Another  principle  to  which  I  have  steadfastly  adhered 
is  never  to  impose  taxes  on  a  wild  man  until  he  can  be 


562  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

made  to  realize  that  direct  good  to  him  will  result  from 
their  collection.  One  of  several  reasons  why  the  Span- 
iards never  could  dominate  the  hill  people  of  Luzon  was 
that  they  insisted  at  the  very  outset  upon  exacting  "trib- 
ute" from  them.  The  hill  people  regarded  the  money 
thus  contributed  as  a  present  to  the  man  who  collected 
it,  and  rebelled  against  making  presents  to  people  who  did 
not  treat  them  well  and  whom  they  did  not  like. 

The  most  important  tax  in  the  special  government 
provinces   is   the   so-called   "public   improvement   tax." 

The  law  imposing  it  does  not  become  operative  on  the 
non-Christians  of  any  given  territory  without  the  prior 
approval  of  the  secretaiy  of  the  interior. 

It  provides  for  the  collection  from  every  able-bodied 
adult  male  between  the  ages  of  18  and  55  of  an  annual 
contribution  of  two  pesos.'  The  taxpayer  is  allowed  to 
render  ten  days  of  service  upon  public  works  in  lieu  of 
cash  payment  if  he  prefers,  and  most  non-Christians  do 
prefer  to  settle  the  obligation  in  this  way.  All  money 
derived  from  this  source  is  expended  on  public  works, 
going  to  pay  for  supervision,  dynamite,  powder,  caps,  fuse, 
steel,  road  tools  and  the  hke,  as  it  is  seldom  necessary  to 
hire  labourers. 

We  paid  for  all  labour  on  the  fii'st  trails  constructed, 
and  it  was  only  when  the  people  themselves  learned  to 
comprehend  the  usefulness  to  them  of  improved  means 
of  communication  that  I  made  the  pubhc  improvement 
tax  applicable  to  them. 

Except  under  very  special  circumstances,  I  did  not  allow 
the  construction  of  a  trail  with  a  grade  higher  than  six 
per  cent.  There  are  two  reasons  for  this  rule.  First,  the 
torrential  rain-storms  of  the  tropics  rapidly  destroy  high- 
grade  trails  in  spite  of  all  efforts  to  provide  adequate 
drainage ;  second,  if  trails  are  constructed  on  low  grades, 
every  shovelful  of  earth  which  is  thrown  is  just  so  much 
accompUshed  toward  the  eventual  opening  up  of  cart 
1  Equivalent  to  one  dollar. 


J3 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES         563 

roads,  carriage  roads  or  automobile  roads,  the  whole  sub- 
sequent question  involved  being  one  of  widening  and 
surfacing. 

In  constructing  a  trail  we  first  carefully  stake  what 
seems  the  best  possible  line  between  the  two  points  to  be 
connected ;  then  build  on  this  line  a  path  which  is  cut 
into  the  hill '  four  feet,  the  dirt  being  thrown  outward. 
No  special  effort  is  made  to  give  the  bank  a  proper  slope ; 
the  Almighty  does  this  in  the  course  of  the  first  rainy 
season,  when  the  earth  sloughs  off  on  to  the  trail  in  those 
places  where  it  stands  too  steeply.  It  is  then  promptly 
thrown  off  the  road-bed  while  still  loose,  and  much  hard 
pick  and  shovel  work  and  many  "pop  shots"  are  thus 
saved.  Only  the  most  necessary  drainage  is  provided 
before  the  first  rainy  season,  for  the  reason  that  experi- 
ence has  shown  that  what  seem  dry  beds  of  streams  and 
look  as  if  they  would  be  converted  into  raging  torrents 
during  the  rainy  season  sometimes  then  hardly  carry 
water  enough  to  wash  one's  face  in ;  while,  on  the  other 
hand,  destructive  torrents  come  charging  down  the  crests 
of  hogbacks  in  places  where  one  would  least  expect 
them,  and  cut  out  the  trail  completely  where  they  strike 
it.  With  the  first  rain  the  maintenance  gangs  get  to  work, 
noting  where  drainage  is  especially  needed  and  providing 
it,  throwing  off  loose  earth  and  stones  when  sUdes  occur, 
and  widening  the  trail  or  cutting  off  sharp  comers  when 
not  otherwise  engaged. 

American  and  Fihpino  road  foremen  were  at  first  used 
for  trail  construction,  but  the  Igorots,  Ifugaos  and  Ka- 
lingas,  all  of  whom  are  very  intelligent  people,  soon  learned 
to  serve  as  foremen.  I  had  Ifugaos  who  ran  about  clad 
in  clouts  onlj^,  but  were  nevertheless  quite  capable  of 
carrv^mg  a  road  or  trail  across  the  face  of  a  precipice, 
doing  all  of  the  powder  work. 

The  wild  men  soon  learn  to  take  gi'eat  pride  in  their 
trails,  and  usually  keep  them  in  an  excellent  state  of  re- 
'  Nearly  all  our  trails  are  on  steep  mountain  sides. 


564  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

pair.  It  is  a  remarkable  fact  that  on  the  thousand  miles 
of  road  and  trail  which  have  been  constructed  since  the 
American  occupation  in  the  Mountain  Province  and 
Nueva  Vizcaya  no  one  has  as  yet  been  murdered.  In 
the  wildest  regions  there  has  been  an  understanding  from 
the  outset  that  people  travelling  over  government  roads 
were  to  be  let  alone  ! 

The  establishment  of  government,  and  of  a  decent  state 
of  pubhc  order,  have  gone  hand  in  hand  with  the  opening 
up  of  hues  of  communication.  Wherever  practicable  it  is 
highly  desirable  to  police  the  wild  man's  country  with 
wild  men,  and  this  has  proved  far  easier  than  was  antici- 
pated. The  Bontoc  Igorots  make  good,  and  the  Ifugaos 
most  excellent,  constabulary  soldiers.  They  are  faith- 
ful, efficient,  absolutely  loyal  and  imphcitly  obedient. 
The  Ifugaos  are  born  riflemen,  and  then-  carbine  practice 
is  little  short  of  marvellous  when  one  considers  their  very 
limited  experience.  Natural  fighters  as  they  are,  the  people 
of  these  two  tribes  make  the  best  of  soldiers.  They  are 
absolutely  fearless,  and  fight  much  as  do  the  Ghurkas  of 
India.  Benguet  Igorots  and  Kalingas  are  now  being  en- 
listed as  constabulary  soldiers,  and  from  the  very  outset 
the  people  of  many  of  the  non-Christian  tribes  of  the 
islands  have  been  used  as  policemen  in  their  own  territory. 

The  annual  inspection  trip  which  the  secretary  of  the 
interior  is  required  by  law  to  make  to  every  province 
organized  under  the  special  provincial  government  act 
has  become  very  important  in  the  control  and  advance- 
ment of  the  non-Christian  tribes. 

It  is  now  customary  to  hold  fiestas,  or  as  they  are 
locally  designated,  canaos,  at  central  points,  to  which  are 
invited  great  numbers  of  the  wild  people  from  the  neigh- 
bouring country.  At  the  outset  these  gatherings  served 
to  bring  together  men  who  had  hardly  seen  each  other  ex- 
cept over  the  tops  of  their  shields  when  lances  were  flying. 
They  were  all  friendly  with  me,  but  they  were  by  no  means 
friendly  with  each  other,  and  trouble  threatened  on  vari- 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES         565 

ous  occasions.  Within  the  space  of  thirty  seconds  I  have 
seen  a  couple  of  thousand  men  draw  their  war  knives 
and  snatch  up  their  lances,  and  have  feared  that  a  record 
killing  was  about  to  occur,  but  in  the  end  the  excited 
warriors  always  quieted  down. 

We  took  advantage  of  these  great  gatherings  to  bring 
about  the  settlement  of  old  difficulties  between  hostile 
towns  and  they  have  thus  proved  an  important  factor  in 
the  establishment  of  peace  and  order  throughout  the 
wild  man's  territory.  Furthermore,  they  afford  excellent 
opportunity  to  discuss  past  events  and  future  plans  under 
the  most  favourable  conditions.  I  well  remember  the  oc- 
casion on  which  the  Ifugao  headman  of  Quiangan  re- 
quested that  the  public  improvement  tax  be  imposed  upon 
them  and  their  fellow  tribesmen.  There  was  at  that  time 
but  one  decent  trail  in  this  sub-province.  It  had  been 
built  by  paid  labour.  Some  of  the  headmen  who  had 
gone  to  Bontoc  with  me  had  seen  excellent  trails  there 
and  had  asked  why  Ifugao  could  not  have  some  just  as 
good.  I  had  replied  that  the  Bontoc  Igorots  were  more 
civilized  then  the  Ifugaos  and  had  come  so  to  appreciate 
the  benefit  of  trails  that  they  were  willing  to  build  them 
without  being  paid  for  their  labour.  Vehement  exception 
was  taken  to  my  contention  that  the  Bontoc  Igorots  were 
further  advanced  than  the  Ifugaos.  The  latter  insisted 
that  they  were  much  better  men  than  the  Igorots,  and 
could  and  would  build  better  trails.  I  explained  to  them 
in  detail  the  practical  working  of  the  public  improvement 
tax,  and  asked  if  they  would  be  willing  to  have  this  contri- 
bution imposed  on  them.  They  insisted  that  they  wanted 
it,  and  I  finally  gave  it  to  them,  although  I  doubted  their 
ability  to  bring  their  people  into  line.  On  the  following  day 
there  was  a  precisely  similar  occurrence  at  Banaue.  I  soon 
found  that  I  had  underrated  the  influence  of  the  headmen. 
That  year  twenty  thousand  Ifugaos  worked  out  their  road 
tax.  The  following  year  twenty-four  thousand  men  ren- 
dered the  prescribed  ten  days'  service ;  and  the  number 


566  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

has  steadily  increased  year  by  year  ever  since,  with  the 
result  that  the  sub-province  is  crisscrossed  with  trails, 
many  of  which  are  already  wide  enough  for  considerable 
distances  to  permit  the  passage  of  automobiles  if  they 
could  be  brought  there,  while  the  main  line  of  communi- 
cation with  Bontoc  on  the  one  hand  and  the  capital  of 
Nueva  Vizcaya  on  the  other  is  open  for  cart  travel  from 
the  western  to  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  sub-province. 

At  many  of  the  canaos  we  have  athletic  contests,  which 
the  wild  men,  with  their  splendid  physical  development, 
greatly  enjoy.  It  is  much  better  for  two  hostile  towns  to 
settle  their  differences  by  a  tug-of-war,  or  a  wrestling 
match,  than  by  fighting  over  them,  and  they  are  now  often 
quite  wilhng  to  adopt  these  more  pacific  means  provided 
the  audience  is  sufficiently  large  and  enthusiastic,  for  the 
average  wild  man  has  a  very  human  love  of  playing  to 
the  gallery.  He  takes  to  the  athletic  contests  of  the 
American  like  a  duck  to  the  water,  and  soon  learns  to 
excel  in  them.  No  sooner  is  a  cafiao  over  than  those  who 
have  taken  part  in  it  begin  to  look  forward  to  the  next 
one,  and  the  small  expense  involved  is  repaid  a  thousand 
fold  in  the  good  feeling  produced. 

In  the  course  of  a  year  the  people  of  each  of  the  non- 
Christian  tribes  do  many  things  for  us  simply  because  we 
want  them  to,  and  it  seems  only  fair  that  we  should  give 
them  at  least  one  opportunity  during  the  same  period 
to  have  a  good  time  in  their  own  way. 

The  personal  equation  is  of  vital  importance  in  dealing 
with  wild  men.  They  know  nothing  of  laws  or  pohcies, 
but  they  understand  individuals  uncommonly  well. 

The  men  in  immediate  control  of  them  must  be  abso- 
lutely fearless,  must  make  good  every  promise  or  threat, 
must  never  punish  except  in  case  of  deliberate  wrong- 
doing committed  in  spite  of  warning  duly  given,  and 
must,  when  punishment  is  thus  made  necessary,  inflict 
it  sternly  but  not  in  anger.  The  wild  man  thus  dealt 
with  is  likely  to  call  quits  when  he  has  had  enough,  and  if 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE    NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES     567 

he  promises  to  behave  must  be  treated  like  a  man  of  his 
word,  which  he  usually  is. 

As  a  result  of  such  just,  firm  and  kindly  treatment 
governors  and  lieutenant-governors  soon  find  themselves 
endowed  by  their  people  mth  powers  far  in  excess  of  those 
conferred  on  them  by  law.  They  are  ex  officio  justices 
of  the  peace,  but  are  just  as  apt  to  be  asked  to  settle  a 
head-hunting  feud  between  towns,  which  has  caused  a 
dozen  bloody  murders,  as  a  quarrel  growing  out  of  the 
joint  ownership  of  a  pig.  They  are  the  law  and  the 
prophets,  and  no  appeals  are  taken  from  any  just  decisions 
which  they  may  make,  nor  is  their  authority  questioned. 
On  the  contrar}^,  their  people  usually  object  when  sent 
to  the  courts,  as  is  of  course  often  necessary. 

These  officers  are  always  on  the  watch  for  opportunities 
to  get  the  people  of  hostile  towns  to  swap  head-axes,  or 
dance  together,  and  so  become  friends. 

When  one  town  has  been  in  the  very  act  of  raiding  another 
the  timely  appearance  of  an  unarmed  Apo  '  has  sufficed 
to  shame  the  culprits  into  laying  down  their  arms  and 
going  home  without  them. 

No  one  who  has  not  seen  for  himself  can  appreciate  the 
courage,  tact  and  patience  of  the  handful  of  Americans 
who  have  not  only  brought  under  control  the  wildest 
tribes  of  the  Phifippines,  but  have  estabhshed  the  most 
friendly  relations  with  them. 

Having  now  outlined  in  a  general  way  the  pi-inciples 
which  have  been  followed  in  the  work  for  the  non-Chris- 
tian tribes  of  the  special  government  provinces,  I  will 
set  forth  some  of  the  more  important  results  which  have 
been  obtained. 

In  Benguet,  which  under  the  Spanish  regime  was  or- 
ganized as   a  comandancia,^  there  dwell  a  kindly,   in- 

'  An  untranslatable  term  of  respect  and  affection  given  by  the 
fighting  men  of  northern  Luzon  to  rulers  whom  they  like. 

-  A  designation  applied  to  a  political  division  of  less  importance 
than  a  province,  governed  by  a  military  officer. 


568  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

dustrious,  self-respecting,  silent  tribe  of  agriculturists 
known  as  the  Benguet  Igorots.  Governmental  control  was 
established  over  them  by  the  Spaniards.  They  have 
never  indulged  in  head-hunting  nor  caused  any  serious 
disturbance  of  public  order,  but  have  persistently  refused 
to  give  up  their  ancient  rehgious  behefs,  and  for  this 
reason  were  not  allowed  by  the  Spaniards  to  obtain  ed- 
ucation, so  that,  with  rare  individual  exceptions,  they 
were  completely  illiterate.  When  I  first  visited  their 
country  I  found  the  men  clad  in  clouts,  supplemented 
in  the  case  of  the  more  wealthy  by  cotton  blankets.  The 
women  usually  wore  both  skirts  and  upper  garments, 
and  bound  towels  around  their  heads  for  turbans. 

The  Benguet  Igorots  were  formerly  compelled  to  trade 
for  the  necessaries  of  life  in  the  lowlands  of  the  neighbour- 
ing province  of  Union,  where  they  were  shamelessly  ex- 
ploited by  the  Fihpinos.  They  had  been  obhged  by  the 
Spaniards  to  pay  taxes  for  which  they  received  no  ade- 
quate return.  They  had  furthermore  been  roughly 
treated  by  the  Insurgents  during  the  war,  and  were  ex- 
tremely fearful  and  timid.  Men  ran  away  at  my  ap- 
proach. Women  overtaken  unexpectedly  on  the  trail 
leaped  down  the  steep  mountain  sides,  squatting  where 
they  first  struck  the  ground  and  covering  their  faces 
with  their  hands. 

It  proved  a  simple  matter  to  establish  friendly  and  help- 
ful relations  with  these  simple  and  gentle  people.  For- 
tunately for  them  Mr.  Otto  Scheerer,  who  had  lived  among 
them  for  years,  helped  organize  their  settlements.  Some 
of  them  were  still  so  wild  that  they  ran  away  at  his 
approach,  sitting  up  on  the  high  mountain  sides  and 
watching  him  from  a  distance,  but  declining  to  come  down. 
Patience,  perseverance  and  kindness  soon  overcame  their 
fears,  and  local  governments  were  established  in  the  sev- 
eral settlements. 

Travel  through  Benguet  was  then  dangerous  and 
difficult  because  of  the  condition  of  the  trails,  which  were 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES         569 

mere  footpaths.  None  of  the  streams  were  bridged. 
Work  was  promptly  begun  upon  a  trail  system,  and  now 
one  can  ride  a  large  horse  rapidly  to  every  settlement  of 
importance. 

At  first  the  people  had  nothing  to  sell,  and  no  money 
with  which  to  buy  what  they  needed.  From  time  to  time 
they  packed  coffee  and  Irish  potatoes  down  to  the  low- 
lands and  traded  them  for  salt,  cloth  and  steel,  which  they 
needed,  and  for  vmo,  which  was  poison  to  them. 

We  have  protected  them  in  their  property  rights  and 
encouraged  them  to  increase  their  agricultural  holdings. 
As  they  were  too  ignorant  to  understand  and  exercise 
their  right  to  obtain  free  patent  to  small  tracts  of  land 
which  they  had  long  occupied  and  cultivated,  I  sent  out 
a  special  survej'  party  to  help  them  make  out  their  appli- 
cations in  due  form. 

The  gradual  development  of  Baguio,  first  as  a  health 
resort  and  later  as  the  summer  capital,  afforded  them  an 
ever  increasing  market  for  their  products ;  while  trail 
construction,  the  opening  of  the  Benguet  Road  and  the 
erection  of  buildings  at  Baguio  made  it  possible  for  every 
one  desiring  it  to  secure  remunerative  employment.  In 
the  old  Spanish  days  they  had  been  forced  to  build  trails 
without  compensation,  and  to  feed  themselves  while 
doing  it.  Wlien  they  realized  that  the  new  regime  had 
come  to  stay,  their  gratitude  knew  no  bounds. 

For  a  time  they  could  not  be  persuaded  to  tr>^  the  white 
man's  medicines,  but  ultimately  the  wife  of  the  most 
important  chief  in  the  province,  who  was  dying  of  dysen- 
tery, was  persuaded  to  let  Dr.  J.  B.  Thomas,  a  verj'  com- 
petent American  government  physician,  treat  her  case. 
She  recovered,  and  the  news  spread  far  and  wide.  After 
that  Igorots  came  in  constantly  increasing  numbers  to 
the  hospital  which  had  meanwhile  been  established,  and 
to-day  their  sick  and  injured  are  often  carried  to  it  from  a 
distance  of  fifty  miles  or  more. 

Schools  were  soon  established  in   several    important 


570  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

settlements.  The  boys  proved  apt  pupils.  At  the  outset 
parents  would  not  allow  their  girls  to  attend.  Gradu- 
ally the  prejudice  against  sending  them  to  school  was 
overcome,  and  at  three  different  places  girls  are  now  given 
instruction  in  English  and  in  practical  industrial  work. 

The  children  learn  English  readily  and  the  old  folks 
pick  it  up  from  them.  Mrs.  Ahce  M.  Kelly,  who  started 
the  first  Igorot  school,  taught  her  boys  respectfully  to 
salute  her  in  the  morning,  and  shortly  thereafter  Ameri- 
can travellers  over  the  Benguet  trails  were  addressed  by 
Igorots  with  the  cheerful  greeting,  "Good  morning,  Mrs. 
Kelly."  Their  feelings  were  doubtless  identical  with 
those  of  the  traveller  in  Japan  to  whom  a  beginning  student 
of  book  English  said,  "Good  morning.  Sir,  or  Madam,  as 
the  case  may  be  !" 

The  Benguet  Igorots  have  responded  quickly  to  the 
opportunities  afforded  them,  and  several  serious  dangers 
which  have  threatened  their  progress  have  been  met  and 
overcome. 

The  Filipino  peoples  will  never  become  victims  of  al- 
coholism. They  drink  in  moderation,  but  seldom  be- 
come intoxicated.  The  non-Christian  peoples,  on  the 
contrary,  never  lose  an  opportunity  to  get  boiling  drunk. 
All  of  them  make  fermented  alcoholic  drinks  of  their 
own.  Fortunately  most  of  these  beverages  are  compara- 
tively mild  and  harmless ;  but  if  a  hill  man  can  get  hold 
of  bad  vino  or  worse  whiskey  he  will  get  so  drunk  that  he 
thinks  he  has  to  hang  on  to  the  grass  in  order  to  lie  on  the 
ground. 

The  Filipinos  had  long  taken  advantage  of  this  weak- 
ness of  the  Benguet-Lepanto  Igorots  to  debauch  them 
with  vino  and  cheat  them  while  they  were  intoxicated. 
I  regret  to  say  that  since  the  American  occupation  some 
white  men  who  wanted  them  as  labourers  have  used  liquor 
as  a  bait.  Because  of  these  conditions,  and  of  more  or 
less  similar  ones  throughout  the  rest  of  the  wild  man's 
territory,  I  drafted  and  secured  the  passage  of  an  act  mak- 


THE  GOVERNMENT  OF  THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES        571 

ing  it  a  criminal  offence  to  sell  or  give  white  man's  liquor 
to  a  wild  man,  or  for  such  a  man  to  drink  such  liquor  or 
have  it  in  his  possession.  This  law  has  been  very  success- 
fully enforced.  Although  Benguet-Lepanto  Igorots  have 
sometimes  succeeded  in  purchasing  hquor  at  Baguio  or 
Cervantes,  their  use  of  strong  alcohohc  stimulants  has 
steadily  decreased,  and  throughout  much  of  the  wild  man's 
territory  strong  drink  is  absolutely  unobtainable. 

The  Benguet  Igorots  have  an  abiding  love  for  gambling, 
and  some  of  them  learned  new  tricks,  which  did  them  no 
good,  through  contact  with  Fihpinos  when  working  on 
the  Benguet  Road.  Strict  enforcement  of  the  law  against 
gambling  has,  however,  prevented  any  considerable  spread 
of  this  evil. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  results  thus  far  obtained 
is  the  arousing  of  a  strong  commercial  instinct  among 
them.  It  was  literally  true  at  the  outset  that  one  could 
not  buy  from  them  an  egg,  a  chicken  or  a  basket  of  ca- 
niotes,  much  less  a  pig  or  a  cow.  Now  special  market 
buildings  have  been  erected  for  them  at  Baguio,  and  they 
are  thronged  on  Sundays.  The  Igorots  have  money  and 
spend  it  wisely.  They  also  have  farm  products  to  sell, 
know  what  they  are  worth,  and  insist  on  getting  full  value 
for  them.  Among  other  things  there  may  be  mentioned 
sleek  cattle,  the  best  fat  hogs  grown  in  the  Philippines, 
chickens,  eggs,  cabbages,  Irish  potatoes,  peas,  beans, 
tomatoes,  squashes,  camotes  and  strawberries. 

There  have  been  some  interesting  episodes  in  connec- 
tion with  the  work  for  the  Benguet  Igorots.  At  one  time 
it  became  necessary  for  the  provhicial  governor,  Wm.  F. 
Pack,  to  undergo  a  severe  and  dangerous  surgical  opera- 
tion. Word  spread  through  Benguet  that  the  doctors 
were  going  to  cut  him  to  pieces.  Palasi,  iin  old  Igorot  chief 
of  Atok,  gathered  his  cohorts  and  came  in  hot  haste  to 
Baguio  to  stop  it.  He  was  assured  by  Governor  Pack 
himself  that  the  cutting  was  to  be  done  with  his  consent, 
but  still  entertained  some  doubts  about  the  matter  and 


572  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

asked  to  be  allowed  to  be  present.  His  request  was 
granted.  There  was  then  no  operating  room  in  Baguio, 
so  one  was  extemporized  in  the  governor's  house.  He 
walked  out  to  the  operating  table,  and  Palasi,  who  was 
standing  by,  once  more  asked  hun  if  he  was  to  be  cut  up 
with  his  own  consent,  offering  to  stop  the  performance 
even  then  if  the  governor  so  wished  ! 

On  March  30,  1913, 1  sat  at  a  luncheon  given  at  Trinidad, 
Benguet,  in  honour  of  former  Lieutenant-Governor  E.  A. 
Eckman,  who  had  just  been  promoted  to  the  governor- 
ship of  the  Mountain  Province.  At  the  long  tables  were 
seated  a  representative  gathering  of  decently  clad  Ben- 
guet Igorot  head-men,  the  hosts  of  the  occasion.  They 
understood  the  use  of  knives,  forks  and  spoons.  At  the 
close  of  the  luncheon  they  presented  Governor  Eckman 
with  a  beautiful  silver  cup.  The  presentation  speech  was 
made  by  an  Igorot  named  Juan  Carino,  who  had  been 
shot  and  badly  wounded  by  American  soldiers  from  whom 
he  foolishly  endeavoured  to  escape  in  1900  ! 

Fortunately  old  Juan  was  not  killed.  Like  every  other 
Igorot  in  Benguet  he  is  to-day  a  good  friend  of  the  Amer- 
icans. The  people  of  his  tribe  are  now  sober,  industrious, 
cheerful,  contented  and  prosperous.  As  time  passes  they 
keep  cleaner,  wear  more  and  better  clothes  and  build  better 
houses.  In  this  case,  at  least,  a  primitive  people  has  come 
in  close  contact  with  the  white  man  and  has  profited 
by  it. 

Lepanto,  like  Benguet,  was  a  comandancia  in  the 
Spanish  days.  Its  Igorot  inhabitants  are  fellow-tribes- 
men of  their  Benguet  neighbours,  and  like  them  are,  and 
have  long  been,  peaceful  agriculturists,  raising  camotes, 
rice,  coffee  and  cattle.  They  also  mine  gold  and  copper. 
In  the  extreme  southeastern  and  the  extreme  northern 
parts  of  Lepanto  the  people  are  wilder  and  less  law- 
abiding  than  those  of  Benguet,  and  some  of  them  are  prone 
to  indulge  in  cattle  stealing. 

This  subprovince  has  one    Ilocano    town,  Cervantes, 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES     573 

which  was  made  the  capital  of  the  province  of  Lepanto- 
Bontoc.  At  the  outset  communication  with  the  coast 
was  maintained  over  a  very  bad  horse-trail  crossing  the 
coast  range  at  Tilad  Pass.  It  zigzagged  up  one  slope  of 
the  mountains  and  down  the  other  on  a  grade  such  as  to 
make  travel  over  it  very  difficult.  Furthermore,  after 
reaching  the  lowlands  on  the  west  side  of  the  range,  it 
crossed  a  river  some  fourteen  times.  During  the  rainy 
season  there  were  weeks  at  a  time  during  which  this  stream 
could  not  be  forded.  In  the  early  days  of  the  American  oc- 
cupation a  good  wagon  road  was  built  fiom  the  coast  to 
the  point  where  the  trail  began,  and  the  trail  itself  was 
put  in  the  best  possible  condition.  It  was  subsequently 
well  maintained,  but  after  the  estabUshment  of  a  Filipino 
provincial  government  in  South  Ilocos  the  wagon  road 
was  allowed  to  fall  into  such  a  state  of  neglect  that  travel 
over  it,  even  for  persons  on  horseback,  became  impossible 
during  wet  weather.  Mr.  Kane,  the  supervisor  of  the 
Mountain  Province,  was  nearly  drowned  in  mud  when 
trying  to  ride  over  it,  being  thrown  from  his  horse  into 
soft  ooze  so  deep  that  his  hands  did  not  reach  bottom,  and 
had  it  not  been  for  a  timely  rescue  by  FiHpinos  who 
chanced  to  be  passing,  he  would  certainly  have  lost  his  life. 
Although  forty  or  fifty  thousand  pesos'  worth  of  supplies 
were  annually  sent  into  the  mountain  country  by  the 
people  of  South  Ilocos  over  this  trail,  that  province  re- 
fused to  spend  a  peso  in  keeping  the  connecting  road  up. 
The  constantly  growing  trade  of  the  mountain  country 
made  it,  in  my  opinion,  necessary  that  it  should  have 
a  good  outlet  to  the  coast,  and  a  route  for  a  road  was 
surveyed  from  Cervantes  directly  west  over  the  Malaya 
range,  traversing  the  subprovince  of  Amburayan  from 
east  to  west  and  coming  out  at  the  municipahty  of  Tagu- 
din.  In  order  to  prevent  the  occurrence  of  a  state  of 
affairs  such  as  had  rendered  the  Tilad  Pass  trail  practically 
useless  during  much  of  the  rainy  season,  this  Ilocano 
town  was  annexed  to  Lepanto-Bontoc,  thus  giving  the 


574  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

province  a  route  to  the  coast  within  the  limits  of  its  own 
territory. 

The  people  of  Tagudin  were  at  first  incUned  to  protest 
against  annexation  to  the  country  of  the  non-Christians, 
but  soon  discovered  that  the  change  was  greatly  to  their 
advantage.  Their  town  had  long  been  threatened  with 
destruction  by  the  encroachment  of  the  Amburayan 
River,  and  they  had  appealed  in  vain  to  South  Ilocos 
for  help.  The  Mountain  Province  gave  them  assistance 
in  the  construction  of  a  protecting  wall  which  held  the 
river  within  bounds  and  adequately  safeguarded  the 
town.  Their  business  rapidly  increased  when  Tagudin 
became  the  western  terminus  of  an  important  trade  route. 
They  soon  began  to  take  an  active  interest  in  improving 
local  conditions,  and  their  municipality  was  gradually 
changed  from  a  dirty,  down-at-the-heel  place  to  a  neat, 
clean,  sanitary  town  in  which  its  people  could  take 
justifiable  pride.  An  old  feud  which  had  long  separated 
the  leading  men  into  two  parties  so  bitterly  hostile  to  each 
other  that  the  mere  fact  of  advocacy  of  a  given  measure 
by  one  of  them  was  sufficient  to  cause  deterinined  op- 
position to  it  by  the  other,  died  out,  and  Tagudin  is 
to-day  quite  a  model  place  in  comparison  with  the  gen- 
eral run  of  Filipino  towns. 

The  opening  up  of  transportation  lines  has  placed  the 
people  of  Lepanto  within  much  easier  reach  of  a  market 
for  their  rice,  coffee  and  cattle.  The  successful  combating 
of  cattle  disease  by  the  Bureau  of  Agricultm'e  has  been 
a  great  boon  to  them,  as  has  the  suppression  of  the  hquor 
traffic.  Schools  have  been  estabhshed  in  a  number  of 
their  settlements.  Last,  but  by  no  means  least,  their 
lives  are  no  longer  endangered  by  the  head-hunting 
Bontoc  Igorots.  They  are  now  a  peaceful,  prosperous 
people,  and  are  progressing  steadily  in  civilization. 

In  Spanish  days  there  was  a  comandancia  known  as 
Amburayan  wedged  in  between  the  provinces  of  La  Union 
and   Ilocos   Sur.     After   the   American   occupation   this 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES         575 

territory  was  at  first  organized  as  a  part  of  Ilocos  Sur, 
but  it  soon  became  necessary  to  make  of  it  a  separate 
subprovince  and  add  it  to  Lepanto-Bontoc,  to  the  end 
that  its  people  might  be  adequately  protected.  In  con- 
tact on  two  sides  with  Christian  FiUpinos,  they  were 
shamefully  maltreated  and  oppressed,  and  they  appealed 
to  me  for  help. 

Filipinos  were  graciously  permitting  them  to  cut  fire- 
wood and  lumber  in  the  public  forests,  and  taking  the 
lion's  share  of  the  products  in  return  for  their  consent ! 
They  were  debauching  the  Igorots  with  vino.  I  remember 
particularly  the  case  of  one  unfortunate  individual  who 
owned  five  carabaos,  two  of  which  got  to  fighting.  As 
usually  happens  with  these  animals,  the  one  that  was 
whipped  ran  away,  and  the  victor  blindly  pursued  it. 
Both  charged  over  a  precipice  and  broke  their  legs.  The 
owner  killed  them,  dressed  them,  and  divided  the  meat 
among  his  family  and  friends.  He  was  arrested,  given 
a  mock  trial  for  killing  carabaos  without  a  Ucense,  and 
fined  three  carabaos  —  all  he  had  left  —  which  of  course 
went  to  his  persecutors  ! 

Instances  of  this  sort  of  tiling  could  be  indefinitely 
multiplied. 

Amburayan  was  freed  from  the  vino  traflSc  soon  after 
it  became  a  subpro^dnce  of  Lepanto-Bontoc.  This  alone 
was  a  great  boon  to  its  Igorot  inhabitants,  v.'ho  Httle  by 
Uttle  were  helped  to  assert  their  rights  as  they  gained 
greater  confidence  in  their  American  lieutenant-governor 
and  learned  to  go  to  him  freely  with  their  troubles.  They 
had  so  long  been  helpless  and  hopeless  that  it  was  some 
time  before  they  could  be  convinced  that  a  new  day  had 
dawned  for  them. 

And  now  let  us  betake  ourselves  to  the  country'  of  the 
real  wild  man,  and  consider  briefly  past  and  present  con- 
ditions in  the  subprovince  of  Ifugao. 

The  people  of  the  tribe  known  as  Ifugaos  are  a  remark- 
able lot.     Their  country  is  almost  entirely  made  up  of 


576  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

exceptionally  steep  mountain  sides  with  hardly  a  naturally 
level  piece  of  ground  in  it.  On  almost  precipitous  slopes 
they  have  built  wonderful  series  of  irrigated  rice  terraces 
held  in  position  by  stone  retaining  walls  which  have  been 
laid  without  mortar  or  cementing  material  of  any  kind, 
and  are  so  skilfully  constructed  that  they  withstand  even 
the  terrific  rains  which  sometimes  occur  during  typhoons. 
Accurate  rainfall  statistics  for  Ifugao  are  not  obtainable, 
but,  as  we  have  seen,  in  the  neighbouring  subprovince  of 
Benguet,  there  is  of  record  a  period  of  twenty-four  hours 
during  which  forty-nine  and  nine  tenths  inches  of  rain  fell ! 
Under  such  conditions  as  this,  exceptionally  good  work 
is  necessary  to  prevent  structures  of  any  sort  built  on 
mountain  sides  from  sUding  into  the  valleys  below. 

Up  to  the  time  of  the  American  occupation  the  Ifugaos 
had  always  been  inveterate  head-hunters.  Unlike  the 
Bontoc  Igorots,  who  depend  on  large  numbers  of  fighting 
men  for  protection,  they  live  in  small  villages  usually 
placed  in  inaccessible  spots  which  can  be  reached  only  by 
ascending  the  almost  perpendicular  rice-terrace  walls. 

Not  only  were  the  people  of  this  tribe  then  constantly 
fighting  among  themselves,  but  they  from  time  to  time 
raided  the  Bontoc  country  or  that  of  the  Kalingas,  and 
they  persistently  victimized  the  people  of  Nueva  Vizcaya, 
making  travel  so  unsafe  on  the  main  road  between  Nueva 
Vizcaya  and  Isabela  that  the  Spaniards  found  it  necessary 
to  maintain  several  garrisons  along  it,  and  forbade  private 
persons  to  pass  over  it  without  a  iniHtary  escort.  Even 
so,  parties  of  travellers  were  cut  down  from  time  to  time, 
the  savages  making  their  attacks  at  the  noon  hour  when 
Spanish  soldiers  had  a  way  of  going  to  sleep  beside  the 
road. 

I  have  already  narrated  my  earliest  experiences  in 
this  subprovince,  which  occurred  in  1903,  and  have  called 
attention  to  the  fact  that  when  I  returned  in  1905  I  was 
able  to  traverse  it  from  east  to  west  without  the  slightest 
danger.     This  condition  of  affairs  was  due  to  the  efforts 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      577 

of  Governor  Louis  G.  Knight,  supplemented  by  those  of 
Captain  L.  E.  Case  of  the  Philippine  constabulary,  who 
had  established  his  headquarters  at  Banaue  and  had 
exercised  a  strong  influence  over  his  unrul}'  constituents. 

Perhaps  I  ought  to  change  my  statement  and  say  that 
order  was  established  by  Captain  Case,  assisted  by 
Governor  Knight.  Captain  Case  was  very  fortunate  in 
his  deaUngs  with  the  Ifugaos.  He  was  a  kindly  man, 
who  won  their  friendship  at  the  outset.  He  resorted  to 
stern  measures  only  when  such  measures  were  so  imper- 
atively necessary  that  the  Ifugaos  themselves  fully  rec- 
ognized the  justice  of  employing  them. 

On  my  trip  through  the  Ifugao  countrj^  in  1906  I  was 
accompanied  from  Mayoyao  to  Banaue  by  Lieutenant 
Jeff  D.  Gallman,  who  had  come  to  the  former  place  to 
meet  me.  This  young  man  had  been  especially  selected 
by  Colonel  Rivers,  of  the  Phihppine  constabulary,  to  be 
trained  for  work  among  the  Ifugaos.  Never  was  a  selec- 
tion more  fortunate.  When  Captain  Case  injured  him- 
self by  over-exertion  in  cUmbing  a  steep,  terraced  moun- 
tain side  in  the  hot  sun,  and  had  to  return  to  the  United 
States  for  recuperation,  Gallman  took  up  his  work  and 
devoted  himself  most  effectively  to  the  task  of  bringing 
the  Ifugaos  under  control,  protecting  them,  and  improving 
their  conditions.  He  was  a  dead  shot  with  revolver  and 
carbine  ;  was  absolutely  fearless  ;  was  of  a  kindly,  cheer- 
ful disposition,  and  soon  not  only  won  their  respect  but 
gained  their  love. 

As  the  years  went  by,  the  Ifugaos  came  to  regard  him  as 
but  little  less  than  a  god.  He  had  extraordinary  success 
in  training  them  for  service  as  constabulary  soldiers. 
On  the  occasion  of  the  first  general  rifle  competition 
between  all  the  constabulary  organizations  in  northern 
Luzon  ten  Ifugao  soldiers  were  sent  to  the  lowlands  to 
participate.  Gallman,  who  had  trained  them,  was  travel- 
ling with  me  at  the  time,  so  they  were  taken  down  by  a 
comparatively  inexperienced  ofRcer  who,  instead  of  se- 


578  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

lecting  the  best  ten  men  from  among  the  ninety  possible 
candidates,  took  ten  from  the  twenty  who  happened  to 
be  stationed  at  Mayoyao. 

The  hot  climate  of  the  lowlands  troubled  them.  The 
Filipino  constabulary  soldiers  made  fun  of  them  because 
they  wore  no  trousers,  and  bedevilled  them  in  various 
waj^s.  The  best  shot  among  them  lost  his  nerve  in  con- 
sequence. Nevertheless,  when  the  competition  was  over 
they  ranked  Nos.  1,  2,  3,  4,  5,  6,  7,  8,  9,  and  10,  respectively, 
an  Ilocano  soldier  from  the  lowlands  being  tied  with  the 
last  man  for  tenth  place  ! 

Ifugao  soldiers  are  submissive  to  discipline,  obey  orders 
implicitly,  and  are  loyal  and  brave  to  a  fault.  When 
on  duty  they  attend  strictly  to  business.  No  prisoner 
ever  yet  escaped  from  one  of  them.  This  is  more  than 
can  be  said  of  the  Bontoc  Igorots.  It  is  of  record  that 
on  one  occasion  when  a  prisoner  guarded  by  a  raw  recruit 
of  the  latter  tribe  made  a  break  for  hberty,  the  recruit 
followed  him,  firing  as  he  ran.  After  missing  the  fleeing 
man  five  times,  he  threw  his  carbine  at  him,  lance-fashion, 
and  speared  him  with  the  bayonet !  So  long  as  an  Ifugao 
has  a  cartridge  in  his  magazine  he  does  not  indulge  in 
bayonet  practice. 

The  same  general  policy  was  pursued  in  Ifugao  which 
had  been  found  so  effective  elsewhere.  Lines  of  com- 
munication were  opened  up  ;  after  a  short  time  criminals 
were  for  the  most  part  apprehended  and  turned  in  by  the 
head-men  themselves ;  whenever  possible,  hostile  towns 
were  left  to  sulk  until  they  had  learned  from  the  ex- 
perience of  their  neighbours  that  there  was  nothing  to 
be  afraid  of  or  to  complain  about,  and  vohmtarily  came 
into  the  fold  ;  head-hunting  was  suppressed  with  a  heavy 
hand,  but  only  after  due  warning  as  to  what  the  fate  of 
transgressors  would  be.  It  is  now  some  six  years  since 
a  head  has  been  taken  in  this  region.  Travel  not  only 
in  Nueva  Vizcaya  but  in  Ifugao  itself  is  at  present  ab- 
solutely safe,  and  general  conditions  as  to  law  and  order 


a" 


i    g  o 


o 


<     T3      . 


iii 


C  -C    J. 


3 -a  S 

;   a.  o 


J3  • 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      579 

are  better  than  those  which  prevail  in  many  American 
communities.  The  people  have  been  assisted  in  the  con- 
struction of  irrigation  ditches,  and  little  by  httle  are  being 
persuaded  to  come  down  from  their  steep  and  over- 
populated  mountain  sides  to  the  neighbouring  fertile, 
level  vacant  plains.  They  are  loj^al  and  friendly  to  a 
marked  degree,  and  I  experience  no  greater  pleasure  than 
that  which  I  derive  from  travelling  through  their  country. 

Credit  for  this  happy  result  is  chiefly  due  to  the  efforts 
of  Jeff  D.  Gallman,  who  speedily  rose  to  be  a  captain  in 
the  constabulary  and  at  an  early  date  was  made  lieu- 
tenant-governor of  Ifugao.  He  has  done  a  monumental 
work  for  civilization  in  the  Philippines. 

The  Kalinga  country  was  at  the  outset  administered 
as  a  part  of  Bontoc.  This  made  that  subprovince  so 
large  that  one  lieutenant-governor  could  not  hope  satis- 
factorily to  cover  it,  especially  as  there  were  no  good  lines 
of  conmumication.  .Although  a  constabulary  garrison 
was  early  stationed  at  the  town  of  Lubuagan,  compara- 
tively httle  progress  was  made  in  bringing  the  Kalingas 
under  effective  control  until  their  territory  was  made 
a  separate  subprovince  of  the  Mountain  province  and 
Lieutenant-Governor  Walter  F.  Hale,  of  Amburayan, 
was  transferred  to  it  as  its  lieutenant-governor. 

Lieutenant-Governor  Hale  has  now  been  in  the  special 
government  service  longer  than  any  other  man  who 
remains  in  it,  and  has  an  admirable  record  for  quiet 
efficiency.  Like  Gallman,  he  is  a  man  with  chilled-steel 
nerve,  and  he  needed  it  in  the  early  days  in  KaUnga  where 
the  people,  who  had  been  allowed  to  run  wild  too  long,  did 
not  take  as  kindly  to  the  estabhshment  of  governmental 
control  as  had  the  Bontoc  Igorots  and  the  Ifugaos.  The 
Kahngas  are  a  fine  lot  of  head-hunting  savages,  physically 
magnificently  developed,  mentally  acute,  but  naturally 
very  wild.  Hale  soon  made  friends  with  many  of  the 
local  chiefs,  and  thereafter  when  he  received  invitations 
from  outlying  rancherias  to  come  over  and  have  his  head 


580  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

taken  would  quietly  accept  to  the  extent  of  setting  out 
accompanied  by  a  few  soldiers,  or  none  at  all,  and 
talking  the  matter  over  with  the  people  who  had  made 
the  threat !  In  the  end  they  always  decided  that  he  was 
too  good  a  man  to  kill. 

Here,  as  in  Ifugao,  we  felt  our  way,  avoiding  trouble 
with  hostile  settlements  as  long  as  it  was  possible  to  do  so. 
And  here,  as  in  Bontoc  and  Ifugao,  head-hunting  was 
abolished  and  law  and  order  were  estabhshed  practically 
without  IdUing.  In  a  few  instances  settlements  which 
absolutely  refused  to  come  into  the  fold,  and  persisted 
in  raiding  and  killing  in  the  territory  of  people  who  had 
already  become  friendly,  were  given  severe  lessons, 
which  they  invariably  took  in  good  part. 

One  of  the  pleasant  things  about  dealing  with  people 
like  the  Kalingas  and  the  Ifugaos  is  their  manliness  when 
they  fight.  They  let  one  know,  so  plainly  that  there  can 
be  no  mistake  about  it,  whether  they  are  friendly  or 
hostile,  and  even  if  thoroughly  whipped  they  bear  no  ill 
will  provided  they  know  that  they  deserve  a  whipping, 
but  come  calmly  walking  into  camp  to  tell  you  that  they 
have  had  enough  and  are  going  to  be  good.  And  they 
keep  their  promises. 

In  Kalinga,  as  elsewhere  throughout  the  Mountain 
Province  outside  of  Apayao,  an  admirable  trail  system 
has  now  been  opened  up  and  travel  is  not  only  safe  but 
comfortable.  The  people  are  most  friendly  and  loyal, 
and  while  head-hunting  has  not  completely  disappeared, 
cases  of  it  are  extremely  rare  and  occur  only  in  the  most 
remote  parts  of  the  subprovince. 

Apayao  has  proved  a  hard  nut  to  crack.  As  previously 
stated,  I  made  a  trip  across  this  subprovince  from  west 
to  east  in  1906,  without  encountering  any  hostility  what- 
soever. Unfortunately,  the  officer  who  commanded  my 
escort  saw  fit  to  go  blundering  back  there  with  a  con- 
stabulary command  a  few  weeks  later.  He  managed  to 
get  into  a  fight  and  was  wliipped  and  chased  out  of  the 


THE  GOVERNMENT   OF   THE  NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES     581 

countrj'.  A  so-called  punitive  expedition  was  then  sent 
in,  which  came  near  meeting  a  similar  fate,  but  finally 
withdrew  in  fairly  good  order  after  ha^^ng  inflicted  sUght 
damage  on  the  town  of  Guenned,  the  people  of  which 
made  the  original  attack. 

Apayao  was  at  first  organized  as  a  subprovince  of 
Cagayan,  and  Colonel  Bias  Villamor,  who  had  accompanied 
me  on  my  two  longest  exploration  trips  through  northern 
Luzon,  was  appointed  its  lieutenant-governor.  The 
attitude  of  the  pro\'incial  officials  of  Cagayan  toward 
the  difficult  task  which  confronted  them  in  Apayao  was 
most  unsatisfactory.  Indeed,  the  governor  of  that  prov- 
ince informed  me  that  in  his  opinion  the  best  way  to 
settle  the  Apayao  problem  was  to  kill  all  of  the  inhabitants. 
As  Colonel  Villamor  reported  that  there  were  some 
fifty-three  thousand  of  them '  tliis  procedure  would  have 
presented  practical,  as  well  as  moral,  chfficulties  !  I  myself 
was  of  the  opinion  that  the  Apayao  people,  who  proved 
to  be  wild  Tingians,  were  altogether  too  good  to  kill. 

Colonel  \'illamor  was  a  native  of  Abra,  where  ap- 
proximately half  the  population  is  made  up  of  Tingians 
who  have  attained  to  a  high  degree  of  civihzation.  He  was 
already  quite  famihar  with  the  dialect  spoken  by  these 
people,  and  speedily  learned  the  language  of  their  wild 
brethren  in  Apayao,  many  of  whom  understood  Ilocano, 
which  was  his  native  tongue. 

At  the  outset  he  made  excellent  progress  in  bringing 
his  people  under  control.  The  task  was  undoubtedly 
more  difficult  than  that  in  any  other  subprovince  of  the 
Mountain  Province,  both  because  the  Spaniards  had 
failed  to  penetrate  into  this  region,  lea^ang  the  people 
untouched  bj^  civilization  up  to  the  time  of  the  American 
occupation,  and  for  the  further  reason  that  their  head- 
hunting is  connected  with  religious  behefs.  Thej^  think 
that  when  a  man  dies  his  prospect  for  a  good  time  in  the 

1  This  statement  proved  to  be  untrue.  They  number  about  twenty- 
five  thousand. 


582  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

future  world  is  bad  unless  the  members  of  his  family 
take  a  head  within  six  months,  and  this  idea  has  a  ten- 
dency to  keep  society  in  a  somewhat  disturbed  condition. 
For  reasons  which  I  have  never  been  able  fully  to 
fathom,  Villamor's  progress  in  estabhshing  governmental 
control  grew  steadily  slower  as  time  went  by,  and  ulti- 
mately came  to  a  standstill.  During  my  absence  from 
the  islands  it  was  deemed  best  to  accept  his  resignation, 
for  reasons  not  immediately  connected  with  liis  admin- 
istration of  the  affairs  of  his  subprovince.  Before  sur- 
rendering his  post  he  caused  word  to  be  spread  among 
the  Tingians  that  the  kindly  policy  which  had  thus  far 
been  pursued  in  deaUng  with  them  was  to  be  superseded 
by  one  of  severity,  greatly  alarming  them,  and  seriously 
retarding  work  which  he  had  quite  auspiciously  begun. 
There  was  absolutely  no  justification  for  his  statements, 
as  no  one  thought  for  a  moment  of  dealing  with  the  Apayao 
Tingians  in  a  fashion  differing  at  all  from  that  invariably 
followed  in  our  relations  with  non-Cliristians  in  the  special 
government  provinces. 

Mr.  Norman  G.  Connor  was  appointed  to  succeed 
Senor  Villamor.  Mr.  Connor  had  been  acting  governor 
of  Nueva  Vizcaya  and  had  rendered  very  satisfactory 
service.  He  has  made  material  progress  in  estabhshing 
control  over  the  people  of  Apayao,  where  the  work  of 
trail  construction  has  now  begun.  At  the  outset  com- 
munication was  maintained  by  boats  on  the  Abulug  River 
and  its  branches,  near  which  most  of  the  wild  Tingian 
villages  are  situated,  but  it  is  a  dangerous  stream  to 
navigate,  especially  when  in  flood,  and  hues  of  land  com- 
munication must  therefore  be  opened  up. 

We  found  the  subprovince  of  Bontoc  peopled  by  a  tribe 
of  wild,  warhke,  head-hunting  Igorots  over  whom  the 
Spaniards  had  never  been  able  to  establish  effective  con- 
trol. At  the  time  of  the  American  occupation  their 
numerous  settlements  were  constantly  at  war  with  each 
other,  and  with  the  Kahngas  and  the  Ifugaos  as  well. 


THE  GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES     583 

The  Bontoc  Igorots  build  large  towns  and  depend  on 
the  numbers  of  their  hardy  fighting  men  for  protection. 
Each  town  formerly  kept  a  profit  and  loss  account  of  heads 
with  every  town  of  its  enemies.  Physically  these  people 
are  splendid  men,  and  we  soon  found  that  they  were 
usually  both  brave  and  fair  in  their  fighting,  formally 
making  and  breaking  peace,  and  serving  due  notice  on 
their  enemies  before  attacking. 

If  a  small  town  felt  itself  aggrieved  by  a  big  one,  it 
would  send  a  messenger  to  say,  "You  have  more  fighting 
men  than  we  have,  but  they  are  no  good !  Pick  fifteen 
of  the  best  from  your  thousand  and  send  them  to  a  certain 
place  at  a  certain  time  to  meet  fifteen  real  fighting  men 
selected  from  among  our  five  hundred. ' '  At  the  appointed 
time  the  tliirty  warriors  would  meet  in  deadly  combat, 
while  their  fellow-townsmen  looked  on. 

The  Bontoc  Igorots  are  naturally  truthful  and  honest, 
and  they  soon  became  most  friendly,  gladly  bringing 
many  of  their  troubles  to  their  lieutenant-governor  for 
settlement.  Fortunately,  head-accounts  between  dif- 
ferent towns  can  be  adjusted  bj^  proper  payments  made 
by  those  who  hold  the  highest  scores.  We  took  advantage 
of  this  fact  to  estabhsh  peace  between  the  towns,  and  when 
once  established  it  was,  as  a  rule,  religiously  kept. 

Trail  construction  was  promptly  inaugurated  and  has 
been  steadily  pushed.  Most  of  the  towns  have  thus  been 
made  readily  accessible. 

When  friendly  relations  had  been  established,  and  we 
were  in  a  position  to  back  orders  with  force  if  necessary, 
settlement  after  settlement  was  warned  that  head- 
hunting must  cease  and  was  further  informed  as  to  what 
would  happen  if  the  mandate  was  disobeyed.  Certain 
dare-devils  promptly  broke  over,  partly,  I  fancy,  to  see 
what  would  happen,  and  partly,  no  doubt,  because  they 
found  the  influence  of  tribal  customs  too  strong  to  resist. 
We  made  our  warnings  come  true.  One  settlement  re- 
quired three  bitter  lessons.     For  others  a  single  mild  one 


584  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

sufficed.  The  majority  of  the  towns  were  content  to  get 
their  experience  vicariouslj^  We  were  amazed  at  our 
own  success  in  stopping  this  horrible  practice.  At  the 
outset  we  burned  towns  if  their  people  engaged  in  head- 
hunting.' The  Igorots  recognized  the  justice  of  this 
action  because  the  whole  town  was  invariably  cognizant 
of,  and  party  to,  every  head-hunting  raid  made  by  any 
of  its  people.  Later,  when  head-hunting  became  com- 
paratively rare,  we  began  to  deal  with  the  individuals  con- 
cerned. They  were  arrested,  brought  before  the  coiu-ts, 
and  tried  like  any  other  criminals.  To-day  head-hunting 
in  Bontoc  is  almost  unknown.  When  it  does  occiu*  the 
people  themselves  usually  captvue  and  turn  over  the  culprits. 

The  respect  of  the  Bontoc  Igorots  for  the  law  is  ex- 
traordinary. In  1910  a  Constabulary  soldier  shot  the 
presidente  of  Tinglayan  without  just  cause.  The  people 
of  the  place  rushed  to  arms,  meaning  to  kill  the  soldier. 
Chief  Agpad,  assisted  by  the  son  of  the  murdered  man, 
took  station  before  the  door  of  the  house  in  which  the 
assailant  had  sought  refuge,  and  the  two  stood  off  then-  fel- 
low-townsmen, sajdng  that  the  government  had  pronaised 
to  kill  evil-doers  and  that  this  man  must  be  tm'iied  over 
to  the  government  to  be  killed  !  WTien  I  passed  through 
their  town  a  few  weeks  later,  with  Governor-General 
Forbes,  they  begged  to  have  him  killed  promptly. 

In  the  early  days  I  myself  had  a  rather  stormy  clash 
with  some  of  the  Bontoc  Igorots.  Dm'ing  Aguinaldo's 
long  flight  he  had  passed  tlu'ough  half  a  dozen  of  their 
towns,  as  had  the  American  soldiers  who  pursued  him. 
The  Igorots  did  not  like  this,  so  tore  out  the  trail  to 
Ifugao,  between  Bontoc  and  Samoqui,  and  built  high- 
walled  rice  paddies  where  it  had  been,  with  the  result 
that  persons  making  the  journey  had  to  use  the  river  bed 
for  several  miles.  This  was  all  very  well  if  the  river  was 
low,  but  was  no  joke  if  it  chanced  to  be  in  flood. 

'  Not  so  serious  a  matter  as  it  may  seem,  when  houses  are  made 
of  grass  and  can  be  speedily  rebuilt. 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      585 

I  ordered  that  the  trail  be  rebuilt,  the  Igorots  to  be 
paid  for  their  work,  and  for  the  resulting  damage  to 
their  rice  fields,  and  this  was  done. 

The  lieutenant-governor  was  a  weak  man,  and  the 
Igorots,  after  getting  their  money,  tore  the  trail  out  again 
and  rebuilt  their  stone  terrace  walls  across  the  place 
where  it  had  been,  just  to  see  what  he  would  do  about  it. 
He  did  nothing.  I  found  things  in  this  condition  when  I 
arrived,  and  was  obliged  to  come  down  the  river  bed  at 
dusk,  with  the  result  that  inj^  horse  and  I  took  several 
impromptu  baths. 

The  Samoqui  warriors  came  dancing  out  to  meet  me, 
playing  their  gansas '  and  making  a  grand  hullabaloo. 
Summoning  my  sternest  expression,  I  refused  to  shake 
hands  with  them,  telling  them  to  go  home  and  to  report 
at  Bontoc  at  nine  the  following  morning. 

The  fighting  men  of  the  town  of  Bontoc  met  me  on  the 
other  side  of  the  river,  and  I  served  them  the  same  way. 
The  official  under  w^hose  nose  they  had  destroyed  the 
trail  was  greatly  alarmed,  and  assured  me  that  if  I 
ordered  it  rebuilt,  as  I  told  him  I  would  do,  there  would 
be  a  fight,  and  the  Igorots  would  cut  the  heads  off  all  the 
Americans  in  town,  including  the  ladies.  He  added, 
"Think  how  the  ladies  would  look  without  any  heads  !" 
While  this  was  a  disquieting  reflection,  I  remained  ob- 
durate. 

At  the  appointed  hour  the  Samoqui  and  Bontoc  men 
appeared,  armed  with  head-axes  and  lances.  I  asked  them 
if  they  would  rebuild  that  traO,  and  they  said  no  !  I  told 
them  that  if  they  did  not  I  would  cut  their  main  irri- 
gating ditch  and  put  a  constabularj''  guard  on  it  to  see 
that  it  was  not  repaired  until  they  changed  their  minds. 
This  might  have  meant  the  loss  of  their  rice  crop.  They 
knew  me  quite  as  well  as  they  did  their  lieutenant-gov- 
ernor, and  promptly  rebuilt  the  trail  for  nothing,  as  I 
told  them  they  must. 

1  Bronze  timbrels. 


586  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

'V^^en  the  Mountain  Province  was  established,  the 
town  of  Bontoc  was  made  the  capital,  as  Cervantes,  which 
had  been  the  capital  of  Lepanto  Bontoc,  was  hot,  had 
proved  unhealthful,  and  was  not  centrally  situated. 
Bontoc  has  a  cool,  delightful  climate,  is  near  the  geo- 
graphic center  of  the  province,  and  from  it  radiates  a  road 
and  trail  system  of  constantly  increasing  importance. 
Things  have  moved  rapidly  there  since  the  status  of  the 
place  was  changed. 

To-day  the  town  has  modern  pubhc  buildings  of  brick 
and  stone.  The  brick  have  been  made,  burned  and  laid 
by  Igorots.  Much  of  the  stone  has  been  cut  and  laid  by 
Igorots.  The  mortar  used  has  been  mixed  by  Igorots 
with  lime  burned  by  Igorots.  Some  of  the  carpenter 
work  has  been  done  by  Igorots.  There  is  a  modern 
hospital  to  which  the  Igorots  flock.  There  are  schools 
in  which  Igorot  boj^s  and  girls  learn  the  Enghsh  language, 
and  become  adept  in  the  practice  of  useful  industries. 

Perhaps  the  most  unique  of  the  Bontoc  institutions  is 
the  provmcial  jail.  Years  ago  I  discovered  to  my  horror 
that  a  two-year  sentence  to  Bihbid,  the  insular  peniten- 
tiary, was  a  death  sentence  for  a  hill-man  !  Not  all  who 
were  sent  there  died,  but  the  average  term  of  life  of  men 
from  the  hiUs  was  two  years  only,  while  those  who  served 
out  their  sentences  and  returned  to  their  mountain  homes 
had  invariably  become  adepts  in  crime  as  the  result  of  pro- 
longed contact  wdth  vicious  Filipinos.  I  promptly  drafted 
an  act  providing  for  the  establishment  at  Bontoc  of  a 
penitentiary  where  all  prisoners  from  the  highlands  should 
be  confined,  and  the  commission  passed  it.  The  prison 
has  been  made  a  real  educational  institution.  Most  of 
its  inmates  have  been  guilty  of  crimes  of  violence,  com- 
mitted in  accordance  with  tribal  customs,  and  are  not 
vicious  at  heart.  The  jail  building  is  perfectly  sanitary. 
Its  occupants  are  required  to  keep  their  persons  clean  and 
their  quarters  both  clean  and  in  perfect  order.  They  live 
amid  healthful  surroundings  and  receive  abundant  and 


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THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN    TRIBES         587 

nourishing  food.  They  are  taught  useful  trades  and  are 
compelled  to  work  hard,  which  they  do  not  in  the  least 
mind,  as  industry  is  the  rule  in  the  mountain  country. 
They  usually  leave  the  jail  better  men  than  when  they 
entered  it,  and  thereafter,  instead  of  being  a  menace  to 
law  and  order,  assist  in  their  enforcement  and  main- 
tenance. 

We  do  odd  things  with  some  of  these  prisoners.  Last 
year  we  paroled  a  man  from  Ifugao  who  had  a  score  of 
heads  to  his  credit.  Learning  that  his  people  believed 
him  to  be  dead  and  w^ere  greatly  troubled,  we  told  him  to 
go  home,  show  himself  to  them,  tell  them  how  he  was 
treated  in  jail,  and  come  back.     He  did  it ! 

Proof  of  the  kindliness  of  the  relations  which  have 
existed  with  the  Bontoc  Igorots  is  foimd  in  the  fact  that 
no  member  of  this  tribe  has  ever  yet  turned  his  hand 
against  an  American.  On  the  contrary,  there  are  not  a 
few  Americans  who  owe  their  Hves  to  Igorots.  Agpad,  of 
Tinglayan,  has  t^s-ice  dived  into  rivers  swollen  by  t>-phoons 
and  rescued  Americans  who  had  sunk  for  the  last  time 
beneath  the  rushing,  muddy  waters,  while  their  fellow- 
countrymen  stood  by  paralyzed  with  fear. 

Last  year  there  occurred  an  event  of  profomid  signifi- 
cance. In  the  past,  American  officials  have  often  worked 
hard  for  days  to  get  representatives  of  two  hostile  towns 
to  dance  together,  for  this  would  make  friends  of  them. 
On  the  occasion  in  question  there  had  gathered  at  Bontoc 
to  meet  me  representatives  from  every  settlement  in  the 
subprovince.  Each  town  had  brought  its  gansas  and  its 
dancers.  On  the  second  day  of  my  visit  the  people  of 
one  of  the  towns  started  a  dance  on  the  plaza.  They 
were  promptly  joined  by  representatives  from  another 
towTi  which  had  long  been  hostile  to  them.  People  from 
yet  other  to-mis  followed  suit,  until  finally  the  plaza 
swarmed  with  a  great  crowd  of  dancers  in  which  every 
settlement  in  the  subpro%dnce  was  represented.  Even 
at  that  late  day  I  should  not  have  dared  to  attempt  to 


588  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

bring  about  such  a  tiling.  It  happened  of  itself,  and  to 
the  initiated  told  an  eloquent  tale  of  the  results  of  our 
years  of  patient  work  ! 

The  fii'st  time  I  chmbed  PoUs  Mountain,  on  my  way 
from  the  Bontoc  country  to  the  land  of  the  Ifugaos,  four 
Igorots  went  ahead  of  me,  armed  with  head-axes  and  lances, 
carrying  their  shields  in  position.  At  each  turn  in  the 
steep,  worn-out  trail,  they  drew  back  their  lances  ready 
to  throw.  I  had  eighty-six  armed  men  with  me,  and 
knew  that  I  might  need  them.  To-day  I  travel  through  the 
length  and  breadth  of  the  Mountain  Province  imescorted 
and  unarmed.  Furthermore,  I  usually  take  my  wife  with 
me. 

Prior  to  1 903,  if  an  Ifugao  showed  himself  on  the  north 
side  of  the  Polls  range  he  lost  his  head.  Now  people  of 
this  tribe  stroll  into  the  towTi  of  Bontoc  almost  daily. 
They  travel  north  through  the  Bontoc  Igorot  country  to 
Lubuagan,  in  KaUnga,  and  west  to  Cervantes,  in  Lepanto, 
or  even  to  Tagudin  on  the  coast,  crossing  three  subprov- 
inces  on  the  latter  trip.     They  also  go  south  to  Baguio. 

All  freight  was  formerly  packed  in  from  the  coast  on 
men's  backs  a  distance  of  eighty  odd  miles  over  steep, 
narrow,  stony  trails  wliich  were  really  foot-paths.  Now 
it  comes  in  carts  over  a  good  road  which  has  a  maximum 
grade  of  six  per  cent. 

The  people  of  the  settlement  had  to  get  their  water 
from  the  river.     Now  it  is  piped  into  town. 

There  was  not  a  shop  in  the  place,  and  every  one  had 
to  go  to  the  coast  to  make  the  smallest  purchases.  There 
are  at  present  half  a  dozen  good  stores,  beside  the  pro- 
vincial exchange,  a  store  where  the  government  sells 
the  Igorots  what  they  want  at  reasonable  prices,  thus 
preventing  shopkeepers  from  overcharging  them. 

Commodious  quarters  for  visiting  Igorots  and  Ifugaos 
have  been  provided,  and  there  is  a  fine  market  where  they 
may  display  and  sell  their  products.  This  market  is  a 
busy  place. 


THE   GOVERNMENT    OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      589 

The  population  is  rapidly  increasing,  now  that  head- 
hunting has  practically  ceased.  The  area  of  cultivated 
lands  steadily  grows  larger,  for  ,the  men  are  freed  from  the 
necessity  of  being  constantly  imder  arms,  and  we  are  help- 
ing them  to  get  more  irrigation  water,  so  that  they  can 
extend  their  rice  fields. 

There  are  a  thousand  or  so  Bontoc  Igorots  in  Benguet 
to-day,  contracting  for  railroad  excavation  work.  Times 
have  changed. 

When  Nueva  Vizcaya  was  first  organized,  its  non- 
Christian  inhabitants  greatly  outnumbered  its  Filipino 
population,  as  there  were  at  least  one  hundred  fifteen 
thousand  Ifugaos  in  addition  to  several  thousand  Ilongots 
and  a  few  Benguet  Igorots,  locally  known  as  Isinayes,  who 
had  strayed  over  the  boundary  line.  With  the  transfer  of 
the  Ifugao  territory  to  the  Mountain  Province,  the  Fili- 
pinos were  left  in  the  decided  majority.  Later  all  of  the 
Ilongot  territory  which  had  previously  belonged  to  the 
provinces  of  Isabela,  Tayabas,  Nueva  Ecija  and  Panga- 
sinan  was  added  to  Nueva  Vizcaya,  in  order  that  the 
members  of  this  wild  and  prinritive  tribe  might  be  brought 
under  one  provincial  administration. 

The  Ilongots  are  a  strictly  forest-inhabiting  people. 
Many  of  them  have  a  considerable  admixture  of  Negrito 
blood  and  live  a  semi-nomadic  hfe.  Their  settlements, 
which  are  small  and  more  or  less  transient,  are  usually 
situated  in  remote  and  inaccessible  places  surrounded 
by  the  densest  jungle.  It  is  at  present  impracticable  to 
open  up  horse  trails  through  their  country,  for  the  num- 
ber of  inhabitants  is  so  small,  in  comparison  with  the 
area  occupied,  that  such  trails  could  not  be  built  with 
Ilongot  labour,  nor  indeed  could  they  be  maintained  even 
if  built.  One  main  trail  is,  however,  being  constructed, 
and  it  is  planned  to  build  foot  trails  from  this  to  the  more 
important  of  the  settlements  which  it  does  not  reach. 

A  special  assistant  to  the  Provincial  Governor  of  Nueva 
Vizcaya  for  work  among  the  Ilongots  has  been  appointed 


590  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

and  assigned  to  duty  at  Baler,  on  the  Pacific  coast  of 
Luzon,  from  which  place  he  can  more  conveniently  reach 
the  Ilongots  east  of  the  coast  range.  These  people  were 
very  wild  at  the  outset,  and  it  proved  difficult  to  establish 
friendly  relations  with  them,  but  this  has  now  been  suc- 
cessfully accomplished,  and  their  fear  of  the  white  man  is 
largely  a  thing  of  the  past. 

There  is  a  school  for  Ilongot  children  at  Campote. 
They  prove  to  be  bright,  capable  pupils. 

At  the  same  place  there  has  been  established  a  gov- 
ernment exchange,  where  the  Ilongots  can  sell  such 
articles  of  their  own  manufacture  as  they  wish  to 
market,  and  can  purchase  what  they  need  at  moderate 
cost. 

They  still  fight  more  or  less  with  each  other,  but 
depredations  by  them  upon  Filipinos  have  ceased. 


CHAPTER   XXII 

The  Government  of  the  Non-Christian  Tribes 
{Continued) 

The  province  of  Mindoro  includes  numerous  small 
islands,  all  peopled  by  Tagalogs,  and  the  main  island  of 
Mindoro,  which  has  a  narrow  broken  fringe  of  Tagalog 
settlements  along  its  coast.  Its  whole  interior  is  popu- 
lated, so  far  as  it  is  inhabited  at  all,  by  the  Mangyans, 
a  primitive  semi-nomadic  tribe  which  is  of  Malayan 
origin  but  has  considerable  Negrito  blood.  No  one 
knows  even  approximately  how  many  of  them  there 
are,  for  although  the  island  has  been  crossed  in  several 
different  places,  much  of  it  is  still  quite  unexplored.  In 
most  of  the  interior  regions  thus  far  visited  the  popu- 
lation is  very  sparse,  but  one  quite  thickly  settled  dis- 
trict has  been  found.  It  is  beheved  that  the  Mangyans 
number  something  like  15,000. 

The  Filipino  settlements  were  so  disorderly,  filthy,  and 
unhealthy  that  the  energies  of  the  first  governor.  Captain 
R.  G.  OfHey,  and  those  of  his  successor.  Captain  Louis 
G.  Van  Schaick,  were  to  a  large  extent  expended  in 
efforts  for  the  betterment  of  the  Tagalogs.  It  is  a 
pleasure  to  record  the  fact  that  these  efforts  met  with 
a  very  large  degree  of  success. 

The  condition  of  most  of  the  Tagdiog  towns  is  now 
good.  Mangarin  is  the  chief  exception  to  this  state- 
ment. Its  surroundings  are  such  as  to  make  it  im- 
possible successfully  to  combat  malaria,  from  which 
every  one  of  its  inhabitants  suffers.  We  are  still  en- 
deavouring to  persuade  its  unfortunate  people  to  move 
to  a  healthy  site  ! 

591 


592  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

Governor  Offley  did  some  work  for  the  Mangyans. 
They  have  advanced  but  sUghtly  beyond  the  Negritos 
in  civilization.  Many  of  them  live  under  shelters  not 
worthy  of  the  name  of  huts,  and  in  the  vicinity  of  Mt. 
Halcon  even  the  women  are  clad  only  in  clouts.  Houses 
are  placed  singly  in  the  dense  forests,  or  at  the  most  are 
gathered  in  very  small  groups.  It  proved  a  most  diffi- 
cult undertaking  to  persuade  any  considerable  number  of 
Mangyans  to  gather  together  and  construct  decent 
dwellings.  It  had  been  their  custom  to  abandon  their 
forest  homes  whenever  a  death  occurred,  leaving  behind 
all  their  belongings,  and  perhaps  even  changing  their 
names  on  the  theory  that  their  old  names  were  unlucky 
and  new  ones  inight  prove  advantageous. 

With  admirable  patience  Governor  Offley  organized  a 
little  village  called  Lalauigan  on  the  south  coast  of  Min- 
doro.  Lalauigan  has  prospered.  It  is  very  clean ;  the 
houses  of  its  Mangyan  residents  are  quite  presentable. 
The  neighbouring  fields  are  planted  with  corn  and  rice. 
It  has  a  school,  and  the  children  prove  to  be  apt  pupils. 

Another  Mangyan  village,  organized  near  the  west 
coast,  was  short-lived.  The  Tagalog  Filipinos  look  with 
great  disfavour  on  the  gathering  of  the  Mangyans  into 
settlements  where  they  can  be  protected,  as  this  renders 
it  difficult  to  hold  them  in  a  state  of  peonage.  Wlienever 
Governor  Offley  got  a  little  group  together,  they  did  their 
best  to  scatter  it.  In  this  instance  they  passed  the  word 
that  smallpox  had  broken  out  in  a  neighbouring  Tagdlog 
village.  All  Mangyans  are  deathly  afraid  of  this  disease, 
and  this  particular  set  built  a  great  fire,  jumped  through 
the  flames  to  purify  themselves  from  contagion,  took  to 
the  hills,  and  have  not  been  seen  since ! 

Wliile  in  hearty  sympathy  with  the  admirable  work 
which  was  being  done  among  the  Tagalogs,  I  was  dissatis- 
fied with  the  failure  to  push  explorations  in  the  interior 
more  actively  and  to  get  more  closely  in  touch  with  the 
wild  inhabitants.     When  the  Tagalog  settlements  had 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      593 

at  last  been  put  in  really  good  condition,  I  gave  Governor 
Van  Schaick,  who  had  succeeded  Governor  Offley,  posi- 
tive instructions  that  more  attention  must  be  paid  to  the 
Mangyans.  He  then  began  active  explorations,  and 
pushed  them  with  considerable  success  up  to  the  time 
when  he  was  compelled  to  tender  his  resignation  by  the 
terms  of  the  Army  Appropriation  Bill  for  1913,  which 
necessitated  his  return  to  his  regiment.  Prior  to  his 
departure  he  succeeded  in  establishing  a  new  Mangyan 
village  which  has  continued  to  prosper  up  to  the  present 
time.  His  successor,  Governor  R.  E.  Walters,  was  kept 
from  actively  pushing  exploration  work  during  the  past 
"dry"  season,  by  unprecedented  rains. 

Road  and  trail  construction  began  several  years  ago 
and  is  going  forward  as  rapidly  as  Umited  funds  will 
permit. 

The  great  trouble  with  the  Tagalogs  of  Mindoro  is 
that  nature  has  been  too  kind  to  them.  They  have  only 
to  plough  a  bit  of  ground  at  the  beginning  of  the  rainy 
season,  scatter  a  little  rice  on  it,  and  harvest  the  crop 
when  ripe,  to  be  able  to  live  idly  the  rest  of  the  year,  and 
too  many  of  them  adopt  this  course.  However,  some 
good  towns,  like  Pinamalayan,  are  waking  up  as  the  re- 
sult of  iimnigration  from  Marinduque. 

Two  great  services  have  been  rendered  to  the  more 
orderly  of  the  inhabitants  of  Mindoro,  which  was,  in 
Spanish  days,  a  rendezvous  for  evil-doers  from  Luzon. 
Indeed,  it  was  the  most  disorderly  province  north  of 
Mindanao.  An  excellent  state  of  public  order  has  been  es- 
tablished, and  there  has  not  been  an  anned  ladrone  ^  in  the 
province  for  years.  It  was  famous  for  its  "bad  climate." 
We  have  shown  that  its  climate  is  good,  making  its  towns 
really  healthful  by  merely  cleaning  them  up. 

The  establishment  of  a  great  modern  sugar  estate  on 
the  southwest  coast  has  doubled  the  daily  wage,  and  given 

'  The  words  ladrones  and  tulisanes  are  used  indiscriminately  in  the 
Philippines  to  designate  armed  robbers  and  brigands. 


594  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

profitable  employment  to  all  who  wanted  to  work,  and 
the  people  are  beginning  to  bestir  themselves.  The  public 
schools,  of  which  every  town  has  one,  are  materially 
assisting  the  awakening  now  in  progress. 

Palawan,  like  Mindoro,  is  made  up  of  one  large  island, 
which  bears  the  name  of  the  province,  and  a  number  of 
smaller  ones.  Indeed,  it  includes  more  small  islands  than 
does  any  other  provmce,  with  the  possible  exception  of 
Moro. 

The  bulk  of  its  Christian  population  are  found  on  the 
smaller  islands,  several  of  which  are  very  thickly 
settled. 

The  non-Christian  inhabitants  are  divided  between 
three  tribes,  —  the  Moros,  Tagbanuas  and  Bataks.  The 
latter  are  Negritos  of  very  pure  blood.  Their  number 
is  quite  limited.  They  extend  across  the  island  from 
the  east  coast  to  the  west  in  the  region  north  of  Bahia 
Honda. 

Until  within  a  short  time  there  have  been  Moro  settle- 
ments scattered  along  both  east  and  west  coasts  of  the 
southern  third  of  the  main  island.  The  Moro  popula- 
tion of  Palawan  is  largely  composed  of  renegades  who 
have  been  driven  out  of  Jolo,  Tawi  Tawi,  Cagayan  de 
Jolo,  British  North  Borneo  and  Banguey  by  their  own 
people  because  of  infractions  of  the  laws  of  their  tribe. 
When  the  province  was  organized,  they  were  not  cultivating 
a  hectare  of  land  amongst  them.  They  lived  in  part  by 
fishing,  but  chiefly  on  what  they  stole,  or  on  the  products 
of  the  labour  of  the  hill  people  in  the  interior,  many  of 
whom  they  enslaved  or  held  in  a  state  of  peonage,  taking 
their  rice  and  other  agricultural  products  with  or  without 
giving  compensation,  as  seemed  to  them  good. 

The  hill  people,  who  occupy  the  higher  mountains  in 
the  interior  of  southern  Palawan,  and  who  in  the  central 
and  northern  portions  of  the  island  extend  down  to  the 
very  coast,  are  known  as  Paluanes  in  the  south  and  as 
Tagbanuas   elsewhere.     Tagbanuas   are   also    found   on 


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THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      595 

Dumaran  and  Linapacan,  and  quite  generally  throughout 
the  Calamianes  Islands,  especially  on  Culion  and  Busu- 
anga.  I  have  failed  to  discover  any  real  tribal  differ- 
ences between  the  Paluanes  and  the  Tagbanuas  and  be- 
lieve that  they  should  be  classed  as  one  people,  although 
the  Paluanes  are  more  incUned  to  stand  up  for  their  rights 
than  are  the  Tagbanuas,  and  by  using  blow  guns  and 
poisoned  arrows  have  succeeded  in  keeping  the  Moros 
out  of  the  interior  highlands.  They  were,  however,  long 
forced  to  trade  with  the  Moros  in  order  to  obtain  cloth, 
steel,  salt  and  other  things  not  produced  in  their  own 
country,  and  so  were  at  their  mercy. 

The  Tagbanuas  are  a  rather  timid  and  docile  people, 
giving  evidence  of  a  considerable  amount  of  Negrito 
blood.  They  are  at  times  quite  industrious,  and  raise 
considerable  quantities  of  rice  and  camotes,  but  live,  in 
part,  on  fish,  game  and  forest  products. 

Communication  in  this  province  was  very  difficult.  The 
main  island  of  Palawan,  which  is  some  two  hundred  fifty 
miles  in  length  and  very  narrow,  extends  in  a  northeast- 
erly and  southwesterly  direction,  and  as  a  result  both  of 
its  coasts  are  swept  by  each  monsoon  so  that  there  are 
only  about  two  months  of  the  year  when  travel  by  sea  in 
small  boats  is  comfortable  and  safe.  At  the  outset  there 
was  not  a  mile  of  trail  on  the  island.  This  latter  condi- 
tion is  being  rapidly  remedied. 

The  first  governor  appointed  for  the  newly  established 
province  of  Palawan  was  Lieutenant  E.  Y.  Miller,  U.  S.  A., 
a  man  of  splendid  physique,  tireless  energy,  and  indomi- 
table courage. 

Governor  Miller  set  to  work  very  actively  to  better 
the  condition  of  the  Fihpinos  and  to  establish  friendly 
and  helpful  relations  with  the  non-Christians. 

The  bulk  of  the  Christians  are  unusually  poor  and 
ignorant  and  many  of  them  were  held  in  a  miserable 
state  of  peonage  by  a  few  caciques.  Vigorous  efforts 
extending  through  a  long  term  of  years  have  weakened 


596  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

the  grip  of  the  caciques,  but  have  by  no  means 
broken  it. 

At  an  early  date  the  new  governor  won  the  admiration 
of  the  Moros,  who  like  courage,  by  a  series  of  very  brave 
acts.  A  number  of  constabulary  soldiers  who  were 
coasting  along  the  west  shore  of  Palawan  in  a  sail-boat 
went  ashore,  leaving  their  rifles  on  board  guarded  by 
two  or  three  of  their  comrades.  They  also  left  several 
Moros  on  the  boat,  and  the  latter,  watching  their  oppor- 
tunity, killed  the  guards  and  got  away  with  the  rifles, 
taking  them  to  Dato  Tumay,  their  chief,  who  armed  his 
people  with  them. 

Governor  Miller,  with  Captain  Louden,  of  the  con- 
stabulary company  concerned,  promptly  attacked  Tu- 
may's  place  and  drove  him  mto  the  hills.  Tumay  took 
refuge  in  a  Tagbanua  village,  never  dreaming  that  he 
would  be  pursued  into  the  momitain  fastnesses.  Miller 
and  his  companions  succeeded  in  getting  mto  the  place 
before  Tumay  knew  they  were  in  the  vicinity,  and  there 
followed  a  fight  to  the  death  at  close  quarters.  Two 
soldiers,  standing  one  to  the  right  and  one  to  the  left  of 
Governor  INIiller,  were  shot  dead,  but  he  was  not 
scratched. 

On  a  number  of  other  occasions  he  displayed  a  bravery 
approaching  recklessness.  Hearing  that  a  fleet  of  some 
fifty  Moro  boats  had  put  to  sea  on  a  piratical  expedition, 
he  embarked  in  a  twenty-foot  launch  accompanied  only 
by  a  captain  of  constabulary,  and  the  two  of  them  ran 
down  and  disarmed  the  pirates  and  sent  them  home. 
They  nearly  sank  their  tiny  launch  with  the  dead  weight 
of  the  weapons  which  they  took  on  board.  The  tiling 
seems  preposterous,  and  only  Miller's  extraordinary 
moral  influence  over  these  unruly  people  made  it  humanly 
possible. 

When  I  visited  Palawan  on  my  regular  inspection  trip 
in  the  year  1909,  I  found  Mrs.  Miller  much  worried  about 
her  husband,  who  was  absent  from  the  capital,  having 


THE  GOVERNMENT   OF  THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      597 

gone  to  arrest  some  Moro  murderers  at  Lara.  As  usual, 
he  had  taken  with  hmi  only  a  constabulary  captain  and 
three  or  four  soldiers,  and  Mrs.  Miller  feared  that  he 
might  be  killed. 

I  hastened  down  the  coast  of  the  island  at  the  full  speed 
of  my  steamer,  keeping  a  close  watch  for  his  boat,  and 
finally  located  it  at  Bonabona,  where  he  had  succeeded 
in  arresting  several  of  the  criminals.  On  his  way  down 
he  had  stopped  at  Lara  and  had  learned  that  a  brother  of 
the  local  chief,  Dato  Pula,  was  responsible  for  the  murder, 
having  ordered  it  and  paid  the  assassins  who  committed 
it,  one  of  whom  was  lurking  in  the  vicinity,  while  others 
had  gone  to  Bonabona.  Governor  Miller  called  upon 
Dato  Pula  to  deliver  both  his  brother  and  the  murderer, 
who  was  then  at  Lara,  and  stated  that  he  would  be  back 
on  a  certain  day  to  receive  them.  As  he  insisted  on 
returning  at  the  appointed  time  and  attempting  to  arrest 
these  men,  I  took  him  on  my  steamer,  together  with  his 
American  companion  and  one  constabulary  soldier. 
The  other  soldiers  remained  on  his  boat  to  guard  the 
prisoners  he  had  already  taken. 

We  returned  to  Lara,  but  were  unable  to  land  in  front 
of  the  town  as  a  heavy  siu'f  was  thundering  on  the  beach. 
A  mile  to  the  north  we  found  a  sheltered  spot  where  we 
could  safely  disembark  and  our  httle  party,  consisting  of 
Governor  Miller  armed  with  a  six-shooter,  a  constabu- 
lary captain  armed  with  a  Winchester  shotgun  and  a  six- 
shooter,  a  constabulary  soldier  armed  with  a  carbine, 
ex-Insurgent  Colonel  Pablo  Tecson  armed  with  my  double- 
barrelled  shotgun.  Governor  Pack  of  the  Mountain  Prov- 
ince, my  brother  George  S.  Worcester,  and  my  stenog- 
rapher, all  of  whom  were  without  weapons,  and  myself 
carrying  an  automatic  Winchester  rifle,  marched  on  the 
town.  Governor  Miller  sent  the  soldier  ahead  to  warn 
the  Moros  that  they  must  meet  us  unarmed.  A  small 
reception  committee  did  so. 

On  the  very  outskirts  of  Lara  we  waded  a  creek  nearly 


598  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

up  to  our  necks  in  water,  then  marched  up  the  street  and 
entered  Pula's  house.  Just  as  we  did  so  I  saw  twenty  or 
thirty  fully  armed  Moros  come  in  on  the  run  and  hastily 
conceal  themselves  in  one  of  the  numerous  neighbouring 
houses.  I  further  promptly  discovered  that  two  rooms 
partitioned  off  in  the  corners  of  the  great  living  room  of 
Pula's  house  were  crowded  full  of  men  armed  to  the  teeth, 
and  that  a  second-story  room,  immediately  under  the 
roof  and  over  our  heads,  was  similarly  occupied.  I 
asked  Governor  Pack  quietly  to  ascertain  how  many  of 
the  houses  in  the  village  were  occupied  by  fully  equipped 
fighting  men,  and  he  soon  informed  me  that  every  one  of 
them  was  packed.  We  estimated  that  there  were  several 
hundred  warriors  in  town,  which  meant  that  Pula  had 
raked  the  coast  of  the  island  north  and  south  for  miles 
and  brought  in  every  male  Moro  big  enough  to  wield  a 
weapon. 

We  seated  ourselves  on  a  table,  back  to  back  and  facing 
out,  with  our  own  weapons  very  handy,  and  had  a  talk 
with  Pula  which  lasted  until  late  in  the  afternoon.  Stand- 
ing within  striking  distance  of  us  most  of  the  day,  were 
two  stalwart  Moros,  each  of  whom  had  a  kriss  dagger 
firmly  gripped  in  his  right  hand  and  concealed  between 
his  folded  arms.  When  one  remembers  that  the  average 
Moro  fighter  does  not  seem  to  know  when  he  is  dead,  but 
keeps  on  doing  damage  after  he  ought  to  be  busily  oc- 
cupied in  passing  to  the  other  world,  it  will  be  seen  that 
our  situation  left  much  to  be  desired. 

Under  the  pretext  of  sending  for  a  phonograph  with 
which  to  entertain  the  crowd  while  our  negotiations  con- 
tinued, I  communicated  with  the  captain  of  our  steamer, 
advising  him  of  the  facts.  He  got  out  anununition  for  his 
two  one-pounder  rapid-fire  guns  and  took  up  a  position 
immediately  in  front  of  the  town.  We  did  not  ask  him 
for  reenforcements,  believing  that  any  attempt  on  his  part 
to  send  them  would  precipitate  an  attack  on  us. 

Never  did  I  pass  a  more  pecuhar,  or  a  more  unpleasant, 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      599 

day.  Miller  steadfastly  insisted  that  Pula's  brother  and 
the  hired  assassin  be  given  up.  Pula  produced  two 
thoroughly  cowed  Tagbanuas  whom  he  had  induced  by 
threats  to  declare  that  they  had  committed  the  murders, 
and  most  emphatically  dechned  to  turn  over  either  his 
brother  or  the  true  murderer.  Our  discussions  were 
punctuated  by  tunes  played  on  the  phonograph  which 
created  great  excitement  among  the  Moros,  some  of  whom 
got  up  and  danced  to  the  music  ! 

Finally,  late  in  the  afternoon,  Pula  gave  in,  turned  the 
murderer  over  to  us, and  promised  to  turnover  his  brother, 
but  said  that  the  latter  must  first  be  allowed  to  go  home 
to  get  some  clothes,  and  that  he  would  then  send  hun 
on  board  our  ship. 

We  improved  this  our  first  opportunity  to  beat  a  re- 
treat wdthout  losing  face.  Our  Moro  "friends"  bid  us 
good-b}^  on  the  beach,  then  armed  themselves  and  fol- 
lowed us  at  a  short  distance  as  we  marched  back  to  the 
landing  place  where  our  launch  was  pounding  in  the  surf, 
awaiting  our  return.  Three  strong  fighting  parties  came 
out  of  the  dense  vegetation  which  bordered  the  beach  im- 
mediately after  we  had  passed  the  places  where  they  were 
concealed.  They  had  obviously  been  waiting  there  to  cut 
off  our  retreat  if  trouble  started,  and  could  most  certainly 
have  done  it.  In  fact,  they  could  have  shot  us  down  from 
the  brush  without  showing  themselves. 

It  requu-ed  all  the  self-control  which  I  could  muster 
to  keep  my  back  toward  the  strong  and  constantly  grow- 
ing group  of  armed  men  who  followed  us,  and  to  look 
unconcerned,  yet  I  knew,  as  did  every  other  member  of 
the  party,  that  our  seeing  the  hght  of  another  day  prob- 
ably depended  on  our  abihty  to  do  both  things.  The 
slightest  e\ddence  of  alarm  would  have  precipitated  a 
fight  which  could  have  had  but  one  outcome  for  us. 

When  opposite  the  launch,  we  turned  and  faced  the 
Moros  and  then  the  several  members  of  the  party  went 
aboard,  one  at  a  time.     Never  did  a  widening  strip  of 


600  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

water  look  better  to  me  than  did  that  which  finally  began 
to  separate  us  from  the  shore. 

To  our  great  amazement  Dato  Pula  kept  his  word  and 
sent  his  brother  on  board  ! 

No  man  ever  laboured  more  diligently  for  the  good  of 
alien  peoples  than  did  Governor  Miller.  He  evolved  a 
wise  plan  for  improving  the  condition  of  the  Tagbanuas 
living  in  the  vicinity  of  Puerto  Princesa,  many  of  whom, 
as  is  so  often  the  case  with  the  uncivilized  peoples  of  the 
Philippines,  were  reduced  to  a  state  of  peonage  by  their 
Filipino  neighbours.  A  large  reservation  was  set  aside 
for  their  exclusive  use,  and  they  were  persuaded  to  retire 
to  it.  At  the  cost  of  infinite  labour  and  pains  Governor 
Miller  built  there  a  fine  set  of  school  buildings,  and  the 
Bureau  of  Education  started  a  school  which  gives  in- 
struction in  English,  arithmetic  and  manual  training  to 
Tagbanua  boys  and  girls. 

Governor  Miller's  keen  interest  in  this  project  led  him 
to  stop  to  inspect  the  progress  of  the  work  when  return- 
ing from  a  long  trip  around  the  island.  In  the  face  of  a 
coming  storm  he  ascended  the  Aborlan  River  to  the  school 
site,  where  he  remained  until  after  dark,  oblivious  of  the 
fact  that  a  tremendous  downpour  of  rain  in  the  neighbour- 
ing mountains  had  produced  a  sudden  flood  in  the  river. 
Returning  to  his  launch,  he  jumped  on  board  and  cast 
off  before  the  engine  was  started.  The  current  swept 
the  launch  away  like  a  straw,  carried  it  in  close  to  the 
bank,  and  an  overhanging  branch,  which  ordinarily  would 
have  been  high  above  the  water,  struck  the  governor  a 
stunning  blow  on  the  head,  knocking  him  overboard. 
He  never  came  to  the  surface,  and  twenty-four  hours 
elapsed  before  his  body  was  recovered. 

Mr.  John  H.  Evans,  then  serving  as  heutenant-gov- 
ernor  of  Bontoc,  in  the  Mountain  Province,  was  appointed 
in  his  place,  and  I  took  him  around  the  Palawan  group  of 
islands  to  introduce  him  to  his  unruly  subjects.  On 
arrival  at  Puerto  Princesa  we  were  told  that  the  occupants 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      601 

of  a  fleet  of  Moro  boats  were  already  raiding  and  killing 
along  the  southern  coast  of  the  island,  and  we  accordingly 
took  on  board  Captain  Moynihan  of  the  Philippine 
Scouts,  with  thirty  of  his  soldiers.  The  report  proved 
unfounded,  but  nevertheless  the  soldiers  came  in  very 
handily. 

I  landed  at  Culasian  Bay  on  the  west  coast,  meaning  to 
ascend  a  river  to  the  settlement  of  Dato  Tumay,  the  man 
whose  people  had  on  a  former  occasion  fought  Governor 
Miller  with  captured  constabulary  rifles  and  been  soundly 
whipped.  Finding  no  one  on  the  beach,  we  walked  up 
the  river  bank  for  a  short  distance  to  a  group  of  half  a 
dozen  tightly  closed  houses  which  looked  as  if  they  might 
belong  to  fishermen.  Here  we  were  met  by  a  splendidly 
dressed  glad-hand  delegation,  who  greeted  us  rather  too 
effusively.  My  suspicion  was  further  aroused  by  the 
fact  that  only  three  of  them  carried  weapons,  in  sight  at 
least.  The  weapons  of  a  Moro  chief  are  just  as  much  a 
part  of  his  full  dress  as  are  the  garments  he  wears.  I  had 
a  few  moments'  friendly  conversation  with  these  people, 
during  which  I  noticed  that  several  of  them  displayed  a 
marked  inclination  to  get  behind  me.  This  I  did  not 
hke,  so  took  up  a  position  with  my  back  to  the  river. 
Presently  I  suggested  that  we  had  come  to  call  on  Dato 
Tumay.     The  following  conversation  ensued  :  — 

"You  cannot  go  to  see  him." 

"Why  not  ?     Are  the  trails  in  bad  condition  ?" 

"There  are  no  trails." 

"Are  you  not  Dato  Tumay's  people?" 

"Yes." 

"How  did  you  come  down  if  there  are  no  trails?" 

"We  came  down  the  river." 

"Very  well,  we  vn\\  go  up  the  river. "- 

"You  cannot  do  that." 

"Why  not?" 

"There  are  no  boats  to  carry  you." 

"How  did  you  come  down?" 


602  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

"In  those  boats.  [Pointing  out  two  tiny  dugouts 
barely  able  to  carry  two  men  each.]  You  and  one  of 
your  friends  can  go  up  in  them  if  you  like.  Two  of  our 
men  will  paddle  you." 

This  proposition  did  not  seem  attractive  to  me,  so  I 
suggested  that  I  would  take  a  little  walk  up  the  river. 
I  had  been  positively  assured  that  there  was  no  other 
boat  in  the  vicinity,  but  at  the  very  first  turn  discovered 
a  suspicious  looking  trail  running  up  into  the  bushes  and 
following  it  found  a  fully  rigged  war-canoe  over  which 
freshly  cut  brush  had  been  hastily  throAvn.  I  suggested 
to  the  Moros  that  this  looked  very  much  like  a  boat. 
They  replied  that  it  leaked.  I  asked  them  to  put  it  into 
the  water,  stating  that  I  Uked  to  see  boats  leak.  Not 
a  Moro  stirred.  We  had  brought  twenty-five  soldiers 
ashore  with  us,  as  Tumay's  reputation  was  by  no  means  of 
the  best,  and  I  now  called  to  some  of  them  to  come  and 
put  the  boat  into  the  river.  In  passing  back  of  the  group 
of  Moros,  one  of  these  men  stubbed  his  toe  on  the  shaft 
of  a  lance  which  was  hidden  in  the  grass,  and  fell  on  his 
nose.  He  raised  the  lance  as  he  recovered  his  feet,  then 
stooped  and  picked  up  a  second  one,  trailed  them  behind 
him  until  he  reached  a  position  in  front  of  me  and  dropped 
them  on  the  ground.  Both  had  the  sheaths  removed 
from  their  long  steel  heads.  Another  soldier  kicked 
around  in  the  grass  a  bit  and  produced  a  serpent  kriss 
which  had  been  drawn  from  its  scabbard.  Still  another 
fished  up  a  bar  dug} 

I  asked  the  ranking  Moro  present  what  was  the  meaning 
of  these  weapons,  concealed  at  our  very  feet.  He  said 
that  they  were  afraid  that  we  would  steal  them  and  had 
therefore  hidden  them.  I  asked  him  whether  any  white 
man  had  ever  stolen  anything  from  them,  and  also  why 
they  had  hidden  them  there,  where  we  were  likely  to  cut 
our  feet  on  them,  instead  of  in  the  forest  which  was  not 
fifty  yards  away.  Obviously  there  was  no  satisfactory 
1 A  fighting  knife  of  deadly  effectiveness. 


'■«.», 


THE   GO\^RNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES     603 

answer  to  these  questions  and  he  had  no  time  to  attempt 
any,  for  one  of  the  soldiers  stooped  down  and  pulled  out 
of  the  grass  from  beside  his  very  hand  a  forty-five  caliber 
single-action  revolver,  cocked  and  with  all  six  cylinders 
loaded.  Fearmg  to  be  taken  at  a  disadvantage,  I  said 
to  the  soldiers,  "Make  these  men  sit  down,  and  search 
the  place  for  arms." 

The  soldiers  repeatedly  ordered  the  Moros  to  sit  down 
and  the  order  was  translated  to  them  in  their  own  language 
by  my  mterpreter.  Not  a  man  obej^ed.  On  the  con- 
trary, one  of  them  turned  his  back  and  started  off  at  a 
quick  pace,  disregarding  repeated  orders  to  halt.  Theo- 
retically he  should  have  been  shot. 

Practically,  I  had  ordered  the  soldiers  not  to  fire  under 
any  circumstances  unless  some  Moro  drew  a  weapon. 
Mr.  Olney  Bondm-ant,  assistant  to  the  provincial  gov- 
ernor for  work  among  the  Moros,  had  been  taking  a  hasty 
look  back  of  the  houses  and  was  returning  to  tell  me  that 
they  were  full  of  armed  men.  The  IMoro  above  men- 
tioned, just  before  meeting  Bondurant,  reached  into  a 
bush  and  drew  out  two  of  the  cruel  fighting  knives  known 
as  barongs.  They  were  in  their  flat  sheaths,  and  lay  one 
on  top  of  the  other.  Snatching  the  upper  one  from  its 
scabbard,  he  struck  a  wicked  blow  at  Bondurant  as  the 
latter  passed  him  on  the  trail.  Bondurant,  who  was 
quick  as  a  cat,  dodged  the  blow,  then  whirled  and  shot 
his  assailant.  Instantly  armed  men  with  drawn  weapons 
began  to  boil  out  of  the  houses  on  the  side  farthest  from 
us,  and  those  soldiers  who  were  in  a  position  to  see  them 
promptly  opened  fire.  Other  Moros  also  began  to  pop 
up  at  the  edge  of  the  forest,  and  we  had  a  bit  of  a  scrim- 
mage, lively  enough  while  it  lasted.  I  took  no  part  in 
it,  but  with  three  soldiers  helping  me  compelled  eleven 
men  of  the  group  with  whom  we  had  been  talking  to  sit 
down,  and  kept  them  sitting  until  the  unpleasantness  was 
over,  as  I  wanted  to  talk  with  them.  I  then  told  the  head 
man  to  stand  up. 


604  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

He  was  very  reluctant  to  do  this,  obviously  expecting 
to  be  shot,  but  no  such  fate  was  in  store  for  him.  On  the 
contrary,  I  gave  hmi  a  lecture,  told  him  where  certain 
wounded  and  certain  dead  Moros  were  to  be  found,  and 
instructed  him  and  his  people  first  to  care  for  the  wounded  ; 
second,  to  bury  the  dead ;  third,  to  go  to  Tumay's  place 
and  tell  him  that  although  I  had  come  to  make  a  friendly 
call  on  him,  my  party  had  been  attacked  bj^  his  people, 
but  that  the  only  men  who  had  been  hurt  were  those  who 
had  endeavoured  to  use  their  weapons  on  us.  I  further- 
more directed  him  to  tell  Tumay  that  he  must  come  across 
the  island  to  the  place  where  Mr.  Bondurant  lived,  and 
explain  this  extraordinary  occurrence.  We  then  took 
our  departure,  marching  down  the  beach  a  mile  to  our 
launch,  and  expecting  every  moment  to  be  fired  on  from 
the  dense  forest  close  at  hand. 

We  learned  from  a  wounded  Moro  that  our  party  had 
been  mistaken  at  a  distance  for  that  of  Governor  Miller. 
On  his  last  trip  around  the  island  he  had  been  threatened 
by  Tumay,  who  surrounded  him  with  a  strong  body  of 
armed  men  and  talked  to  him  in  a  very  insulting  manner. 
Miller,  who  had  but  a  single  companion,  knew  himself 
to  be  at  Tumay's  mercy,  and  believing  that  he  was  in 
grave  danger  of  being  killed  and  that  only  a  bluff  could 
save  him,  slapped  Tumay's  face  vigorously  and  then  gave 
him  a  strong  piece  of  his  mind.  Tumay,  overawed  at 
such  temerity,  allowed  him  to  depart  in  safety.  Before 
leaving.  Governor  Miller  exercised  his  lawful  authority 
to  order  Tumay  to  take  his  people  and  move  to  the  east 
coast  of  the  island.^     Tumay  begged  that  his  people  be 

^  A  governor  of  a  province  may,  with  the  approval  of  the  Secretary 
of  the  Interior,  require  members  of  a  non-Christian  tribe  to  take  up 
their  residence  on  land  reserved  for  such  purpose  if  he  deems  such  a 
course  to  be  in  the  interest  of  public  order.  The  object  of  this  provision 
is  to  malie  it  possible  to  compel  lawless  persons  to  live  in  reasonably 
accessible  places.  In  only  three  instances  has  it  been  necessary  to 
exercise  this  authority.  Tumay  and  his  people  were  outlaws  and  were 
li\nng  in  a  nipa  swamj)  where  it  would  have  been  almost  impossible 
to  attack  them  successfully. 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      605 

allowed  to  harvest  some  rice  which  he  said  they  had 
planted,  and  Governor  Miller,  not  knowing  whether  or 
not  the  statement  was  true,  and  not  being  in  a  position 
to  investigate  it,  allowed  him  two  weeks  to  be  spent  in 
this  way. 

I  was  about  Governor  Miller's  size.  WTien  I  landed 
Tumay's  people  mistook  me  for  him,  and  thought  that  he 
was  returning  with  soldiers  to  punish  them  for  having 
disobeyed  him,  or  to  enforce  his  order  that  they  move  to 
a  more  accessible  place.  Hence  the  plan  for  the  attack, 
which  was  rather  clever.  While  the  reception  committee 
entertained  us,  the  men  concealed  in  the  woods  were  to 
open  on  us.  As  we  turned  to  deal  with  them  the  ones 
hidden  in  the  houses  were  to  attack  us  from  the  rear,  and 
the  reception  ■  committee  were  then  to  join  in.  Wlien 
they  found  themselves  mistaken  as  to  the  make-up  of  the 
party,  which  was  larger  than  they  had  expected,  there 
was  delay  and  confusion,  and  the  attack  fizzled. 

A  few  days  later  Tumay  actually  started  across  the 
island  in  obedience  to  my  instructions,  but  on  the  way 
he  met  two  recalcitrant  Moro  chiefs  who  encouraged  him 
to  stand  out,  sajdng  that  they  and  their  people  would 
help  him  fight  the  Americans,  and  he  turned  back.  I 
accordingly  asked  that  a  hundred  scouts  be  sent  after  him, 
and  this  was  done,  fifty  of  them  marching  over  the  moun- 
tains to  cut  off  his  retreat  and  fifty  coming  on  a  coast-guard 
boat  which  was  intended  to  serve  as  a  base  of  operations 
and  afford  a  place  to  which  injured  men  might  be  brought 
for  treatment.  Strict  instructions  had  been  given  that 
there  was  to  be  no  firing,  except  in  self-defence,  when 
women  or  children  were  liable  to  be  hit.  These  orders 
were  strictly  adhered  to,  and  Tumay  was  twice  allowed  to 
escape  when  he  could  have  been  shot  down  if  it  had  not 
been  for  the  danger  of  killing  Moro  women  and  children. 
Ultimately,  after  the  non-combatants  had  surrendered, 
his  armed  band  was  overtaken  early  in  the  morning,  and 
fired  from  ambush  into    the  approaching  scouts.     The 


606  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

return  fire  killed  or  wounded  most  of  them,  but  Tumay 
got  away.  It  was  stated  by  some  of  his  followers  that 
he  was  badly  wounded,  but  this  proved  to  be  untrue. 
A  little  later  he  voluntarily  surrendered,  as  he  had  been 
deserted  by  his  people  and  was  reduced  to  dire  straits. 

The  misconduct  of  Tumay  and  his  men  gave  me  a 
reason  for  moving  the  IMoros  from  the  west  coast  of  Pala- 
wan, where  they  were  living  in  mangrove  or  nipa  swamps. 
It  was  hard  to  approach  their  settlements  under  any  cir- 
cmnstances,  and  very  dangerous  to  do  so  if  they  were 
disposed  to  be  hostile.  The  west  coast  of  Palawan  was 
a  no-man's  land,  difficult  of  access  on  account  of  weather 
conditions  and  numberless  uncharted  reefs.  It  had  long 
been  a  safe  haven  for  evil-doers  who  fied  from  other  por- 
tions of  the  Moro  country  to  escape  the  vengeance  of 
their  fellows,  and  there  was  no  possibility  of  compelling 
them  to  abandon  their  evil  practices  unless  they  were 
transferred  to  more  accessible  regions. 

Governor  Evans,  with  my  approval,  now  issued  the 
necessary  instructions  to  them,  and  they  were  all  moved  to 
the  other  side  of  the  island,  together  with  their  household 
goods  and  chattels  of  every  description.  Once  there 
they  were  assisted  in  procuring  building  materials,  and 
were  fed  until  such  tune  as  they  were  able  to  take  care  of 
themselves.  Only  the  old,  the  infirm,  and  women  and 
cliildren  who  could  not  support  themselves  by  working 
were  given  food  gratis.  Trail  construction  was  inaugu- 
rated, and  all  able-bodied  persons  were  given  an  oppor- 
tmiity  to  engage  in  this  or  in  other  honest  labor  for  a  good 
wage  payable  either  in  money  or  in  rice. 

At  the  end  of  a  year  I  visited  these  Moros  at  their  new 
homes  near  Bonabona,  going  ashore  without  a  weapon  of 
any  sort,  and  finding  them  more  friendly  than  could 
reasonably  have  been  anticipated.  I  sent  for  old  Tumay 
and  had  a  very  frank  talk  with  him  about  past  differ- 
ences, in  the  course  of  which  I  asked  him  if  he  had  had 
enough.     He  assured  me  that  he  had,  and  I  then  sug- 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE    NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      607 

gested  that  we  forget  the  troubles  which  were  behind  us 
and  try  to  get  on  better  in  future.  He  promised  to  do 
his  part,  and  has  faithfully  kept  his  word. 

In  August,  1912,  I  again  visited  the  Moros  of  this 
region  and  to  my  great  surprise  was  greeted  as  if  I  were  a 
member  of  their  royal  family.  They  carried  me  ashore 
through  the  surf  in  a  chair  covered  with  a  fine  piece  of 
purple  brocade.  Two  men  equipped  respectively  with 
a  five-foot  blue  and  a  five-foot  yellow  umbrella,  struggled 
with  each  other  to  see  who  should  protect  my  delicate 
complexion  from  the  sun.  Wonder  of  wonders,  the  wives 
of  the  ranking  chiefs  were  present  in  a  dancing  paviUon 
which  had  been  erected  for  our  benefit,  this  being  the 
first  time  that  these  women  had  ever  shown  themselves 
in  public.  I  learned  that  Hadji  Mohanmied  ^  had  ex- 
plained to  them  that  the  women  of  other  nations  were 
getting  progressive,  and  had  argued  that  they  ought  to 
follow  suit.  The  poor  things  were  dreadfully  frightened, 
and  sat  wdth  their  backs  toward  us,  covering  their  faces 
with  gayly  colored  cloths  if  we  so  much  as  glanced  toward 
them,  but  they  were  there,  anyhow  ! 

At  noon  the  Moros  sat  down  with  us  to  a  fine  luncheon  of 
their  own  providing.  This  is  the  first  time  in  my  eighteen 
years  of  residence  in  the  Philippines  that  I  have  known  a 
Moro  to  sit  at  meat  with  a  white  man,  or  for  that  matter 
with  any  person  not  a  Mohammedan. 

After  the  meal  several  chiefs  insisted  on  my  visiting 
them  individually,  and  I  found  that  entertainment  had 
been  provided  at  each  of  their  houses.  Old  Dato  Tumay, 
with  only  one  woman  to  help  him,  had  built  the  best  house 
in  town,  and  was  cultivating  with  his  own  hands  the  largest 
piece  of  land  farmed  by  any  Moro  in  Palawan.  He  was 
greatly  pleased  when  I  complunented  him  on  the  good 
example  he  was  setting.  Later  I  referred  to  it  in  my  an- 
nual report,  and  the  assistant  to  the  governor  for  work 
among  the  Moros  read  to  him  what  I  had  said.  The  old 
'  One  of  the  most  influential  of  the  Palawan  Moro  chiefs. 


608  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

man  was  delighted.  He  immediately  called  the  local 
chiefs  together  and  delivered  a  long  lecture  on  the  ad- 
visability of  settling  down  and  tilling  the  soil.  The  prin- 
cipal request  that  the  Moros  made,  on  the  occasion  of  this 
visit,  was  that  they  be  furnished  agricultural  unplements 
and  seeds. 

Tumay  was  very  ill  with  dj^sentery.  From  the  ship 
I  sent  him  medicine  and  a  case  of  milk.  He  recovered 
in  due  time. 

Moros  are  uncertain  people  to  deal  with,  but  I  beUeve 
that  we  are  now  on  the  right  road  so  far  as  concerns  those 
inhabiting  Palawan,  and  that  with  a  continuance  of  the 
present  policy  there  will  be  no  further  serious  trouble  with 
them. 

The  Tagbanua  reservation  and  the  school  estabUshed  in 
connection  with  it  have  proved  a  great  success.  A  large 
number  of  Tagbanuas  have  settled  on  the  reserve  and 
are  farming  industriously,  while  their  boys  and  girls  are 
making  rapid  progress  in  school,  where  they  obtain  prac- 
tical instruction  that  will  make  them  better  and  more 
useful  men  and  women. 

In  Southern  Palawan  the  wild  people  of  the  highlands, 
who  have  never  yet  allowed  any  one  to  enter  their  coun- 
trj^,  are  being  persuaded  to  come  down  to  the  coast  by 
the  estabUshment  of  little  government  trading  posts 
where  they  can  sell  their  few  products  at  good  prices,  and 
can  purchase  what  they  need  at  a  reasonable  figure. 

All  in  all,  things  are  moving  forward  steadily  in  Palawan, 
although  many  of  the  Filipino  settlements  are  still  filthy 
and  unsanitary.  Encouraged  by  the  results  obtained  in 
Mindoro,  I  have  inaugurated  an  active  campaign  to 
compel  these  people  to  clean  up,  and  anticipate  success. 
One  thing  which  renders  it  difBcult  to  deal  with  some  of 
the  Filipinos  of  this  province  is  that  in  its  more  remote 
districts  they  are  showing  a  marked  tendency  to  scatter 
out  into  the  forests  where  they  make  caingins,  or  forest 
clearings,  and  live  in  tiny  huts.     Little  by  little  they  are 


THE  GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      609 

gravitating  back  to  the  barbarism  from  which  they  orig- 
inally emerged,  and  under  existing  laws  they  are  free 
to  do  this  if  they  like.  I  regret  that  this  tendency  is  by 
no  means  confined  to  the  province  of  Palawan.  The 
Spaniards  dealt  with  it  in  no  gentle  manner,  but  we  are 
powerless  to  do  more  than  argue  against  it. 

The  (^ost  of  the  work  in  Palawan  in  valuable  human 
lives  has  been  dear.  No  one  can  at  the  outset  fill  the 
place  of  a  man  like  Governor  Miller,  who  had  become  in- 
valuable not  only  as  a  result  of  his  personal  characteristics, 
but  because  of  his  years  of  experience  and  of  the  regard 
in  which  he  was  held  by  his  people.  Unfortunately  his 
life  is  not  the  only  one  which  has  been  sacrificed  for  the 
good  of  the  inhabitants  of  this  province.  Mr.  W.  B. 
Dawson,  who  organized  the  work  of  the  Tagbanua  In- 
dustrial School  and  was  in  a  fair  way  to  make  a  success 
of  it,  died  of  mahgnant  malarial  fever  contracted  at  his 
post  of  duty.  Mr.  William  M.  Wooden,  who  succeeded 
him,  in  his  anxiety  to  return  more  quickly  to  his  post 
after  a  brief  absence,  leaped  overboard  from  a  launch  and 
was  drowned  while  trying  to  swim  ashore.  Mr.  Olney 
Bondurant,  assistant  to  the  provincial  governor,  who 
did  admirable  work  among  the  Moros  and  the  Tagbanuas 
in  Southern  Palawan,  and  though  suffering  from  danger- 
ous illness  never  gave  up,  but  rendered  sei'\'ice  in  the  field 
on  the  very  day  of  his  death,  also  fell  a  victim  to  per- 
nicious malaria. 

If  the  results  obtained  by  these  splendid  men,  who  amid 
lonely  surroundings  and  in  the  face  of  manifold  discour- 
agements, bravely  and  effectively  carried  on  their  coun- 
try's work,  are  to  be  permanent  results,  then  I  hold  that 
the  price  has  not  been  too  dear,  but  if  they  are  to  be  de- 
stroyed by  the  premature  withdrawal  of  American  control 
these  sacrifices  are  pathetic  indeed. 

All  of  the  territory  in  Northern  Mindanao  east  of  Dapi- 
tan  and  north  of  the  eighth  parallel  of  latitude  was  at  the 
outset   divided   between   the   provinces  of   Surigao   and 


610  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Misamis.  It  is  generally  conceded  that  these  provinces 
had  been  worse  governed  under  An:ierican  rule  by  their 
Filipino  oiEcials  than  have  any  others,  and  it  was  to  be 
anticipated  that,  under  such  circumstances,  their  very 
numerous  non-Christian  inhabitants  would  prove  to  have 
been  very  badly  mistreated.  Sinister  rumoiirs  reached  me 
from  time  to  time  as  to  what  was  occiu-ring,  but  I  had 
no  competent  persons  whom  I  could  send  to  make  inves- 
tigations on  the  ground,  and  intended  to  defer  action 
until  I  could  go  myself. 

Matters  were  finally  brought  to  a  crisis  by  reports  from 
Catholic  priests,  school-teachers  and  other  rehable  persons 
setting  forth  a  condition  of  affairs  which  seemed  to  demand 
immediate  remedial  action.  The  commission  had  pre- 
viously made  a  hberal  sum  available  for  work  among 
the  Bukidnon  people  of  Misamis,  and  I  had  endeavoured 
to  bring  about  the  prosecution  of  this  work  by  the  Fih- 
pino  provincial  officials,  but  my  efforts  had  been  fmitless. 
Not  one  centavo  of  the  funds  appropriated  had  ever  been 
expended.  No  Filipino  pro\'incial  official  had  so  much  as 
visited  the  main  Bukidnon  countrj',  the  borders  of  which 
were  distant  less  than  three  hours'  ride  from  the  provin- 
cial capital. 

The  Bukidnon  people  are  industrious.  They  raise  a 
large  part  of  the  coffee,  hemp  and  cacao  exported  from 
Cagayan,  the  capital  and  the  principal  port  of  Misamis. 
They  were  being  robbed  when  they  sold  their  produce. 
A  common  procedure  was  to  instruct  them  that  they  must 
sell  to  certain  individuals  at  absurdly  low  prices,  and  if 
they  did  not  promptly  obey,  to  bring  charges  of  sedition 
against  them  and  throw  them  into  jail.  As  a  matter  of 
fact,  they  hardly  knew  the  meaning  of  the  word 
sedition. 

Depredations  upon  them  were  by  no  means  confined 
to  the  town  of  Cagayan  de  Misamis.  Fihpinos  from  the 
coast  invaded  their  territory,  debauching  them  with 
vino   and   purchasing   their   property   when   they   were 


A  Difficult  Bit  of  Rock  Work  on  the  Mountain  Trail  in  Be:iguet. 

This  trail  has  since  been  widened.    It  formerly  required  nerv'e  to  ride  a  horse 
around  the  corner  where  the  Igorot  is  standing. 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OP   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      611 

drunk ;  getting  them  into  crooked  gambling  games  and 
cheating  them,  or  swaggering  around  armed  with  revolvers 
and  so  terrorizing  them  that  they  surrendered  their  be- 
longings. It  was  common  for  a  Filipino  to  go  into  the 
Bukidnon  country  with  nothing  but  the  clothes  on  his 
back,  and  soon  to  return  with  three  or  four  carabaos  heavily 
laden  with  hemp,  coffee,  cacao,  or  gutta  percha. 

Although  the  provincial  governor  had  appointed,  in 
some  instances,  men  whom  he  had  never  seen  as  presi- 
dentes  of  settlements,  the  settlements  were  in  reality  with- 
out government,  and  their  discouraged  and  disgusted 
people  were  betaking  themselves  to  the  mountains  whence 
they  had  been  brought  years  before  by  Jesuit  missionary 
priests.  The  wilder  members  of  the  Bukidnon  tribe,  and 
the  Manobos  in  the  southern  part  of  the  province,  who 
had  never  abandoned  their  mountain  homes,  were  preying 
upon  their  neighbours,  and  committing  crimes  of  violence 
undisturbed. 

In  the  Agusan  River  valley  conditions  were  nearly  as 
bad.  The  people  along  the  main  stream  were  for  the 
most  part  broken-spirited  Manobos.  Their  settlements 
had  been  parcelled  out  among  the  members  of  the  munic- 
ipal council  of  Butuan  to  be  plundered.  The  activities 
of  these  "Christian"  gentlemen  had  been  such  that  a 
number  of  Manobo  villages  were  already  completely 
abandoned,  while  the  people  of  others  were  gradually 
betaking  themselves  to  secure  hiding-places  in  the  track- 
less forests  which  stretch  east  and  west  from  the  banks  of 
the  Agusan. 

Both  in  the  Bukidnon  and  in  the  Manobo  country  the 
trade  in  bad  vi)io  was  being  actively  pushed.  The  prin- 
cipal business  on  the  Agusan  River  at  that  time  was 
shipping  it  up-stream.  Opium  was  being  imported  in 
considerable  quantities  from  Cebu.  The  use  of  this  drug 
was  already  established  among  the  people  of  Butuan,  and 
was  gradually  spreading  up  the  river.  The  wilder  Mano- 
bos, who  hved  some  distance  back  from  the  stream,  and 


612  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

the  Mandayas  along  its  upper  waters,  were  killing  and 
plundering  without  let  or  hindrance. 

These  statements,  coming  as  they  did  from  absolutely 
reliable  witnesses,  convinced  me  that  I  had  allowed  work 
for  non-Christians  in  other  parts  of  the  archipelago  to 
interfere  unduly  with  investigations  which  I  should  have 
made  in  this  region.  As  the  legislation  under  which  we 
were  working  for  the  betterment  of  the  wild  people  had 
now  taken  final  form,  all  that  was  necessary  in  order  to  be- 
gin active  operations  looking  to  the  correction  of  these 
untoward  conditions  was  to  cut  off  a  province  from  Surigao 
and  Misamis  and  organize  it  under  the  Special  Provincial 
Government  Act.  In  view  of  the  relative  unimportance 
of  the  Filipino  population  in  Misamis  and  Surigao,  and 
of  the  lamentable  conditions  which  had  arisen  there  under 
Filipino  pro\incial  officials  elected  in  accordance  with 
the  provisions  of  the  Provincial  Government  Act,  I  sug- 
gested that  both  provinces  be  reorganized  under  the 
Special  Provincial  Government  Act.  This  would  have 
had  the  effect  of  making  their  officials  appointive.  Amer- 
ican governors  who  would  have  protected  the  non- 
Christian  inhabitants  could  have  been  put  in  office.  Un- 
fortunately, the  first  session  of  the  Philippine  Legislature 
was  about  to  be  held,  the  assemblymen  having  already 
been  elected.  Every  member  of  the  commission  present, 
American  and  Filipino,  agreed  with  me  that  the  course 
which  I  suggested  would  be  in  the  interest  of  the  in- 
habitants of  these  two  provinces,  but  they  all  shied  off 
when  it  came  to  taking  the  needed  action  because  of  the 
political  hullabaloo  which  would  most  certainly  have  re- 
sulted. I  was  forced  to  accept  the  best  compromise  I 
could  get,  and  a  law  was  passed  providing  for  the  estab- 
hshment  of  the  province  of  Agusan  with  two  sub-prov- 
inces to  be  known  respectively  as  Butuan  and  Bukidnon. 
Butuan  took  in  the  whole  Agusan  River  valley  as  far 
south  as  the  eighth  parallel  of  latitude,  and  east  and  west 
to  the  crests  of  the  two  watersheds.     It  also  included  some 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THEJ  NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      613 

territory  on  the  west  coast  of  the  northern  peninsula  of 
Mindanao.  Bukidnon  included  all  of  the  territory  in- 
habited by  the  people  of  the  same  name,  and  that  of  some 
wild  Manobos  in  central  Mindanao. 

Armed  with  the  law  creating  the  new  province,  I  pro- 
ceeded to  investigate  conditions  on  the  ground,  and  ac- 
tually to  estabhsh  the  provincial  government.  At  the 
town  of  Butuan,  situated  about  five  miles  up  the  Agusan 
River,  and  accessible  to  good-sized  steamers,  I  was  met 
by  Frederick  Johnson,  a  captain  in  the  Philippine  con- 
stabulaiy  who  had  had  wide  experience  in  dealing  with 
the  non-Christian  tribes  of  the  Moro  Province  and  had 
been  very  successful  in  this  work.  At  my  request  he 
had  been  appointed  governor  of  the  Province  of  Agusan, 
of  which  the  town  of  Butuan  was  the  capital. 

We  hired  a  launch,  driven  by  a  one-cylinder  engine,  from 
a  man  named  Wantz,  and  in  it  proceeded  up  the  river, 
taking  the  owner  along  to  run  the  boat.  It  was  paid 
for  by  the  day,  and  I  was  warned  before  I  started  that 
Wantz  had  his  o^ti  ways  of  lengthening  journeys.  I 
soon  discovered  that  this  was  true.  Before  starting  I 
had  indicated  the  settlement  which  must  be  reached 
before  dark,  but  the  engine  soon  began  to  wheeze  and 
thump  dolefully.  It  happened  that  I  knew  something 
about  gasoline  engines,  and  this  one  somided  to  me  as  if 
it  were  running  with  the  spark  advanced  too  far,  but  I 
could  not  discover  the  adjusting  mechanism,  so  exercised 
diplomacy,  involving  Wantz  in  a  discussion  of  the  in- 
tricacies of  modem  gasohne  engines,  and  stating  that  I 
had  an  automobile  with  a  very  convenient  attachment 
for  advancing  and  retarding  the  spark.  He  promptly 
and  proudly  showed  me  the  device  on  his  engine  for  the 
same  purpose.  It  was  hidden  away  where  I  could  not 
have  found  it.  After  he  had  instructed  me  in  its  opera- 
tion I  quietly  retarded  the  spark,  and  the  engine  began 
to  work  in  a  most  cheering  manner.  In  order  to  punish 
Wantz,  I  insisted  that  we  keep  on  until  we  reached  our 


614  THE  PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

prescribed  destination,  in  spite  of  the  time  we  had 
lost. 

We  had  a  prophet  of  evil  on  board  who  predicted  that 
Wantz  would  certainly  have  the  engine  thoroughly 
stacked  by  the  next  morning,  and  he  did.  We  had  planned 
to  start  at  daylight,  but,  when  we  climbed  down  to  the 
boat  in  the  gray  dawn,  found  him  puttering  over  its  ma- 
chinery. He  said  that  the  cylinder  was  "froze  up."  As 
the  temperature  did  not  seem  to  warrant  such  a  result, 
I  got  him  to  explain  to  me  what  was  wrong,  and  after 
watching  him  put  on  and  take  off  the  cylinder-head  several 
times,  discovered  that  he  had  an  ingenious  contrivance  so 
arranged  that  by  giving  a  single  push  he  could  put  the 
make-and-break  spark  connection  out  of  commission  from 
the  inside  of  the  cylinder.  I  myself  adjusted  it  properly, 
compelled  him  to  put  on  the  cylinder-head  without  touch- 
ing his  disarranging  mechanism,  and  we  went  on  our  way. 
For  some  time  I  watched  him  closely,  and  wliile  I  continued 
to  do  so,  the  engine  ran  beautifully,  but  ultimately  I  had 
to  go  ashore  to  inspect  a  rotting  Manobo  settlement,  and 
while  I  was  gone  he  queered  it  again  in  such  a  manner  that 
I  could  not  find  the  cause  of  the  mischief.  We  had  speedy 
revenge,  however,  for  while  we  were  negotiating  a  swift 
rapid  the  engine  died,  with  the  result  that  the  launch 
nearly  turned  turtle  and  narrowly  escaped  being  wrecked. 
This  frightened  Wantz,  and  after  a  few  mysterious  manip- 
ulations on  his  part  the  engine  began  to  "put,  put,  put" 
again  most  cheerfully,  and  we  ascended  the  rapid  without 
difficulty. 

On  the  evening  of  the  third  day  we  reached  a  Filipino 
settlement  called  Talacogon,  seventy  miles  up  the  river. 
Wantz  began  to  complain  that  he  was  sick,  and  as  Talaco- 
gon would  have  been  a  very  comfortable  place  to  lie  over, 
I  opined  that  his  ailment  would  become  acute  before 
morning.  At  four  o'clock  I  sneaked  down  to  the  river 
bank  by  a  back  street  to  see  what  was  going  on.  He  was 
whistling  cheerfully.     I  beat  a  careful  retreat,  then  came 


THE   GO\'ERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      615 

ostentatiously  down  the  main  road  to  the  pier.  Sepul- 
chral groans  were  now  issuing  from  the  launch,  and  Wantz 
was  not  \'isible.  I  found  him  writhing  on  its  bottom 
in  assumed  agony.  By  this  time  I  had  become  convinced 
that  a  native  banca  with  a  few  good  oarsmen  would  be 
better  than  a  launch  with  such  an  engineer,  so  told  him 
I  was  f-o^ry  he  was  ill,  gave  him  permission  to  return  to 
Butuan,  and  offered  to  pay  what  I  owed  him  on  the  spot. 
WTien  he  found  that  it  was  not  my  intention  to  pay  for 
the  time  consmned  by  the  return  trip  his  symptoms 
became  less  alarming,  and  he  expressed  hope  of  ultimate 
recover\^  Interrogated  as  to  the  probable  date  when  he 
would  be  prepared  to  continue  the  journey,  he  put  it  three 
days  ahead.  I  told  him  that  I  could  not  wait  so  long. 
Gradually  he  reduced  to  half  a  day  the  time  which  the 
reestablishment  of  his  health  would  require,  but  I  told 
him  that  I  could  not  wait,  and  that  his  recovery  must  be 
immediate  if  he  was  to  continue  with  us.  This  was  too 
much  of  a  jolt  to  his  pride,  and  when  we  were  ready  to  em- 
bark he  was  still  too  ill  to  start  !  We  accordingly  loaded 
our  belongings  into  two  hancas  each  some  sixty  feet  long, 
lay  down  on  our  backs  in  their  little  cabins,  and  con- 
tinued on  our  way  upstream. 

The  trip  up  the  Agusan  River  is  a  most  wonderful  one. 
Nothing  could  surpass  the  magnificence  of  the  tropical 
vegetation  along  its  banks.  The  sportsman  finds  him- 
self constantly  diverted.  Great  fruit  pigeons  and  huge 
hornbills  frequently  fly  over  one's  boat,  or  perch  in  trees 
where  thej'  can  be  shot  from  the  river.  Monkeys  abound. 
Huge  crocodiles  may  occasionally  be  observed  sleeping 
on  the  banks.  Wild  hogs  are  plentiful,  but  usually  keep 
out  of  sight.  The  trees  are  hung  with  a  marvellous  drap- 
ery of  vines,  orchids  and  ferns,  and,  as  the  stream  is  so 
broad  and  deep  as  to  render  its  navigation  easy,  one  can 
lean  back  and  enjoy  to  the  full  the  beauties  of  nature  dis- 
played in  prodigal  abundance  on  every  side. 

We  found  the  human  inhabitants  of  this  wonderful 


616  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

region  a  highly  unsatisfactory  lot.  The  Manobo  fam- 
ihes  were  living  either  singly,  scattered  along  the  river, 
or  grouped  in  httle  villages  composed  of  a  dozen  or  two 
rotting  huts  and  surrounded  by  the  accumulated  filth  of 
years.  As  was  to  be  anticipated  under  the  circumstances, 
most  of  the  people  were  full  of  malaria,  and  many  suffered 
from  repulsive  skin  diseases.  They  had  little  cultivated 
ground.  The  growing  and  cleaning  of  hemp  was  their 
only  resource,  and  they  had  become  so  accustomed  to 
having  the  products  of  their  labour  taken  from  them  by 
the  people  of  Butuan  that  they  had  almost  given  up 
working.  They  hstened  with  dull,  uncomprehending 
hopelessness  to  our  story  of  better  days  to  come,  and  it 
soon  became  evident  that  nothing  but  practical  experience 
would  convince  these  helpless  people  that  times  were 
going  to  change. 

The  Filipinos  of  Talacogon  were  an  especially  lazy, 
vicious  lot,  who  did  no  work  themselves,  but  sponged  or 
stole  a  living  from  their  non-Christian  neighbours.  Forest 
trees  were  springing  up  on  the  plaza  of  this  town.  Its 
streets  were  deep  in  mud,  and  its  sanitary  condition  beg- 
gared description.  I  was  really  afraid  to  stay  overnight. 
I  ordered  the  people  to  clean  up,  and  they  laughed  at  me. 
I  ultimately  made  them  clean  up,  but  they  successfully 
resisted  my  efforts  to  do  so  longer  than  the  people  of  any 
other  town  ever  did,  and  several  years  passed  before  I  was 
at  all  satisfied  with  results. 

Our  progress  up  the  river  was  unimpeded  until  we 
reached  what  is  shown  on  the  maps  of  Mindanao  as  a 
series  of  extensive  lakes,  but  is  in  reality  a  huge  and  track- 
less swamp.  Some  years  before  a  very  severe  earthquake 
had  caused  the  subsidence  of  a  vast  forested  area  along 
the  banks  of  this  portion  of  the  Agusan  River,  with  the 
result  that  the  old  river-bed  was  completely  broken  up, 
and  the  river  below  this  point  reversed  its  flow  for  some 
time  until  the  depressed  region  had  been  filled  up  by  the 
water  which  entered  it  from  all  sides.     There  were  no 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES     617 

well-established  channels  through  this  submerged  forest, 
and  navigation  in  it  was  dangerous  unless  one  had  ex- 
perienced guides. 

In  order  that  such  guides  might  be  always  available, 
the  Spaniards  had  compelled  a  number  of  them  to  live 
on  the  outskirts  of  the  swamp  at  a  place  called  Clavijo. 
The  ground  on  which  their  houses  stood  was  under  water 
most  of  the  year.  They  were  a  miserable,  sickly  lot. 
Most  of  them  were  suffering  acutely  from  malaria,  and 
aU  were  verj'  anxious  to  abandon  the  ill-fated  site  of  their 
village,  —  a  thing  which,  it  is  needless  to  say,  they  were 
promptly  permitted  by  us  to  do.  Having  secured  the 
services  of  several  of  them,  we  continued  our  journey 
toward  Bunauan,  but  found  the  stream  which  we  ascended 
after  extricatmg  ourselves  from  the  swamp  so  choked 
with  rubbish  that  it  was  frequently  necessary  either  to 
clear  channels  or  to  haul  our  heavj'  boats  over  masses  of 
dead  tree  trunks,  branches,  bamboo,  etc.  From  Bunauan 
we  returned  to  Butuan  and  sailed  for  Cagayan  de  Misamis. 

\Miile  passing  along  one  of  the  main  streets  of  the  latter 
town  on  my  way  to  the  provincial  building,  I  discovered 
Bukidnon  people  buying  vino  by  the  demijohn.  The  law 
prohibiting  the  sale  of  alcohohc  Hquors  to  members  of 
non-Christian  tribes  was  then  in  effect  throughout  the 
archipelago.  One  of  the  first  questions  which  I  put  to 
the  FiHpino  governor  was  whether  he  had  taken  the  neces- 
sary measures  to  see  that  this  law  was  enforced.  He 
repUed  in  the  affirmative.  I  asked  him  what  he  had 
done.  He  said  that  he  had  sent  letters  to  the  several 
Bukidnon  settlements  telling  the  people  that  they  must 
not  buy  vino.  I  asked  liim  if  he  had  warned  the  dealers 
in  his  own  town  that  they  must  not  sell  to  the  Bukidnons, 
and  he  rephed,  "It  has  not  occurred  to  me  to  do  that !  " 

Ha\dng  explained  to  the  governor  the  terms  of  the  law 
establishing  the  province  of  Agusan,  and  the  reasoia  for 
its  adoption,  I  proceeded  across  the  bay  to  a  barrio 
which  then  was,  and  stiU  is,  the  point  of  departure  for 


618  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

the  interior,  planning  to  start  at  daylight  the  following 
morning.  I  had  with  me  my  private  secretary  Mr.  Zinn, 
and  Mr.  Frederick  Lewis,  who  had  just  accepted  appoint- 
ment as  lieutenant-governor  of  the  sub-province. 

Lewis  had  taken  a  number  of  Zamboanga  Moros  to 
the  St.  Louis  Exposition  and  had  also  assumed  charge  of 
the  Lake  Lanao  Moros  there  when  their  manager  mis- 
behaved and  it  became  necessary  to  dispense  with  his 
services.  He  had  looked  after  his  people  so  carefully  and 
so  well  that  some  of  the  hardened  old  sinners  from  Lake 
Lanao  actually  wept  when  they  parted  company  with 
him  on  the  beach  after  their  return  from  the  United 
States  !  He  was  a  tireless  rider,  and  the  country  which 
he  was  to  govern  was  a  horseman's  country  par  excellence. 

Our  transportation  for  the  trip  was  in  charge  of  a 
Filipino  Ueutenant  of  constabulary,  named  Manuel 
Fortich,  and  I  was  not  greatly  pleased  with  this  arrange- 
ment, as  we  had  a  hard  journey  ahead  of  us  which  might 
be  rendered  difficult  or  even  dangerous  by  lack  of  effi- 
ciency on  the  part  of  the  man  who  looked  after  our  saddle 
animals  and  om-  carriers.  I  soon  learned,  however,  that 
no  better  man  could  have  been  selected  for  this  task. 

We  marched  at  daylight,  as  is  my  custom  when  travel- 
ling overland  in  the  provinces.  At  midnight  a  mounted 
Filipino  messenger,  sent  by  the  caciques  of  Cagayan,  had 
started  ahead  of  us  to  frighten  the  people  of  the  towns 
which  we  proposed  to  visit  so  that  they  would  take  to 
the  hills.  In  this  he  was  partially  successful.  When 
we  reached  the  small  settlement  of  Tancuran  late  in  the 
afternoon,  after  a  hard  day's  work,  the  only  inhabitants 
left  were  a  few  old  cripples  who  had  been  too  sick  or 
too  feeble  to  run  away.  However,  many  of  those  who 
had  fled  were  hiding  in  the  underbrush  near  by.  Lieu- 
tenant Fortich,  who  had  already  made  himself  invalu- 
able to  us,  soon  rounded  up  quite  a  number  of  them, 
and  they  were  in  turn  despatched  for  their  friends. 

This  little  village  was  in  a  deplorable  state  of  abandon- 


--.  -**■ 


A«jr« 


A  FLYi.sti  Ferry  in  Operation. 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES     619 

ment.  Only  a  few  of  its  houses  were  habitable.  It  had 
been  well  laid  out  by  some  good  Jesuit  missionary  priest, 
but  its  streets  and  plaza  were  choked  with  a  jungle  of 
tropical  vegetation  through  which  ran  trails  resembhng 
deer  paths !  There  was  absolutely  nothing  growing  in 
the  vicinity  which  could  furnish  food  for  a  human  being. 

Lieutenant  Fortich  ultimately  got  together  quite  an 
audience  for  me.  We  squatted  around  a  cheerful  camp- 
fire  and  discussed  the  past  and  the  future  until  late  at 
night.  I  was  deUghted  to  find  that  my  auditors  took  a 
keen  interest  in  my  statements.  They  soon  gained 
courage  to  tell  me  freely  of  the  abuses  which  they  had  suf- 
fered, and  while  obviously  not  optimistic  over  my  prom- 
ises of  better  things,  were  evidently  willing  to  be  shown. 

Just  before  we  turned  in  Lieutenant  Fortich  asked  me 
at  what  time  I  would  Uke  to  start  in  the  morning.  I 
said  "five  o'clock."  He  replied,  "Very  well."  While 
his  remarks  were  gratifyingly  in.  accord  with  the  biblical 
injunction  to  "let  your  conversation  be  yea,  yea;  nay, 
nay,"  I  feared  that  he  did  not  fully  comprehend  the 
difficulties  involved  in  an  early  start,  so  decided  to  take  a 
hand  myself  when  the  time  came.  I  accordingly  arose  at 
three-thirty  a.m.,  and  nearly  fainted  when  I  found  that  the 
horses  were  already  munching  their  grain  and,  wonder  of 
wonders,  that  the  carriers  were  eating  their  breakfast. 
The  usual  thing  is  to  be  informed,  when  you  are  about 
an  hour  on  your  way,  that  the  carriers  have  had  no  break- 
fast, and  to  be  forced  to  sit  down  and  wait  while  they 
cook  and  eat  their  morning  meal.  I  went  back  to  bed, 
convinced  that  I  had  discovered  a  new  kind  of  Filipmo  con- 
stabulary officer.  I  got  up  again  at  four  o'clock,  dressed, 
and  went  to  the  table  at  four-thirty,  finding  a  piping  hot 
meal  ready.  When  at  five  o'clock  I  descended  the  stairs 
of  the  house  where  I  had  spent  the  night,  my  horse  was 
saddled  and  waiting  at  the  gate.  All  I  had  to  do  was  to 
cUmb  aboard.  Meanwhile  I  had  not  heard  an  order  given, 
or  a  word  spoken  in  a  tone  above  that  of  ordinary  con  versa- 


620  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

tion.  Throughout  the  trip  Lieutenant  Fortich  continued 
to  display  quiet  efficiency.  I  jotted  his  name  down  in 
my  mental  notebook  as  that  of  a  man  to  be  used  later. 
He  is  to-day  the  lieutenant-governor  of  Bukidnon,  and 
a  most  faithful,  competent  and  efficient  public  officer. 

During  my  first  day's  ride  I  had  had  a  decidedly  start- 
ling experience.  On  leaving  the  sea  beach  one  climbs 
rather  abruptly  for  some  nine  hundred  feet  and  then  comes 
out  on  a  wonderful  plain.  After  riding  over  this  beautiful 
stretch  of  level  country  for  some  time  I  could  not  longer 
resist  the  temptation  to  attempt  to  take  a  panoramic 
series  of  views  showing  it,  so  dismoimted,  set  up  my 
camera  and  made  three  exposures,  rotating  the  instru- 
ment so  as  to  get  a  panoramic  effect.  I  worked  with  my 
back  toward  my  companions,  and  became  so  absorbed  in 
my  task  that  I  failed  to  notice  that  they  were  moving  on. 
When  I  finally  turned  around  I  discovered  to  my  utter 
amazement  that  I  was  alone,  save  for  the  carrier  who 
packed  my  camera  and  plates.  In  every  direction  an 
apparently  unbroken  plain  stretched  for  miles,  and 
there  was  not  another  human  being  in  sight.  My  com- 
panions had  disappeared  from  off  the  face  of  the  earth. 
I  actually  began  to  fear  that  I  had  taken  leave  of  my 
senses.  Nothing  which  has  ever  befallen  me  has  given 
me  such  a  curious  sensation.  However,  one  tangible 
thing  remained ;  to  wit,  a  well-marked  trail  through  the 
grass.  I  followed  it,  and  before  I  had  gone  three  hundred 
yards  came  to  the  brink  of  a  precipitous  canon  down 
the  wall  of  which  my  companions  were  zigzagging.  From 
the  point  where  I  had  taken  my  photographs  it  was  ab- 
solutelj'  impossible  to  detect  the  existence  of  this  narrow 
crack  in  the  earth.  We  soon  learned,  to  our  sorrow,  that 
this  first  canon  was  only  one  of  many. 

At  its  bottom  was  a  raging  torrent  which  we  forded 
with  difficulty.  My  fool  horse  got  frightened  and  turned 
down-stream  where  the  current  was  swiftest,  and  I  nar- 
rowly escaped  taking  an  impromptu  trip  down  rapids 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      621 

which  would  have  hammered  me  into  insensibility  against 
the  rocks. 

Until  we  reached  Malaybalay  the  conditions  encoun- 
tered in  the  several  villages  through  which  we  passed  were 
similar  to  those  which  we  had  found  at  Tanculan  :  houses 
abandoned  for  the  most  part,  and  always  in  a  lamentable 
state  of  neglect ;  sanitary  conditions  very  bad ;  streets 
and  plazas  overgrown ;  an  abundance  of  coffee  bushes 
in  some  of  the  villages,  but  no  visible  source  of  food  supply 
anywhere,  except  for  a  few  scraggly  banana  plants. 

At  the  outset  we  had  found  all  the  villages  deserted, 
but  in  each  case  had  managed  to  get  some  of  the  people 
back  and  hold  a  friendly  interview  with  them.  The 
"grapevine  telegraph"  got  to  working,  and  soon  they 
began  to  await  our  arrival.  At  Malaj^balay  they  gave 
us  quite  an  ovation.  This  town  was  comparatively 
clean  ;  the  grass  on  the  plaza  was  neatly  cut.  All  in  all, 
conditions  were  so  encouraging  that  I  decided  that  it 
should  be  the  capital  of  the  subprovince. 

The  following  day  we  continued  our  journey  to  Linabo, 
where  I  heard  of  a  Fihpino  engaged,  as  usual,  in  terrorizing 
the  inhabitants  and  taking  their  products  from  them.  I 
twice  sent  him  courteous  requests  to  come  to  see  me,  and 
then  had  him  unceremoniously  brought  into  my  presence. 
He  was  carrying  an  ugly  looking,  hea\y-calibre  six-shooter. 
I  demanded  the  document  which  justified  his  possession 
of  this  weapon,  and  as  he  could  produce  nothing  more 
satisfactory  than  a  note  from  the  governor  of  Misamis 
authorizing  him  to  use  it  in  that  province,  I  took  his  gun 
away  from  him.  He  assumed  a  threatening  attitude  and 
warned  me  that  he  was  a  friend  of  the  provincial  gov- 
ernor, but  I  told  him  that  he  was  not  a  friend  of  mine, 
and  started  him  on  his  way  to  the  coast. 

This  occurrence  was  known  throughout  Bukidnon 
within  three  days,  and  as  the  man  in  question  was  in- 
fluential the  fact  that  his  claws  had  been  at  least  tempo- 
rarily trimmed  greatly  encouraged  the  people. 


622  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

From  Linabo  we  returned  by  a  different  route,  visit- 
ing tlie  old  settlement  of  Sumilao,  the  site  of  the  origi- 
nal Jesuit  mission  in  Bukidnon,  and  spending  a  day  in 
endeavouring  to  reach  a  constantly  disappearing  vil- 
lage named  Nanca.  We  had  gathered  from  the  writ- 
ten report  of  a  lieutenant  of  the  United  States  army 
that  Nanca  was  distant  from  Sumilao  about  two  hours' 
ride.  We  reached  it  after  dark,  having  travelled  stead- 
ily throughout  the  day  except  for  some  thirty  minutes 
taken  for  lunch,  and  having,  I  firmly  beUeve,  broken 
the  world's  record  for  the  number  of  canons  encount- 
ered in  the  course  of  a  fourteen-hour  ride. 

Nanca  proved  to  be  a  very  interesting  Bukidnon 
village,  as  its  people  retained  theu*  picturesque  tribal  dress 
and  most  of  their  priinitive  customs.  I  became  much 
interested  in  finding  out  about  its  organization,  and  the 
part  that  each  family  took  in  its  affairs,  and  asked 
the  persons  present  what  each  man  did.  I  finally 
came  to  a  particularly  fine-looking  white-haired  mdi- 
vidual,  and  when  I  inquired  about  him  my  informant 
replied:  "Oh,  he  does  not  do  anything.  He  is  a  phi- 
losopher!" Then  the  crowd  shouted  with  laughter. 
We  decided  that  the  Bukidnons  were  not  without  a 
sense  of  humor. 

A  hard  half  day's  ride  brought  us  back  to  Cagayan  de 
Misamis,  and  I  sailed  at  once  for  Manila,  leaving  Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Lewis  to  face  his  difficult  task  alone. 
As  I  had  anticipated,  trouble  promptly  began.  The 
wealthiest  people  of  Cagayan  had  always  lived  off 
the  unfortunate  Bukidnons,  and  had  no  intention 
of  relaxing  their  grip.  I  have  deeply  regretted  that  I 
did  not  myseK  visit  the  remaining  villages  in  the  valley 
of  the  Cagayan  River  and  explain  to  their  inhabitants 
the  change  in  their  fortunes.  Agents  of  the  Cagayan 
caciques  had  been  busy  there  while  I  was  occupied  on  the 
other  side  of  the  subprovince,  and  shortly  after  my  arrival 
at  Manila  a  telegram  was  received  from  the  provincial 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      623 

governor,  saying  that  the  Bukidnons  were  asking  for  a 
brown  governor,  instead  of  a  white  one,  and  were  reported 
to  be  preparing  ropes  and  poison  with  which  to  commit 
suicide. 

Now  these  simple  people  of  the  hills  had  no  intention 
of  committing  suicide,  nor  did  they  want  "a  brown  gov- 
ernor." Their  petitions  were  prepared  by  Cagayan  ca- 
ciques and  they  were  forced  to  sign  them. 

In  the  part  of  the  subprovince  which  I  had  visited  the 
conspirators  against  the  new  government  made  little 
headway.  Nevertheless  their  vicious  activities  con- 
tinued, and  later,  on  several  occasions,  they  succeeded  in 
frightening  the  people  of  one  or  another  of  the  then 
rapidly  growing  towns  so  badly  that  they  took  to  the 
hills,  and  Mr.  Lewis  had  to  hunt  them  up  and  persuade 
them  to  come  back  again,  which  he  always  succeeded  in 
doing. 

"Wlien  I  returned  to  inspect  Bukidnon  a  year  later,  I 
found  that  a  marvellous  change  had  already  been  brought 
about.  Model  villages  had  taken  the  place  of  the  ram- 
shackle affairs  which  I  had  found  on  my  first  visit.  The 
houses  were  grouped  around  spacious  plazas  on  which 
the  grass  had  been  so  carefully  cut  that  they  had  already 
begmi  to  look  like  lawns.  Streets  were  kept  so  clean 
that  one  could  literally  pick  up  a  dropped  pin  without 
the  shghtest  difficulty.  \Vhere  the  streets  reached  the 
open  prairie,  bars  were  provided  to  keep  stray  animals 
out  of  town.  Every  yard  was  neatly  fenced.  All  do- 
mestic animals  were  properly  confined  if  not  out  at  pas- 
ture. Every  village  was  perfectly  drained,  the  slope  of 
the  land  being  such  that  all  drainage  promptly  ran  off 
onto  the  prairie.  Yards  were  immaculately  clean  and 
were  planted  with  useful  food-producing  crops.  Little 
cultivated  fields  were  already  beginning  to  appear  near 
the  outskirts  of  the  towns.  This  latter  change  greatly 
delighted  me.  These  poor,  ignorant  people  had  always 
beheved  that  the  prairie  soil  was  worthless  for  agi-icultural 


624  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

purposes,  and  that  in  order  to  grow  crops  it  was  necessary 
for  them  to  go  to  the  distant  mountains,  clear  forest  land 
and  plant  it.  Furthermore,  they  had  been  quite  unable 
to  break  the  prairie  sod  and  bring  the  underlying  soil 
under  cultivation  with  such  simple  agricultm-al  imple- 
ments as  they  possessed. 

At  the  request  of  Lieutenant-Governor  Lewis,  I  had 
furnished  two  disk  plows  with  the  necessary  animals  to 
pull  them,  in  order  that  the  land  might  be  plowed  the 
first  time  for  those  who  were  wUhng  to  cultivate  it. 
Thereafter  they  were  left  to  cai-e  for  it  themselves.  This 
plan  had  aroused  great  enthusiasm.  As  I  approached 
Sumilao  I  saw  a  crowd  of  men  busily  engaged  in  some 
task,  and  when  I  drew  near  was  amazed  and  dehghted 
to  find  that,  although  the  disk  plow  intended  for  use  at 
that  place  had  arrived  before  the  animals  which  were  to 
pull  it,  fifteen  men  had  harnessed  themselves  to  it  and 
were  vigorously  breaking  the  sod.  I  decided  on  the  spot 
that  the  Bukidnon  people  had  a  future,  and  have  never 
changed  ray  mind.  The  progress  which  they  have  since 
made  is  almost  unbelievable. 

Efforts  to  destroy  the  government  wliich  we  had  es- 
tablished in  Bukidnon,  and  to  reestabUsh  the  system  of 
peonage  under  which  its  peaceful,  industrious  inhabitants 
had  so  long  groaned,  were  persistently  continued.  Dur- 
ing my  tliird  annual  inspection  trip,  I  found  that  there 
was  a  plan  on  foot  to  trump  up  criminal  charges  against 
Lieutenant-Governor  Lewis  and  Senor  Manuel  Fortich, 
whose  ser\'ices  I  had  meanwhile  secured  as  an  assistant 
to  Mr.  Lewis  upon  his  severing  his  connection  with  the 
constabulary.  The  efforts  of  the  mischief-makers  had 
become  so  persistent  and  so  \'icious  that  I  decided  to 
declare  war  on  them.  Accordingly,  I  ran  over  to  Cagayan 
and  summoned  the  provincial  officers  and  several  other 
prominent  citizens,  with  whom  I  went  straight  to  the 
point,  telhng  them  that  I  had  not  anticipated  that  they 
would  readily  adapt  themselves  to  the  changed  conditions 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF  THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      625 

which  resulted  from  the  separation  of  Bukidnon  as  a 
distinct  subprovince,  and  had  patiently  waited  three 
years  for  them  to  accept  the  inevitable,  but  that  I  had 
grown  weary  of  their  constant  efforts  to  nuUify  the  work 
which  we  were  doing,  and  that  I  was  aware  of  the  plan 
to  destroy  the  usefulness  of  Lewis  and  Fortich ;  adding 
that  they  must  let  the  Bukidnon  officials  alone,  and  that 
in  the  event  of  futiue  failure  to  do  so  I  would  temporarily 
transfer  my  office  to  Cagayan  de  Misamis  and  devote  my 
time  and  attention  to  making  things  interesting  for  certain 
of  them.  I  named  no  names,  and  it  was  not  necessary 
to  do  so.  The  individuals  referred  to  knew  whom  I 
meant. 

Conditions  now  rapidly  improved  for  a  time,  but  in 
November  I  was  called  to  Wasliington  to  be  investigated 
by  the  Committee  on  Insular  Affairs  with  reference  to 
my  administration  of  public  and  friar  lands,  and  the 
enemies  of  the  Bukidnon  government  promptly  became 
active.  Governor  Lewis  was  arrested  and  tried  on  two 
criminal  charges,  while  his  assistant,  Senor  Fortich, 
was  charged  with  miu-der,  no  less.  If  the  charges  of 
estafa  and  falsification  of  pubhc  documents  brought 
against  Lewis  failed,  it  was  proposed  to  prosecute  him 
for  adultery,  the  minimum  penalty  for  which  in  the 
Phihppine  Islands  is  imprisonment  for  two  years,  four 
months  and  one  day. 

Fortunately,  it  took  but  a  short  time  to  show  that  the 
cases  against  those  two  young  men  were  spite  cases  pure 
and  simple,  and  they  collapsed  miserably.  Other  charges 
were  promptly  brought. 

There  had  been  a  sad  mix  up,  resulting  from  an  ill- 
defined  boundary  line  between  Bukidnon  and  the  Moro 
Province,  for  which  I  myself  was  directly  responsible, 
as  the  papers  concerning  it  were  on  my  desk  awaiting 
action  when  I  was  called  home,  and  in  the  rush  of  a  hiu-ried 
departure  I  had  overlooked  them.  Lewis  and  Fortich 
had  been  unjustly  blamed  for  the  result.     I  now  took  a 


626  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

hand  in  the  game  myself,  and  the  whole  matter  was 
satisfactorily  cleared  up.  Lewis  was  promoted  to  the 
governorship  of  the  province  of  Agusan,  and  Fortich  was 
made  Ueutenant-governor  of  Bukidnon,  a  position  which 
he  has  fiUed  ever  since  with  great  credit  to  himself  and 
advantage  to  the  Bukidnon  people. 

The  progress  which  has  been  made  in  Bukidnon  is 
really  wonderful.  At  the  outset  there  was  not  a  decent 
trail  in  the  subprovince.  Now  one  can  go  nineteen  miles 
inland  to  the  Mangima  River  canon  in  an  automobile, 
and  it  will  be  soon  possible  so  to  continue  the  jom-ney 
ten  miles  further  to  Maluco.  Excellent  low-grade  horse 
trails,  many  miles  of  which  are  already  wide  enough 
to  serve  as  automobile  roads  as  soon  as  the  line 
to  the  coast  is  completed,  connect  the  principal  settle- 
ments of  Bukidnon  proper,  which  also  have  telephonic 
communication,  the  people  having  gladly  undertaken  to 
cut  and  erect  the  necessary  poles  and  build  and  maintain 
the  lines,  if  furnished  instruments,  wire,  insulators  and 
tools.  They  have  kept  theii-  bargain,  and  there  are  con- 
stant demands  for  an  extension  of  the  system,  under 
similar  conditions,  to  the  more  remote  mountain  villages. 

There  was  not  a  bridge  or  a  culvert  in  the  subprovince. 
Pack  animals  were  constantly  being  swept  away  by  the 
rushing  cm-rents  of  the  larger  rivers,  or  perishing  miser- 
ably in  mud  when  attempting  to  cross  soft-bottomed 
creeks.  Now  one  may  ride  from  the  sea-coast  to  Malay- 
balay  -sv-ithout  wetting  the  feet  of  one's  horse,  and  in  so 
doing  one  will  cross  more  than  a  hundred  substantial 
bridges  and  culverts  built  by  the  Bukidnons  themselves. 
As  a  rule,  even  the  largest  bridges  have  cost  the  govern- 
ment no  more  than  the  price  of  their  iron  bolts  and  braces. 
The  people  have  voluntarily  and  cheerfully  done  the  work, 
in  order  to  get  the  benefits  which  would  result.  In  some 
cases  heavy  hardwood  timbers  have  been  dragged  for 
fifteen  miles  or  more  by  teams  of  hundreds  of  men.  All 
bridges  are  roofed,  and  they  afford  fine  camping  places 


A  Wild  Tingian  of  Apatao. 

The  Tingians  of  Apayao  have  proved  to  be  the  most  difficult  of  the  liill-tribcs 
of  Xorthern  Luzon  to  bring  under  effective  governmental  control.  With 
them  head-hunting  is  connected  with  religious  beliefs  and  observances. 


THE  GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      627 

for  travellers  and  their  pack  animals.  Incidentally  the 
load  which  pack  animals  can  comfortably  carry  has 
been  more  than  doubled. 

Old  villages  have  increased  greatly  in  size,  and  numer- 
ous new  ones  have  been  estabUshed.  All  have  spacious 
plazas  and  streets  which  are  beautifully  kept.  The 
mountains  are  almost  depopulated.  The  hardy  old 
fighters  who  used  to  frequent  them  have  become  peaceful 
agriculturists.  Houses  are  neat  and  clean.  Yards  are 
fenced,  planted  with  useful  crops,  and  well  cultivated. 
Each  house  has  its  own  sanitary  arrangements.  No 
domestic  animals  are  allowed  to  run  at  large  in  towns. 

Rich,  cultivated  fields  surround  the  villages  and  each 
year  stretch  farther  and  farther  out  over  the  neighbouring 
prairies.  Coffee  production  is  increasing  by  leaps  and 
bounds,  and  blight  is  disappearing  from  the  plantations 
as  the  result  of  intensive  cultivation.  The  people  are 
well  fed  and  prosperous.  Their  condition  steadily  im- 
proves. They  have  been  taught  the  value  of  their  prod- 
ucts, and  encouraged  to  insist  on  receiving  it. 

Practically  every  village  has  its  schoolhouse  and  its 
schoolmaster's  house,  voluntarily  built  free  of  charge 
by  the  inhabitants.  Children  are  sent  to  school  by  their 
parents  and  learn  rapidly.  On  my  second  \'isit  I  found 
the  boys  trying  to  play  baseball,  using  joints  of  bamboo 
for  bats,  and  big,  thick-skinned  oranges  for  balls.  I  sent 
to  each  of  the  more  important  towns  a  complete  baseball 
outfit,  and  now  the  boys  certainly  know,  and  can  play, 
the  game. 

These  results  have  been  accompUshed  practically 
without  bloodshed  or  rough  treatment  of  any  sort.  Only 
in  the  rarest  instances,  and  in  dealing  with  the  very  worst 
of  the  hill  men,  who  were  professional  murderers,  has  a 
shot  been  fired. 

When  the  subprovince  was  invaded  by  bands  of  savages 
from  the  mountains  of  Butuan  and  from  the  neighbouring 
Moro  Province,  the  people  requested  firearms  so  that  they 


628  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

might  protect  themselves.  Some  twenty-five  old  car- 
bines were  furnished  them,  and  they  organized  an  effective 
force  which  pursued  the  evil-doers  and  policed  them  up 
very  effectively. 

Maramag,  one  of  the  most  recently  estabhshed  villages, 
is  in  the  very  heart  of  Mindanao.  Two  years  ago  a  good 
many  of  its  leading  citizens  were  Uving  in  tree-houses. 
During  August,  1912,  I  found  them  cutting  the  grass  on 
their  plaza  with  a  lawn-mower  ! 

Another  thing  which  has  made  me  rub  my  eyes  and 
wonder  if  I  were  awake  was  the  discovery  that  the  people 
of  this  subprovince  were  clothing  thejnselves  and  their 
children  in  garments  purchased  from  Montgomery, 
Ward  &  Co.,  of  Chicago,  Illinois,  U.  S.  A. !  The  explana- 
tion is  simple.  The  Cagayan  shopkeepers  persist  in 
cheating  them  at  every  opportunity,  and  the  house  of 
Montgomery,  Ward  &  Co.  does  not.  Although  Chicago 
is  far  away,  the  mail  service  is  nevertheless  good  ! 

Death  has  just  summoned  Leoncio,  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  men  who  has  yet  arisen  among  the  Bukidnon 
people.  We  found  him  an  absolutely  iUiterate  heathen. 
With  no  other  instruction  than  that  given  him  by  Ueu- 
tenant-governors  Lewis  and  Fortich,  he  learned  to  lay 
out  and  build  roads  and  trails  on  any  desired  grade,  to 
constmct  bridges  which  will  be  standing  twenty  years 
hence,  and  to  erect  public  buildings  which  would  be  a 
credit  to  any  man  compelled  to  use  such  materials  as 
those  available  in  Bukidnon. 

At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  just  finishing  a  bridge 
three  hundred  feet  long  across  the  rushing  Culaman  River. 
This  structure  has  a  galvanized  iron  roof,  contributed  by 
the  enthusiastic  residents  of  Sumilao. 

The  healthful  rivalry  between  towns  is  one  of  the 
delightful  things  about  Bukidnon.  Each  desires  to  have 
better  buildings,  better  streets,  better  bridges,  better 
roads  and  better  schools  than  its  neighbours. 

I  experience  no  keener  pleasure  than  that  which  I  enjoy 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      629 

on  my  annual  trips  through  Bukidnon.  There  is  always 
something  new  to  see.  The  people  are  most  grateful 
for  the  help  which  has  been  given  them.  Their  friend- 
Uness  and  their  loyalty  cannot  fail  to  touch  the  hearts  of 
all  who  know  them.  They  are  now  well  housed,  and  well 
fed.  Their  children  are  being  given  in  hberal  measure 
the  education  which  had  previously  been  denied  to  them. 
The  Bukidnons  are  to-day  a  prosperous,  progressive 
people,  happy,  and  contented.  I  have  an  abiding  faith 
in  their  future  if  they  are  given  a  chance. 

When  they  meet  their  old  FiUpino  oppressors  on  trips 
to  the  coast,  the  latter  grit  their  teeth  and  remark  under 
their  breath  :  "Oh,  very  well.  This  is  your  inning  now, 
but  ours  will  come  !  The  Americans  are  going  soon,  and 
then  we  will  square  our  little  account  with  you.  You 
will  pay  dearly  for  your  'insubordination'!"  Having 
set  the  feet  of  these  people  on  the  road  which  leads  on- 
ward and  upward,  shall  we  leave  them  to  their  fate  ? 

Conditions  in  Butuan  have  improved  far  more  slowly 
than  in  Bukidnon.  The  climate  is  less  favourable. 
Bukidnon  is  a  highland  country  with  a  white  man's 
cUmate.  The  Agusan  River  valley  is  usually  hot,  and 
always  damp.  The  town  of  Butuan  was  considered  the 
worst  misgoverned  municipality  in  the  Philippines  on 
the  date  of  its  separation  from  Surigao,  and  it  was  cer- 
tainly one  of  the  filthiest.  I  have  sunk  to  my  knees  in 
the  mud  of  its  streets.  It  is  to-day  a  beautifully  kept 
and  sanitary  place,  and  is  certainly  not  misgoverned. 

As  I  have  already  said,  the  Manobo  inhabitants  of  the 
wretched  villages  along  the  banks  of  the  main  Agusan 
River  were  a  sickly,  filthy,  broken-spirited  lot,  besotted 
with  vino  and  in  danger  of  becoming  victims  of  the  opium 
habit.  It  is  almost  a  physical  impossibility  completely 
to  suppress  the  opium  traffic  because  of  the  ease  with 
which  the  drug  is  smuggled,  but  the  vino  traffic  has  been 
suppressed.  The  chief  business  on  the  Agusan  River 
was  formerly  the  transportation  of  vino  up-stream.     It  is 


630  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

now  the  transportation  down-stream  of  Manila  hemp 
raised  by  the  people  of  the  valley. 

The  villages  have  been  greatly  improved  and  rendered 
reasonably  sanitary.  The  best  of  them  compare  not 
unfavourably  with  some  of  the  Bukidnon  towns.  The 
people  improve,  but  radical  improvement  will  not  be  in 
evidence  until  the  next  generation  comes  on. 

Transportation  facilities  have  been  greatly  increased 
by  freeing  several  of  the  more  important  branches  of  the 
Agusan  River  from  snags,  and  so  opening  them  for 
launch  navigation.  Two  good  canals  have  been  cut 
through  the  swamps,  and  conmiunication  by  launch  has 
thus  been  opened  with  the  upper  Agusan  ^^alley. 

There  is  an  industrial  school  for  Manobo  boys,  and  a 
number  of  the  villages  have  primarj'  schools. 

Doubtless  the  most  important  single  factor  in  improving 
the  condition  of  the  Manobos  has  been  the  estabhshment 
of  a  series  of  government  shops  at  which  they  can  sell 
their  products  for  a  fair  price,  and  buy  what  they  need  so 
cheaply  that  it  almost  seems  to  them  as  if  they  were 
receiving  presents. 

Governor  Frederick  Johnston,  who  is  largely  respon- 
sible for  these  improved  conditions,  laboured  ceaselessly 
to  bring  them  about.  At  the  outset  he  had  no  launch 
transportation  and  Uved  for  weeks  at  a  time  in  native 
canoes  or  bancas.  He  was  fearless  and  tireless.  When 
the  time  came  for  him  to  take  long  overdue  leave  I  had 
no  competent  person  to  put  in  his  place,  and  in  deference 
to  my  washes  he  continued  at  his  post  for  nearly  two  years. 
At  the  end  of  that  time  it  was  found  that  one  of  his  legs, 
which  had  been  injured  on  an  early  exploring  expedition, 
had  become  cancerous,  and  that  immediate  amputation 
was  necessary.  This  made  it  impossible  for  him  to  con- 
tinue his  work,  and  crippled  him  for  life.  He  had  borne 
his  trouble  uncomplainingly,  and  I  had  not  even  known  of 
its  existence.  Although  a  man  of  mature  years,  he  bravely 
entered  upon  the  study  of  medicine,  hoping  to  prepare 


THE   GO\'ERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTLAJ^   TRIBES      631 

himself  for  a  useful  life,  but  the  operation  had  come 
too  late.  Cancer  reappeared,  and  for  a  year  he  was 
dying  by  inches.  In  a  way  I  am  responsible  for  it.  Do 
you  think  he  laid  it  up  against  me  ?  You  shall  judge  for 
yourselves. 

He  used  to  write  a  copj'-book  hand.  Just  before 
leaving  Manila  I  received  from  him  an  almost  illegible 
letter  in  which  he  economized  words  as  if  composing  a 
cablegram.     It  brought  the  tears  to  my  eyes.     He  said  :  — 

"I  thank  you  for  your  slavery  book  just  received.  If 
strength  is  left  me  to  read  it,  I  shall  read  it  though  I  do  nothing 
else  in  this  life. 

"I  have  had  letter  in  preparation  to  you  since  last  June  but 
I  haven't  strength  to  sit  at  the  machine.  I  expect  now  to  die 
before  New  Year. 

"  I  have  offered  surgeons  to  take  all  chances,  but  they  decline 
to  operate,  stating  that  thej'  would  consider  operation  delib- 
erate murder. 

"Tliis  is  first  letter  I  wTite  since  last  September.  If  I  do 
not  get  strength  to  finish  tjijewritten  letter  I  have  given  in- 
structions it  be  sent  when  I  am  dead.  I  cannot  write  with 
pen;   I  have  tried  it. 

''If  you  hear  no  more,  please  remember  I  never  forgot  j'ou. 
Sorrj'  you  leave  the  Secretariat  —  so  sorry  I  can't  tell  you. 

"I  am  ready  to  die.  I  know  that  I  have  lived  unselfishly 
for  what  I  thought  was  right  and  good,  and  death  is  nothing. 
If  this  should  be  the  last,  then  accept  from  the  man  that  was 
alwavs  vour  man  and  will  be  j'our  man  until  he  dies,  a  last 
Good-by." 

A  few  days  later  he  went  to  his  reward. 

The  loyaltj'  of  such  a  man  is  a  precious  possession. 

The  lot  of  the  non-Christian  tribes  inhabiting  the 
regTilarly  organized  pro\dnces  is  not  a  happy  one.  The 
township  government  act  is  apphcable  to  their  settle- 
ments, and  the  pro\dncial  officers  have  the  same  powers 
and  duties  with  reference  to  them  as  have  the  correspond- 
ing officers  in  the  special  government  provinces.  In 
both  cases  these  powers  are  exercised  subject  to  the  ap- 
proval of  the  secretary  of  the  interior,  but  in  providing 


632  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

for  the  government  of  non-Christians  in  Christian  prov- 
inces, we  overlooked  one  very  essential  detail.  Neither 
the  secretary  of  the  interior  nor  any  one  else  has  authority 
to  compel  the  governors  or  provincial  boards  of  these 
provinces  to  act.  They  have  discovered  that  efforts 
to  improve  the  condition  of  the  ignorant  and  primi- 
tive peoples  intrusted  to  their  charge  can  be  very  effec- 
tively nulhfied  if  they  merely  sit  still  and  do  nothing,  and 
almost  with  one  accord  they  have  adopted  this  pohcy. 
Exception  should  be  made  in  favour  of  North  Ilocos,  South 
Ilocos,  Pangasinan,  AmbosCamarines,  Iloilo  and  Zambales. 
No  other  provinces  have  made  any  real  effort  to  help  their 
non-Christian  population,  and  the  funds  set  aside  by  law 
to  be  expended  for  this  end  simply  go  on  accumulating  in 
their  respective  treasuries,  as  I  have  managed  to  convince 
them  that  efforts  to  divert  such  fimds  to  purposes  not 
authorized  by  law  will  not  prosper.  The  law  should  be 
so  amended  as  to  provide  that  if  provincial  boards  fail 
to  act,  the  secretary  of  the  interior  may  do  so. 

The  organization  of  the  Moro  Province  was  provided 
for  by  an  act  passed  on  June  1,  1903.  It  is  the  largest 
single  province  in  the  Phihppine  Islands,  including  within 
its  limits  more  than  half  of  the  great  island  of  Mindanao 
with  various  small  islands  adjacent  thereto,  and  Basilan, 
Jolo,  Siassi,  Tawi  Tawi,  Sibutu,  Cagayan  de  Jolo  and  the 
very  numerous  other  small  islands  stretching  between 
Mindanao  and  North  Borneo.  It  is  divided  into  five 
districts,  each  with  a  district  governor.  The  province 
has  a  governor,  a  secretary,  a  treasurer,  an  attorney,  an 
engineer  and  a  superintendent  of  schools. 

The  four  officials  first  named  constitute  a  legislative 
council  the  acts  of  which  are  subject  to  the  approval  of 
the  Philippine  Commission. 

The  province  is  allowed  to  expend  the  moneys  accruing 
from  the  customs  dues  paid  at  Jolo  and  Zamboanga, 
which  are  ports  of  entry,  but  is  not  fully  self-supporting. 
The  insular  government  pays  for  the  Phihppine  constabu- 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      633 

lary  serving  there.  Until  within  a  very  short  time  the 
provincial  officials  have  been  almost  exclusively  officers 
of  the  army  of  the  United  States.  In  my  opinion  this 
arrangement  has  been  a  bad  one,  not  because  of  the 
character  of  the  men  who  have  done  the  work,  many  of 
whom  were  of  exceptional  abihty  and  were  admii'ably 
fitted  for  the  performance  of  the  duties  which  fell  to  their 
lot,  but  because  no  one  of  them  has  retained  a  given  office 
long  enough  to  carry  a  policy  through  to  its  logical  con- 
clusion and  get  the  results  which  might  thus  have  been 
obtained.  Indeed,  the  lack  of  a  fixed  policy,  combined 
with  some  unnecessary  and  unjustifiable  killing,  explain, 
in  my  opinion,  the  fact  that  the  results  accompUshed 
have  come  far  short  of  what  might  have  been  expected 
when  one  considers  the  splendid  body  of  men  from  which 
the  provincial  officials  have  been  drawn. 

Noteworthy  public  improvements  have  been  made  in 
places  like  Zamboanga  and  Jolo,  but  the  country  of  the 
hiU  people,  which  ought  to  have  been  crisscrossed  with 
trails  long  ere  this,  is  still  not  opened  up.  Tribes  Uke  the 
Mandayas  would,  if  given  the  opportunity,  advance  as 
rapidly  as  have  the  Bukidnons,  but  such  opportunity  has 
not  been  given  to  them  to  any  considerable  extent. 

Having  heard  much  of  the  JMandaya  villages  near 
Mati,  I  improved  the  opportunity  to  visit  them  in  August, 
1912,  only  to  find  to  my  amazement  that  the  local  con- 
stabulary officer,  who  ought  to  have  been  in  the  closest 
possible  touch  with  these  people,  did  not  even  know  the 
way  to  their  settlements.  At  another  place  where  some 
1400  hill  people  had  been  compelled  to  come  down  from 
their  native  mountains  and  settle  in  a  village  which  could 
have  been  made  a  model  of  cleanliness,  and  should  have 
been  surrounded  by  rich  cultivated  fieldsj  not  half  enough 
ground  had  been  cleared  to  furnish  food  for  the  inhabit- 
ants, even  under  the  most  favourable  circumstances. 
The  houses  were  faffing  down ;  the  streets  were  deep  in 
mud ;    the  garden  patches  were  overgrown  with  weeds ; 


634  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

more  than  half  of  the  people  had  taken  to  the  hills  again 
in  a  search  for  food,  and  small  blame  to  them !  I  found 
here  as  fine  appearing  a  young  constabulary  officer  as 
one  could  hope  to  meet,  eating  his  heart  out  because  he 
had  nothing  to  do  !  Neither  he  nor  any  of  his  soldiers 
spoke  the  local  dialect.  He  was  supposed  to  be  running 
a  store,  among  other  things,  for  the  benefit  of  the  hill 
people.  I  asked  to  see  it,  and  it  took  him  half  an  hour  to 
find  the  key  !  In  sixty  minutes  I  could  have  set  him  work 
enough  to  keep  him  busy  for  three  months.  All  that  he 
needed  was  some  one  to  direct  him,  but  there  was  no  one 
to  do  it.  With  the  best  intentions  in  the  world  he  was 
using  his  soldiers  to  chase  a  lot  of  poor  hill  people  back 
into  a  village  where  they  ought  never  to  have  been  asked 
to  Hve.  In  other  words,  the  Moro  Province,  having 
brought  these  people  down  and  ordered  them  to  settle 
on  a  site  selected  for  them,  had  signally  failed  to  back  its 
own  game.  I  myseK  would  not  tliink  of  trying  to  compel 
members  of  a  wild  tribe  to  live  in  any  given  place,  unless 
it  were  necessary  to  do  so  in  the  interest  of  pubUc  order. 
Life  in  villages  can,  and  should,  be  made  so  attractive  to 
them  that  they  will  be  glad  to  adopt  it. 

The  Moros,  with  their  fanatical  religious  beHefs  and 
prejudices,  present  a  veiy  grave  problem.  Conditions 
have  undoubtedly  greatly  improved  in  Davao,  Cotabato 
and  Zamboanga.  I  am  not  sufficiently  famihar  with 
affairs  in  the  Lanao  district  to  express  an  intelhgent 
opinion  concerning  them.  So  far  as  concerns  Jolo,  it  is 
my  opinion  that  things  have  come  to  a  bad  pass  there; 
that  life  and  property  are  not  as  safe  to-day  as  they  were 
during  the  early  days  of  the  American  occupation,  and 
that  we  have  progressed  backward  for  some  time.  How- 
ever, Jolo  pirates  have  at  least  been  pretty  effectively 
kept  off  the  sea,  and  that  in  itself  is  a  very  important 
result. 

It  is  idle  to  suppose  that  the  Moros  can  be  subdued  and 
made  into  decent  citizens  by  throwing  kisses  at  them.     It 


TiNGiAN  Girls  Threshing  Rice. 


THE   GOVERNMENT   OF   THE   NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBES      635 

was  certain  from  the  start  that  they  would  transgress. 
In  my  opinion,  if  we  are  to  cure  them  of  their  evil  ten- 
dencies, we  must  first  warn  them  that  they  will  be  pim- 
ished  if  they  misbehave,  and  then  make  the  warning  come 
true.  This  has  been  done,  but  to  another  very  important 
part  of  the  programme  which  I  deem  essential  to  success, 
comparatively  httle  attention  seems  to  have  been  given. 
When  people  who  have  been  punished  for  misbehavior 
have  had  enough  they  should  be  afforded  a  chance  to  quit, 
and  mdeed  should  be  encouraged  and  helped  to  do  so. 
No  grudge  should  be  borne  for  past  misdeeds  after  the 
account  has  once  been  settled.  Occasions  have  not  been 
lacking  in  the  Moro  Province  on  which  men  have  been 
treated  with  severity  when  they  should  have  been  treated 
with  kindness. 

In  the  Moro,  native  racial  characteristics  have  been 
profoundly  modified  by  rehgious  behefs.  Men  endowed 
with  such  magnificent  courage  as  the  Moro  warriors  often 
display  certainly  have  their  redeeming  quahties.  The 
same  old  pohcy  that  has  won  with  the  Ifugaos,  Bontoc 
Igorots  and  Kalingas,  and  is  winning  with  the  wild  Tin- 
gians  and  Ilongots,  has  been  tried  in  dealing  with  the 
renegade  Moros  of  Palawan  with  a  considerable  degree  of 
success.  It  is  my  firm  beUef  that  it  will  work  with  the 
Moros  of  Mindanao,  Basilan,  Jolo  and  Tawi  Tawi,  but 
substantial  and  permanent  progress  cannot  now  be  antici- 
pated for  many  years.  The  Moros  must  be  given  more 
than  a  square  deal,  or  results  will  not  differ  essentially 
from  those  which  have  attended  the  efforts  of  Japan  to 
subdue  the  hill  people  of  Northern  Formosa,  or  those  of 
the  Dutch  to  subdue  the  Achinese. 

Recently  nearly  all  of  the  army  officers  holding  posi- 
tions in  the  Moro  Province  have  been  replaced  by  ci- 
vilians. This  is  a  move  in  the  right  direction;  not,  I 
repeat,  because  the  men  thus  displaced  are  incapable  of 
achieving  success  if  given  the  opportunity,  but  because 
contmuity  of  policy  is  absolutely  essential  to  success  and 


636  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

is  impracticable  if  the  men  charged  with  carrying  out  that 
pohcy  are  to  be  constantly  changed.  The  next  governor 
of  the  Moro  Province  should  be  a  civiUan  and  should  be 
selected  with  the  greatest  care.  He  should  be  able,  en- 
ergetic, fearless,  tireless  and  young.  He  should  be  kept 
in  office  for  twenty  years  if  he  will  stay  so  long.  The  task 
which  awaits  him  is  real  man's  work. 


CHAPTER  XXIII 

Corrigenda 

I  TRUST  that  the  foregoing  incomplete  outline  of  what 
has  been  accomplished  toward  bettering  the  condition 
of  the  non-Christian  tribes  of  the  Philippines  has  at  least 
sufficed  to  convey  some  idea  of  the  nature  of  the  task  which 
has  confronted  us  and  of  the  spirit  in  which  it  has  been 
approached.  Before  considering  further  the  difficulties 
which  have  been  successfully  met  and  the  problems  which 
still  remain  misettled,  I  will  correct  some  of  the  numerous 
misstatements  which  have  been  made  relative  to  the  un- 
importance of  the  non-Christian  tribes,  the  nature  of  the 
work  done  for  them,  and  the  motives  of  some  of  those 
who  have  engaged  in  it. 

I  once  heard  it  said  that  the  trouble  with  Blount's 
book  was  that  it  contained  five  thousand  hes,  that  the 
correction  of  each  would  require,  on  the  average,  two  pages 
of  printed  matter,  and  that  no  one  would  read  the  result- 
ing series  of  volumes  ! 

I  have  not  counted  the  misstatements  of  this  author. 
They  are  sufficiently  nmnerous  to  make  it  impracticable 
to  answer  them  all  in  detail.  It  is  hard  to  know  just  what 
to  do  in  such  a  case,  as  one  must  run  the  risk  of  giving 
undue  importance  to  them  by  noticing  them,  or  of  creat- 
ing the  impression  that  they  cannot  be  answered  by 
ignoring  them. 

Under  all  the  circumstances  it  has  seemed  to  me  well 
to  reply  somewhat  fully  to  his  more  important  allegations 
relative  to  non-Christian  tribe  matters,  for  the  reason, 
among  others,  that  many  of  his  statements  embody  the 
more  important  claims  of  the  Filipino  politicians  relative 
thereto ;  and  to  add  that  it  would  be  equally  easy  to 

637 


638  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

riddle  his  contentions  relative  to  most  other  matters  which 
he  discusses.     He  says  :  — 

"Professor  Worcester  of  the  Philippine  Commission  has  for 
the  last  twelve  years  been  the  grand  official  digger-up  of  non- 
Christian  tribes.  He  takes  as  much  delight  at  the  discovery 
of  a  new  non-Christian  tribe  in  some  remote,  newly  penetrated 
mountain  fastness,  as  the  butterfly  catcher  with  the  proverbial 
blue  goggles  does  in  the  capture  of  a  new  kind  of  butterfly."  > 

I  have  never  had  the  good  fortune  to  discover  even  one 
new  tribe,  the  net  result  of  my  explorations  and  studies 
having  been  to  reduce  the  number  of  such  tribes  claimed 
to  inhabit  the  Philippines  from  eighty-two  to  twenty-seven, 
and  to  throw  serious  doubt  on  the  validity  of  several  of 
those  which  I  still  provisionally  recognize.  Blount  adds  :  — 

"Professor  Worcester's  greatest  value  to  President  Taft, 
and  also  the  thing  out  of  which  has  grown,  most  unfortunately, 
what  seems  to  be  a  very  cordial  mutual  hatred  between  him 
and  the  Filipinos,  is  his  activities  in  the  matter  of  discovering, 
getting  acquainted  with,  classifying,  tabulating,  enumerating, 
and  otherwise  preparing  for  salvation,  the  various  non-Christian 
tribes."  ^ 

It  is  quite  true  that  the  Fihpino  politicians  have  bit- 
terly resented  my  making  known  the  facts  relative  to  the 
existence  of  numerous  uncivilized  peoples  in  the  islands, 
but  to  the  charge  that  I  hate  the  Filipinos  I  must  enter 
an  emphatic  denial. 

Fifteen  years  ago  I  expressed  my  opinion  of  them  in 
the  following  words  :  — 

"The  civilized  native  is  self-respecting  and  self-restrained 
to  a  remarkable  degree.  He  is  patient  under  misfortune,  and 
forbearing  under  provocation.  While  it  is  stretching  the  truth 
to  say  that  he  never  reveals  anger,  he  certainly  succeeds  much 
better  in  controlling  himself  than  does  the  average  European. 
When  he  does  give  way  to  passion,  however,  he  is  as  likely  as 
not  to  become  for  the  moment  a  maniac,  and  to  do  some  one  a 
fatal  injury. 

>  Blount,  p.  543.  2  Ibid.,  p.  573. 


CORRIGENDA  639 

"He  is  a  kind  father  and  a  dutiful  son.  His  aged  relatives 
are  never  left  in  want,  but  are  brought  to  his  home,  and  are 
welcome  to  share  the  best  that  it  affords  to  the  end  of  their 

"Among  his  fellows,  he  is  genial  and  sociable.  He  loves  to 
sing,  dance,  and  make  merry  He  is  a  born  musician,  and 
considering  the  sort  of  instruments  at  his  disposal,  and  especially 
the  limited  advantages  which  he  has  for  perfecting  himself  in 
their  use,  his  performances  on  them  are  often  very  remarkable. 

"He  is  naturally  fearless,  and  admires  nothing  so  much  as 
bravery  in  others.  Under  good  officers  he  makes  an  excellent 
soldier,  and  he  is  ready  to  fight  to  the  death  for  his  honour  or  his 

home. 

******* 

"With  all  their  amiable  qualities  it  is  not  to  be  denied  that 
at  present  the  civilized  natives  are  utterly  unfit  for  self-govern- 
ment. Their  universal  lack  of  education  is  in  itself  a  difficulty 
that  cannot  be  speedily  overcome,  and  there  is  much  truth  in 
the  statement  of  a  priest  who  said  of  them  that  'm  many  things 
they  are  big  children  who  must  be  treated  like  little  ones. 

"Not  having  the  gift  of  prophecy,  I  cannot  say  how  far  or 
how  fast  they  might  advance,  under  more  favourable  circum- 
stances than  those  which  have  thus  far  surrounded  them. 
They  are  naturally  law-abiding  and  peace-loving,  and  would, 
I  believe,  appreciate  and  profit  by  just  treatment. 

"In  the  four  months  which  separate  May  1,  1898,  from  the 
day  when  the  manuscript  for  this  volume  leaves  my  hands, 
important  events  have  crowded  on  each  other's  heels  as  never 
before  in  the  history  of  the  Archipelago.  Whatever  may  be  the 
immediate  outcome,  it  is  safe  to  say  that,  having  learned  some- 
thing of  his  power,  the  civilized  native  will  now  be  likely  to 
take  a  hand  in  shaping  his  own  future.  I  trust  that  opportuni- 
ties which  he  has  never  enjoyed  may  be  given  to  him.  it  not, 
may  he  win  them  for  himself."  ' 

This  opinion,  which  I  trust  will  not  be  considered 
unkindly,  has  not  been  modified  in  its  essentials  as  a 
result  of  many  additional  years  of  life  in  the  Philippines. 
I  have  unexpectedly  had  a  hand  in  giving  to  the  Fili- 
pinos opportunities  which  they  had  never  before  enjoyed. 

1  "The  PhiUppine  Islands  and  Their  People,"  by  Dean  C.  Worces- 
ter, p.  480. 


640  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

I  drafted  the  act  under  which  the  municipalities  of  these 
islands  to-day  govern  themselves ;  the  act  creating  the 
College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery  where  young  Filipino 
men  and  women  may  receive  the  best  of  theoretical  and 
practical  instruction ;  the  act  creating  in  the  Bureau  of 
Lands  a  school  of  surveying  as  a  result  of  which  the 
present  dearth  of  Filipino  surveyors  will  soon  end;  the 
provision  of  law  creating  and  providing  for  the  Philip- 
pine Training  School  for  Nm-ses,  which  is  preparing  hun- 
dreds of  young  Filipino  men  and  women  to  practise  a 
useful  and  noble  profession.  I  drafted  the  legislation 
which  created  a  forest  school,  where  many  bright  Fili- 
pino lads  are  now  being  trained  for  the  government 
service.  I  drafted  the  provision  of  law  which  gives  to 
all  FiUpinos  the  right  to  make  personal  use  of  timber 
from  the  government  forests  without  paying  a  cent 
therefor,  and  the  act  which  makes  it  possible  for  munici- 
palities to  have  communal  forests,  reserved  for  the  special 
and  exclusive  benefit  of  their  citizens. 

I  fought  for  eight  years  to  get  the  money  for  the  Phil- 
ippine General  Hospital,  where  nearly  ninety  thousand  pa- 
tients, the  vast  majority  of  whom  are  Filipinos,  are  treated 
annually  either  in  beds  or  at  the  several  clinics ;  I  have 
approved,  and  indeed  compelled,  the  appointment  of  a 
staff  for  that  institution  largely  made  up  of  Filipinos,  and 
I  have  steadily  supported  the  Filipino  members  of  that 
staff  when  insulted  or  unjustly  accused,  as  I  regret  to 
say  they  sometimes  have  been,  as  a  result  of  race  preju- 
dice with  which  I  have  no  sympathy. 

I  am  the  official  ultimately  responsible  for  the  establish- 
ment and  maintenance  of  a  health  system  which  indis- 
putably saves  the  lives  of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  Fili- 
pinos every  year,  and  has  practically  rid  their  country  of 
smallpox,  plague  and  cholera. 

All  of  the  employees  of  the  Weather  Bureau,  which 
comes  under  my  executive  control,  are  Filipinos. 

I  could  name  a  score  of  other  important  measures,  hav- 


Typical  Manobos. 


CORRIGENDA  641 

ing  for  their  sole  object  the  betterment  of  the  condition 
of  the  Filipinos,  and  extension  to  them  of  increased 
opportimity  to  demonstrate  their  capacity,  which  I  have 
originated.  I  have  never  knowingly  opposed  a  measure 
which  would  produce  this  result. 

I  frankly  admit  that  I  have  declined  to  approve  the 
appointment  of  a  Filipino  to  any  position  under  my 
control  simply  because  he  was  a  FiUpino.  I  have  insisted 
that  appointees  have  higher  and  better  reasons  to  claim 
consideration,  among  which  may  be  mentioned  decent 
character  and  ability  to  do  the  work  of  the  positions  to 
be  filled.  No  living  man  entertains  more  genuinely 
kindly  feelings  toward  the  peoples  of  these  islands, 
Christian  and  non-Christian,  than  do  I.  .\n  allegation 
that  I  hate  the  Filipinos  comes  with  especially  bad  taste 
from  a  man  who  himself  never  ceased  to  criticise  them, 
and  to  denoimce  them  as  utterly  incompetent  and  worth- 
less throughout  his  Philippine  career,  but  who  finally 
experienced  an  eleventh-hour  conversion  on  the  eve  of 
a  presidential  election  which  was  likelj'  to  bring  into 
power  another  pohtical  party. 

Blount  has  worked  out  a  theory,  peculiarly  his  own, 
to  the  effect  that  the  non-Christian  peoples  have  been 
set  aside  as  a  field  for  purely  Protestant  missionary 
activities,  and  that  I  am  a  party  to  this  scheme.  In 
this  connection  he  says  :  — 

"It  seems  that  the  Catholic  and  Protestant  ecclesiastical 
authorities  in  the  Islands  get  along  harmoniously,  a  kind  of 
modus  Vivendi  having  been  arranged  between  them,  by  which 
the  Protestants  are  not  to  do  anj^  proselyting  among  the  seven 
millions  of  Catholic  Christians.  So  this  field  of  endeavour  is 
the  one  Professor  Worcester  has  been  industriously  preparing 
during  the  last  twelve  years.  ' 

"Obviously,  every  time  Professor  Worcester  digs  up  a  new 
non-Christian  tribe  he  increases  the  prospective  harvest  of  the 
Protestants,  thus  corralling  more  missionary  votes  at  home  for 
permanent  retention  of  the  Philippines.^ 

'  Blount,  p.  580.  '  Blount,  p.  581. 


642  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

"But  neither  Bishop  Brent  nor  any  one  else  can  persuade 
him  1  that  it  is  wise  to  abandon  the  principle  that  Church  and 
State  should  be  separate,  in  order  that  our  government  may 
go  into  the  missionary  business.  Since  it  has  become  apparent 
that  the  Philippines  will  not  pay,  the  Administration  has  relied 
solely  on  missionary  sentiments.  .  .  . 

"The  foregoing  reflections  are  not  intended  to  raise  an  issue 
as  to  the  wisdom  of  foreign  missions.  They  are  simply  intended 
to  illustrate  how  it  is  possible  and  natural  for  President  Taft 
to  consider  Professor  Worcester  'the  most  vauable  man  we 
have  on  the  Philippine  Commission.'  The  Professor's  mena- 
gerie is  a  vote-getter."  ^ 

The  first  passage  quoted  has  the  merit  of  being  ingen- 
ious, and  embodies  a  half  truth.  Bishop  Brent  deems  it 
inadvisable  to  try  to  proselytize  Cathohc  Christians,  and 
outside  of  Manila  his  co-workers  confine  their  efforts  to 
the  conversion  of  persons  other  than  Filipinos.  They 
conduct  missions  for  non-Christians  at  Sagada  and  Bontoc 
in  Bontoc,  at  Baguio  in  Benguet,  and  at  Zamboanga  in 
the  Moro  Province. 

In  Manila  they  conduct  a  mission  for  Filipinos  in  con- 
nection virith  a  hospital  vsrhich  does  most  valuable  work, 
but  they  mean  to  leave  Catholic  Filipinos  alone. 

The  Catholics  recognize  no  corresponding  limitations. 
They  conduct  missions  for  the  Benguet-Lepanto  Igorots 
at  Baguio,  Itogon,  Kabayan,  Cervantes  and  elsewhere; 
for  the  Bontoc  Igorots  at  Banco  and  Bontoc  and  for  the 
Ifugaos  at  Quiangan. 

The  other  Protestant  denominations  ha\'ing  missions  in 
the  Philippines  work  chiefly  among  the  Catholics. 

I  have  absolutely  no  connection  with  any  such  enter- 
prises except  that  I  have  helped  to  make  them  possible  in 
the  wild  man's  territory  by  the  establishment  of  law  and 
order  there,  and  have  sometimes  made  both  Catholic  and 
Protestant  missionaries  my  agents  for  administering  simple 
remedies  to  sick  persons  who  might  otherwise  have 
perished  miserably. 

'  Blount.  s  Ibid.,  pp.  581-582. 


CORRIGENDA  643 

To  this  extent,  and  to  this  extent  only,  has  our  govern- 
ment gone  into  the  missionary  business. 

I  am  proud  to  count  Bishop  Brent  and  Archbishop 
Harty  among  my  personal  friends.  I  am  in  complete 
sympathy  with  the  purposes  which  actuate  both  of  them 
in  prosecuting  Christian  missions.  I  have  sometimes 
disapproved,  personally,  of  methods  employed  by  their 
subordinates  in  this  work,  and  have  felt  free  to  tell  them  so ! 

Blount  complains  bitterly  over  the  exhibition  of  mem- 
bers of  non-Christian  tribes  at  the  Louisiana  Purchase 
Exposition.  For  a  wonder  he  admits  that  Tagdlog  and 
Visayan  Filipinos  were  also  exhibited.  He  fails  to  record 
the  fact  that  a  conmiission  of  highly  educated  and  cul- 
tured Filipino  men  and  women  were  sent  to  the  exposition 
and  travelled  quite  widely  in  the  United  States,  so  that 
they  were  seen,  and  heard  of,  by  great  numbers  of  people 
who  never  visited  St.  Louis  at  all.  Of  the  exhibition  of 
wild  men,  he  says :  — 

"I  think  no  deeper  wound  was  ever  inflicted  upon  the  pride 
of  the  real  Filipino  people  than  that  caused  by  this  exhibition, 
the  knowledge  of  which  seems  to  have  spread  throughout  the 
islands."  ' 

And  he  rather  ingeniously  gives  it  to  be  understood  that  I 
was  responsible  for  this  exhibition,  although  he  carefully 
avoids  stating  that  this  was  the  case. 

I  am  quite  as  strongly  opposed  to  the  exhibition  of 
members  of  the  Pliilippine  non-Christian  tribes  as  is 
Blount  himself,  but  for  very  different  reasons  hereinafter 
set  forth.  As  such  peoples  constitute  an  eighth  of  the 
population  of  the  Islands,  I  also  object  to  the  attempt  of 
certain  Filipino  politicians  to  conceal  the  fact  of  their 
existence,  and  to  the  efforts  of  certain  misguided  Ameri- 
cans to  minimize  the  importance  of  the  problems  which 
their  existence  presents.  Let  us  look  the  facts  in  the 
face.    The  Moros  are  as  "real"  as  the  Tagalogs. 

'  Blount,  p.  576. 


644  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

The  average  Filipino  does  not  object  in  the  least  to 
the  exliibition  of  wild  people.  On  the  contrary,  he  is 
just  as  much  interested  in  them  as  is  the  average  Ameri- 
can, and  goes  to  see  them  whenever  the  opportunity  offers. 
It  is  only  the  FiUpino  pohtician  who  pretends  to  see  any 
actual  immodesty  in  scanty  costumes  worn  with  the 
innocence  with  which  Adam  and  Eve  were  endowed  be- 
fore the  fall.  The  truth  is  that  the  politician  himself 
does  not  really  object  to  this  semi-nudity,  to  which  he  is 
already  sufficiently  accustomed  among  his  own  people 
in  his  own  native  town,  but  he  plays  it  up  for  political 
effect. 

The  pedigree  of  the  average  Filipino  poUtician  very 
frequently  runs  back  to  white  or  Chinese  ancestors  on  the 
father's  side.  In  his  heart  of  hearts  he  resents  his  Malay 
blood,  and  he  particularly  objects  to  anything  which  re- 
minds him  of  the  truth  as  to  the  stage  of  civilization 
which  had  been  attained  by  his  Malay  ancestors  a  few 
centuries  ago. 

If  he  be  a  member  of  the  Philippine  Assembly,  he  fur- 
ther and  bitterly  resents  his  lack  of  authority  to  legislate 
for  the  Moros  and  other  non-Christian  tribes,  and  is  ever 
ready  to  support  his  frequently  reiterated  demand  for 
such  authority  by  arguing  the  unimportance  of  these 
peoples,  and  that  of  the  problems  which  their  existence 
presents.  Up  to  the  time  when  the  assembly  was  estab- 
Hshed  and  was  denied  the  power  to  legislate  for  the  non- 
Christians,  mjr  occasional  illustrated  lectures  on  the  wild 
peoples,  given  at  Manila,  were  very  hberally  attended 
by  Filipinos,  not  a  few  of  whom  I  am  glad  to  say  still 
continue  to  patronize  them  when  occasion  offers. 

My  own  attitude  toward  the  exhibition  of  non-Chris- 
tians, and  my  reasons  therefor,  are  set  forth  in  the  fol- 
lowing official  correspondence,  with  which  I  will  dismiss 
this  phase  of  the  subject :  — 


CORRIGENDA  645 

(Telegram.) 
"Pack*  Bontoc,  Manila,  Dec.  4,  1909. 
"  Schneiderwind  is  back  wdth  his  Igorots  some  of  whom  have 
as  much  as  two  thousand  pesos  due  them.  Am  trying  to 
arrange  to  have  this  money  put  in  postal  savings  bank  to 
protect  them  from  themselves.  Schneiderwind  is  after  another 
party  of  wild  people  to  take  to  Europe.  Has  asked  about 
Ifugaos  and  Apayaos.  Have  told  him  strongly  opposed  to 
taking  these  people  to  other  countries  for  exhibition  purposes 
and  will  place  all  possible  obstacles  in  his  way  if  he  attempts 
to  do  so.  If  after  this  warning  he  enters  Mountain  province 
to  secure  people  for  exhibition  purposes  give  him  no  assistance 
but  use  every  legitimate  means  to  prevent  his  getting  them. 
Give  proper  and  seasonable  instructions  to  your  subordinates. 

"  WORCESTEB." 

On  April  22,  1910,  in  returning  to  the  Governor-General 
a  petition  dealing  with  the  exhibition  of  wild  people 
I  placed  upon  it  this  indorsement :  — 

"  Respectfully  returned  to  the  Honourable,  the  Governor- 
General. 

"  The  undersigned  is  strongly  opposed  to  the  sending  of  mem- 
bers of  wild  tribes  to  the  United  States  or  to  other  civilized 
countries  for  exhibition  purposes.  Apart  from  all  other  con- 
siderations experience  shows  that  the  men  and  women  thus 
taken  away  from  their  natural  surroundings  are  apt  to  be  pretty 
thoroughly  spoiled  and  to  be  trouble  makers  after  their  return. 

"The  undersigned  has  recently  informed  Mr.  R.  Schneider- 
wind that  he  would,  if  necessary,  do  everything  in  his  power  to 
prevent  the  latter  gentleman  from  taking  another  set  of  Igorots 
away  from  the  Philippines  for  exhibition  purposes.  This,  too, 
in  spite  of  the  fact  that  Mr.  Schneiderwind  has  apparently 
been  very  considerate  in  his  treatment  of  the  Igorots  whom  he 
has  taken  to  the  United  States  for  exhibition  purposes. 

"  The  undersigned  would  assume  the  same  attitude  toward 
any  other  person  endeavouring  to  obtain  Igorots  for  exhibition 
purposes." 

The  advocates  of  the  "united  people"'  theory  for  these 
islands  are  forced  to  insist  on  the  unimportance  of  the 
non-Christian  tribes  and  it  is  needless  to  say  that  Blount 

'  William  P.  Pack,  governor  of  the  Mountain  Province. 

VOL.  II —  L 


646 


THE   PHIXIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 


does  this.     His  contentions  on  the  subject  are  rather  con- 
cisely stated  in  the  following  passage  :  — 

"You  see  our  Census  of  1903  gave  the  population  of  the 
Philippines  at  about  7,600,000  of  which  7,000,000  are  put  down 
as  civilized  Christians;  and  of  the  remaining  600,000  about 
half  are  the  savage,  or  semi-civilized,  crudely  Mohammedan 
Moros,  in  Mindanao,  and  the  adjacent  islets  down  near  Borneo. 
The  other  300,000  or  so  uncivilized  people  scattered  throughout 
the  rest  of  the  archipelago,  the  'non-Christian  tribes,'  which 
dwell  in  the  mountain  fastnesses,  remote  from  'the  madding 
crowd,'  cut  little  more  figure,  if  any,  in  the  general  political 
equation,  than  the  American  Indian  does  with  us  to-day." ' 

If  there  were  ten  million  American  Indians  who  were 
in  undisputed  occupation  of  half  the  territory  of  the 
United  States,  this  statement  might  in  a  way  approxi- 
mate the  truth.  Blount's  ten-year-old  population  fig- 
ures are  a  trifle  out  of  date,  but  before  demonstrating 
this  I  wish  to  show  certain  peculiarities  in  his  method  of 
manipulating  them.     He  says  :  — 

"That  the  existence  of  these  wild  tribes  —  the  dog-eating 
Igorrotes  and  other  savages  you  saw  exhibited  at  the  St.  Louis 
Exposition  of  1903-4  —  constitutes  infinitely  less  reason  for 
withholding  independence  from  the  Filipinos  than  the  Ameri- 
can Indian  constituted  in  1776  for  withholding  independence 
from  us,  will  be  sufficiently  apparent  from  a  glance  at  the 
following  table,  taken  from  the  American  Census  of  the  Islands 
of  1903  (vol.  ii.,  p.  123):  — 


Island 

Luz6n     .     .  .  . 

Panay    .     .  .  . 

Cebu      .     .  .  . 

Bohol     .    .  .  . 

Negros    .     .  .  . 

Leyte      .     .  .  . 

Samar    .     .  .  . 

Mindanao  .  .  . 


Civilized 

Wild 

Total 

3,575,001 

223,506 

3,798,507 

728,713 

14,933 

743,646 

592,247 

592,247 

243,148 

243,148 

439,559 

21,217 

460,776 

357,641 

357,641 

222,002 

688 

222,690 

246,694 

252,940 

499,634 

"I  think  the  above  table  makes  clear  the  enormity  of  the 
injustice  I  am  now  trying  to  crucify.     Without  stopping  to  use 

>  Blount,  p.  577. 


CORRIGENDA 


647 


your  pencil,  you  can  see  that  Mindanao,  the  island  where  the 

'intractable  Mores'  Governor  Forbes  speaks  of  live,  contains 
about  a  half  million  people.  Half  of  these  are  civilized  Chris- 
tians, and  the  other  half  are  the  ^vild,  crudely  Mohammedan 
Moro  tribes.  Above  Mindanao  on  the  above  list,  you  behold 
what  practically  is  the  Philippine  archipelago  (except  ]\Iin- 
danao),  viz.  Luzon  and  the  six  main  Visayan  Islands.  If 
you  will  turn  back  to  pages  22.5  et  seq.,  especially  to  page  228, 
where  the  student  of  world  politics  was  furnished  with  all  he 
needs  or  will  ever  care  to  know  about  the  geography  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  you  will  there  find  all  the  rocks  sticking  out 
of  the  water  and  all  the  little  daubs  you  see  on  the  map  elimi- 
nated from  the  equation  as  wholly  unessential  to  a  clear  under- 
standing of  the  problem  of  governing  the  Islands.  That  pro- 
cess of  elimination  left  us  Luzon  and  the  six  main  Visayan 
Islands  above  as  constituting,  for  all  practical  governmental 
purposes  all  the  Philippine  archipelago  except  the  Moro  coimtry 
Mindanao  {i.e.  parts  of  it),  and  its  adjacent  islets.  Luzon 
and  the  Visayan  Islands  contain  nearly  7,000,000  of  people, 
and  of  these  the  mid  tribes,  as  you  can  see  by  a  glance  at  the 
above  table  constitute  less  than  300,000,  sprinkled  in  the 
pockets  of  their  various  mountain  regions.  Nearlj'  all  these 
300,000  are  quite  tame,  peaceable  and  tractable,  except,  as 
Governor  Forbes  suggests,  they  'might  possibly  mistake  the 
object  of  a  visit.'"  ' 

This  is  all  very  well  unless  you  take  the  Judge  at  his 
word  and  turn  to  the  page  of  the  census  report  referred 
to,  but  if  you  do  this  a  rude  shock  awaits  you,  for  instead 
of  the  table  above  quoted  the  following  is  the  table  which 
you  will  find  :  — 

Table  1.  — Total  Population,  Classified  as  Civilized  and  Wild, 
BY  Provinces  and  Comandancias. 


ProVINCB   OB  COMANDANCIA 


Philippine  Islands 

Abra    .... 
Albay        .     .     . 
Ambos  Camarines 
Antique    .     .     . 
Basilan     .     .     . 


Total 

PoptJLATION 

CUHLIZED 

Wild 

7,635,426 

51,860 
240,326 
239,405 
134,166 

30,179 

6,987,686 

87,823 

239,434 

233,472 

131,245 

1,331 

647,740 

14,037 

892 

5,933 

2,921 

28,848 

1  Blount,  pp.  567-568. 


648 


THE   PHILIPPINES    PAST   AND   PRESENT 


Table  1.  —  Continued 


PbOVINCE   or  COMANCANCIA 


Batadn  .  .  .  , 
Batangas  .  .  .  . 
Benguet    .     .     .     , 

Bohol 

Bulacdn  .  .  .  . 
Cagaydn  .  .  .  . 
Cdpiz  .  .  .  .  , 
Cavite       .     .     .     , 

Cebii 

Cottabato  .  . 
Dapitan  ... 
Ddvao  .  .  .  , 
Docos  Norte 
Docos  Sur  .  . 
IloQo  .... 
Isabela  ... 
Jolo  .... 
La  Laguna  .  . 
La  Union  .  .  . 
Lepanto-Bontoc 
Leyte  .  .  . 
Manila  City  .  . 
Marinduque '  . 
Masbate  .  .  . 
Mindoro  .  .  . 
Misamis  .  .  . 
Negros  Occidental 
Negros  Oriental 
Nueva  Ecija  .  . 
Nueva  Vizcaj-a  . 
Pampanga  .  . 
PangasLndn  .  . 
Paragua  .  .  . 
Paragua  Sur  .  . 
Rizal  .... 
Romblou  .  .  . 
Samar  .  .  . 
Siassi  .... 
Sorsogon  .  .  . 
Surigao  .  .  . 
Tarlac  .... 
Tawi  Tawi  .  . 
Tayabas  ^ .  .  . 
Zambales  .  .  . 
Zamboanga    .     . 


Total 
Population 

Civilized 

Wild 

46,787 

45,166 

1,621 

257,715 

257,715 

22,745 

917 

21,828 

269,223 

269,223 

223,742 

223,327 

415 

156,239 

142,825 

13,414 

230,721 

225,092 

5,629 

134,779 

134,779 

653,727 

653,727 

125,875 

2,313 

123,562 

23,577 

17,154 

6,423 

65,496 

20,224 

45,272 

178,995 

176,785 

2,210 

187,411 

173,800 

13,611 

410,315 

403,932 

6,383 

76,431 

68,793 

7,638 

51,389 

1,270 

50,119 

148,606 

148,606 

137,839 

127,789 

10,050 

72,750 

2,467 

70,283 

388,922 

388,922 

219,928 

219,928 

51,674 

51,674 

43,675 

43,675 

39,582 

32,318 

7,264 

175,683 

135,473 

40,210 

308,272 

303,660 

4,612 

201,494 

184,889 

16,605 

134,147 

132,999 

1,148 

62,541 

16,026 

46,515 

223,754 

222,656 

1,098 

397,902 

394,516 

3,386 

29,351 

27,493 

1,858 

6,345 

1,359 

4,986 

150,923 

148,502 

2,421 

52,848 

52,848 

266,237 

265,549 

688 

24,562 

2  97 

24,265 

120,495 

120,454 

41 

115,112 

99,298 

15,814 

135,107 

133,513 

1,594 

14,638 

93 

14,545 

153,065 

150,262 

2,803 

104,549 

101,381 

3,168 

44,322 

20,692 

23,630 

•  Sub-province  of  Tayabas.      ^  Exclusive  of  sub-province  of  Marinduque. 


CORRIGENDA  649 

From  this  it  will  be  apparent  to  the  reader  that  the 
Judge  takes  some  rather  unusual  liberties  even  with  such 
information  as  was  available  nine  years  before  he  finished 
his  book.  I  have  quoted  the  actual  table  in  full,  as  it  is 
useful  for  reference. 

In  the  middle  of  the  page  referred  to  by  Blount  there 
begins  another  table  showing  "Total  Population,  Clas- 
sified as  Civilized  and  Wild,  by  Islands."  This  table 
occupies  four  and  one-half  sohd  pages,  and  therefore 
does  not  closely  resemble  the  one  foisted  on  the  public 
by  him. 

It  includes  323  islands,  from  which  the  Judge  has 
selected  eight  which  happened  to  suit  his  pm-pose,  giving 
it  to  be  clearly  understood  that  the  islands  which  he  has 
not  included  are  "rocks  sticking  out  of  the  water"  and 
"little  daubs  you  see  on  the  map  "  "eliminated  from  the 
equation  as  wholly  unessential  to  a  clear  understanding 
of  the  problem  of  governing  the  Islands." 

Among  the  "rocks"  and  "little  daubs"  thus  eliminated 
are  Mindoro  with  an  area  of  thirty-eight  hundred  fifty-one 
square  miles,  and  Palawan  with  an  area  of  four  thousand 
twenty-seven  square  miles.  Of  the  islands  included, 
Leyte  has  twenty-seven  hundred  twenty-two  square  miles  ; 
Cebu,  seventeen  hundred  sixty- two  square  miles ;  and 
Bohol,  fourteen  hundred  eleven  square  miles.  Inciden- 
tally, neither  Leyte,  Cebu  nor  Bohol  have  any  non- 
Christian  inhabitants  at  all,  while  all  of  Mindoro  and 
Palawan,  with  the  exception  of  narrow  broken  strips 
along  the  coast  are  populated  by  wild  people,  hence  it  is 
convenient  for  him  to  ignore  them. 

In  spite  of  his  suggestion  that  it  is  not  necessary  to 
use  the  pencil  in  connection  with  his  table,  I  ven- 
tured to  do  so,  in  connection  with  his  statement  that 
"Luzon  and  the  Visayan  Islands  contain  nearly  7,000,000 
of  people."     On  his  own  showmg  they  contain  6,158,31L 

And  now  for  the  real  facts.  At  the  time  the  census 
enumeration  was  made  Apayao  had  been  crossed  by  a 


650  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

white  man  only  once  and  that  more  than  a  hundred  years 
ago.  Extensive  portions  of  Ifugao  and  Bontoc,  and  the 
greater  part  of  Kalinga,  were  unexplored,  as  were  the 
interior  of  Mindoro  and  most  of  the  interior  of  Palawan, 
to  say  nothing  of  immense  regions  in  Mindanao.  As  a 
matter  of  fact,  we  do  not  to-day  know  with  any  accuracy 
the  number  of  Mangyans  in  Mindoro,  nor  the  number  of 
Tagbanuas  in  Palawan,  but  it  has  been  conclusively 
demonstrated  that  the  latter  were  greatly  vmderestimated 
by  the  census  enumerators.  There  will  be  found  in 
the  appendix '  a  table  giving  in  detail  the  present  ac- 
cepted estimate  of  the  non-Christian  population  of  the 
islands,  which  numbers  at  least  a  million  seventy  thou- 
sand. 

It  is  reasonably  certain  that  the  necessary  corrections 
in  the  figures  for  several  provinces  for  which  the  present 
estimates  are  admittedly  too  low  will  raise  the  total 
slightly. 

Blount  has  made  a  further  statement  relative  to  the 
non-Christian  population  of  Luzon  which  is  indeed 
extraordinary.     He  says  :  — 

"Of  the  7,600,000  people  of  the  Philippines  almost  exactly 
one-half,  i.e.  3,800,000,  live  on  Luzon,  and  these  are  practically 
all  civilized."  ■ 

The  table  on  the  opposite  page,  giving  the  census  es- 
timate of  the  non-Christian  population  of  Luzon  and 
the  present  accepted  estimate,  shows  how  erroneous  is 
this  statement. 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  census  estimate  of  non-Christian 
inhabitants  in  the  province  of  Luzon  was  224,106  and  the 
present  accepted  estimate  is  440,926. 

In  explanation  of  his  extraordinary  statement  that  prac- 
tically all  of  the  people  of  Luzon  are  civiUzed  Blount  has 
inserted  the  following  foot-note  :  — 

iPage  999.  ^  Blount,  pp.  231-232. 


An  Old  Bukidnon  Chief. 

He  is  wearing  the  head-dress  of  scarlet  and  gold  which  may  be  donned  only  by 
those  who  have  killed  many  eneniies. 


CORRIGENDA 


651 


"223,506  is  the  total  of  the  uncivilized  tribes  still  extant  in 
Luzon,  Philippine  Census,  vol.  ii.,  p.  125,  but  they  live  in  the 
mountains,  and  you  might  live  in  the  Philippines  a  long  hfe- 
time  without  ever  seeing  a  sample  of  them,  unless  you  happen 
to  be  an  energetic  ethnologist  fond  of  mountain  climbing."  ' 


Pbovincb  ok  Subprovince 


Abra  .... 
Albay  .... 
Amburayan  .  . 
Ambos  Camarincs 
Apayao  .  .  . 
Bataan  .  .  . 
Batangas  .  .  . 
Benguet  .  .  . 
Bontoe  .  .  . 
Bulacan  .  .  . 
Cagayan  .  .  . 
Cavite  .... 
IIocos  Norte  .  . 
Ilocos  Sur  .  .  . 
Ifugao  .... 
Isabela  .  .  . 
Kalinga  .  .  . 
La  Laguna  .  . 
La  Union  .  .  . 
Lepanto  .  .  . 
Lepanto  Bontoe 
Nueva  Ecija  .  . 
Nueva  Vizcaya  . 
Pampanga .  .  . 
Pangasinilii  .  . 
Rizal  .... 
Sorsogon  .  .  . 
Tarlac  .... 
Tayabas  .  .  . 
Zambales  .     .     . 

Total  .     .     . 


Census  Estimate 


14,037 
892 

5,933 

1,621 

000 

21,828 

415 
13,414 

000 

2,210 

13,611 


7,638 


000 
10,050 


70,283 
1,148 

46,515 
1,098 
3,386 
2,421 
41 
1,594 
2,803 
3,168 

224,106 


Present  Accepted 
Estimate 


14,037 

892 

10,191 

5,933 

23,000 

1,621 

000 

28,449 

62,000 

415 

15,000 

000 

2,210 

13,611 

125,000 

(?) 
76,000 

(?) 

000 

31,194 

000 

862 

6,000 

1,098 

3,386 

2,421 

41 

1,594 

2,803 

3,168 

440,926 


Also  you  might  live  in  the  Philippines  a  long  lifetime 
and  never  see  anything  but  wild  people.     The  question  of 


1  Blount,  p.  232. 


652  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

where  they  live  is  not  intimately  connected  with  that  of 
their  number,  which  is  the  point  under  discussion. 

Blount  devotes  considerable  space  to  alleged  newspaper 
accounts  of  "a  speech  "  said  by  him  to  have  been  deUvered 
by  me  in  the  Y.  M.  C.  A.  auditorium  at  Manila.  I 
deUvered  two  illustrated  lectures  there,  entitled  respec- 
tively "The  Non-Christian  Tribes  of  the  Philippines," 
and  "What  has  been  done  for  the  Non-Christian  Tribes 
under  American  Rule." 

In  the  course  of  the  latter  discourse  I  made  the  point 
that  Filipinos  who  claim  that  conquest  confers  no  right  of 
sovereignty  are  hoist  with  their  own  petard,  for  the  simple 
but  sufficient  reason  that  the  Negritos  were  the  aborigines 
of  the  Philippines  and  were  later  conquered  and  driven  out 
of  the  lowland  country  into  inaccessible,  forested  mountain 
regions  by  the  Malay  invaders  who  were  the  ancestors 
of  the  present  Filipino  claimants  not  only  to  the  territory 
thus  conquered,  but  to  territory  wliich  was  held  up  to  the 
time  of  the  American  occupation  by  wild  tribes  whom  they 
now  propose  to  conquer  and  rule  if  given  the  opportunity  ! 

My  shaft  struck  home  and  called  forth  a  howl  of  rage 
from  the  pohticians,  which  was  the  louder  because  I 
further  expressed  with  entire  frankness  my  firm  belief 
that  the  FiUpinos  were  unfit  to  govern  the  non-Christian 
tribes,  whether  or  not  they  were  fit  to  govern  themselves. 

In  the  course  of  further  reference  to  the  above-mentioned 
lecture,  Blount  says  :  — 

"Another  of  the  Manila  papers  gives  an  account  of  the  speech, 
from  which  it  appears  that  the  burly  Professor  succeeded  in 
amusing  himself  at  least,  if  not  his  audience,  by  suggestions 
as  to  the  superior  fighting  qualities  of  the  Moros  over  the 
Filipinos,  which  suggestions  were  on  the  idea  that  the  Moros 
would  lick  the  Filipinos  if  we  should  leave  the  country.  (The 
Moros  number  300,000,  the  Filipinos  nearly  7,000,000.)  The 
Professor's  remarks  in  this  regard,  according  to  the  paper,  were 
a  distinct  reflection  upon  the  courage  of  the  Filipinos  generally 
as  a  people."  ' 

■  Blount,  pp.  583-584. 


CORRIGENDA  653 

Here,  as  is  so  often  the  case,  he  finds  newspaper  state- 
ments more  suited  to  his  purpose  than  cold  facts.  I  jdeld 
to  no  one  in  my  admiration  for  the  courage  of  Fihpinos, 
and  have  expressed  it  on  a  score  of  occasions.  In  mj^  first 
book  on  the  Philippines  I  made  the  following  reference 
to  it :  — 

"I  once  saw  a  man  in  Culion  who  was  seamed  and  gashed 
with  horrible  scars  from  head  to  foot.  How  any  one  could 
possibly  survive  such  injuries  as  he  had  received  I  do  not  know. 
It  seemed  that  his  wife  and  children  had  been  butchered  by  four 
Moros  while  he  was  absent.  He  returned  just  as  the  murderers 
were  taking  to  their  boat.  Snatching  a  machete,  he  plunged 
into  the  water  after  them,  clambered  into  their  prau,  and  killed 
them  all.  ^\^len  one  remembers  the  sort  of  weapons  that 
Moros  carry,  the  thing  seems  incredible,  but  a  whole  village 
full  of  people  vouched  for  the  truth  of  the  story."  ' 

This  was  not  the  only  tribute  which  I  paid  to  the 
courage  of  the  Filipinos^  and  I  have  never  made  a  state- 
ment intended  to  reflect  on  it  in  the  slightest  degree. 
It  is  true  that  their  fighting  ability  is  on  the  average  far 
below  that  of  the  Moros,  and  I  may  add  that  the  same 
thing  holds  for  Americans  on  the  average. 

It  is  really  funny  to  see  how  Blount  sometimes  tells  the 
truth  in  spite  of  himself.  He  takes  me  to  task  for  amusing 
myself  "by  suggestions  as  to  the  superior  fighting  quafities 
of  the  Moros  over  the  Filipinos,"  and  here  is  what  he 
says  on  the  same  subject :  — 

"Again,  because  the  Filipinos  have  no  moral  right  to  control 
the  Moros,  and  could  not  if  thej^  would,  the  latter  being  fierce 
fighters  and  bitterly  opposed  to  the  thought  of  possible  ultimate 
domination  bj'  the  Filipinos,  the  most  uncompromising  advocate 
of  the  consent-of-the-governed  principle  has  not  a  leg  to  stand 
on  with  regard  to  Mohammedan  Mindanao."  ^ 

"  Consistency,  thy  name  is  not  Blount !  " 

'  The  Philippine  Islands  and  Their  People,  by  Dean  C.  Worcester, 
p.  481. 

2  See  p.  639. 

'  Blount,  p.  230. 


654  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

The  Moros  are  religious  fanatics.  I  have  known  one 
when  bayoneted  to  seize  the  barrel  of  the  gun  and  push  the 
bayonet  thi'ough  himself  in  order  to  bring  the  man  at  the 
other  end  within  striking  distance,  cut  him  down,  unclasp 
the  bayonet  and,  leaving  it  in  the  wound  to  prevent 
hemorrhage,  go  on  fighting.  I  have  knowTi  two  Moros 
armed  with  bamboo  lances  to  attack  a  column  of  two 
thousand  soldiers  armed  with  rifles.  It  is  an  historic  fact 
that  Moro  juramentados  '  once  attempted  to  rush  the 
walls  of  Jolo  and  kept  up  the  fruitless  effort  until  they 
blocked  -nath  their  dead  bodies  the  rifle  shts,  so  that  it 
became  necessary  for  the  Spanish  soldiers  to  take  positions 
on  top  of  the  walls  in  order  to  fire.  I  have  known  a  Moro, 
shot  repeatedly  through  the  body  and  with  both  legs 
broken,  to  take  his  kriss  in  his  teeth  and  pull  himself  for- 
ward with  liis  hands  in  the  hope  of  getting  near  enough  to 
strike  one  more  blow  for  the  Prophet. 

The  Fihpinos  are  afraid  of  the  Moros  and  they  have  the 
best  of  reasons  to  be.  The  relative  numerical  insignificance 
of  this  Uttle  Mohammedan  tribe  of  desperate  fighters  has 
httle  to  do  with  the  question  under  consideration.  Their 
number  has  for  centuries  borne  substantially  the  same 
proportion  to  the  total  population  of  the  Pliilippines  which 
it  now  bears,  yet  no  one  can  deny  that  it  is  but  a  short 
time  since  they  harried  the  archipelago  from  south  to 
north  and  from  east  to  west.  The  shores  of  Northern 
Luzon  and  the  neighbouring  islands  are  to-day  dotted  with 
the  forts  which  were  built  for  defence  against  them.  The 
town  of  PoUllo,  on  the  northernmost  island  off  the  east 
coast  of  Luzon,  is  still  surrounded  by  a  high  wall  built  to 
protect  its  inhabitants  from  the  Moros.  The  churches 
at  Cuyo,  Agutaya,  Culion,  Linapacan  and  Taytay  stand 
inside  of  strong  stone  fortresses  in  which  the  people  took 
refuge  when  the  Moros  descended  on  their  towns.  Back 
of  Bacuit  a  cave  high  up  in  a  cliff  was  kept  provisioned  that 
it  might  serve  a  similar  purpose.     Not  only  were  the 

'  Men  who  have  taken  a  solemn  oath  to  die  killing  Christians. 


CORRIGENDA  655 

Filipinos  unable  to  protect  themselves  against  these 
bloodthirsty  pirates  of  the  south,  but  the  Spaniards 
were  for  nearly  two  and  a  half  centuries  unable  to  af- 
ford them  adequate  protection.  WTien  I  was  in  Tawi 
Tawd  in  1891  the  Moros  of  that  island  were  stiU  ac- 
tively engaged  in  taking  Filipino  slaves  and  selling  them 
in  Borneo. 

With  all  of  our  resources  we  have  not  as  yet  been  able 
to  estabUsh  a  decent  state  of  pubhc  order  in  the  little 
island  of  Jolo.  No  serious  minded  person,  familiar  with 
the  facts,  with  whom  I  have  ever  talked,  believes  for  a 
moment  that  the  FiUpinos  could  establish  an  effective 
government  over  the  Moros,  or  could  keep  them  at  home. 
They  are  wonderful  boatmen  and  when  once  at  sea  in  the 
httle  crafts  of  their  o^m  building  are  liable  to  strike  the 
coast  of  the  Philippine  Islands  at  any  point.  When  it  is 
remembered  that  this  coast  is  longer  than  that  of  the  con- 
tinental United  States,  the  impossibiUty  of  adequately 
protecting  the  whole  of  it  becomes  immediately  manifest. 
It  would  be  always  possible,  under  Fihpino  rule,  for  the 
]\Ioros  to  strike  defenceless  towns,  and  where  they  struck 
the  only  resource  of  the  inhabitants,  whether  Filipinos, 
Europeans  or  Americans,  would  be  in  speedy  flight.  It 
should  be  borne  in  mind  that  one  INIohammedan  who  is 
earnestly  desirous  of  being  killed  while  fighting  Christians 
can  chase  a  good  inany  unarmed  citizens  into  the  tall 
timber,  brave  though  they  may  be  ! 

I  ventm-e  here  once  more  to  express  the  deUberate 
opinion  that  if  American  control  were  wdthdrawm  from 
these  islands  and  some  other  civihzed  nation  did  not 
interfere  to  restore  a  decent  state  of  pubhc  order,  the 
Moros  would  resume  the  conquest  of  the  Phihppines 
which  they  were  so  actively  and  effectively  pushing  when 
the  Spaniards  compelled  them  to  abandon  it,  and  would 
slowly  but  none  the  less  surely  carry  it  through  to  a  suc- 
cessful termination. 

The  inaccuracy  of  Blount's  statements  regarding  matters 


656  THE   PHILIPPINES    PAST   AND   PRESENT 

covered  by  absolutely  conclusive  documentary  evidence 
is  well  typified  by  the  following :  — 

"The  Philippine  Assembly,  representing  the  whole  Filipino 
people,  and  desiring  to  express  the  unanimous  feeling  of  those 
people  with  regard  to  the  Worcester  speech,  unanimously 
passed,  soon  after  the  speech  was  delivered,  a  set  of  resolutions 
whereof  the  following  is  a  translation."  ' 

The  resolution  which  he  quotes  was  never  passed  by  the 
Assembly  which  on  February  3,  1911,  four  months  after 
my  Y.  M.  C.  A.  lecture,^  and  while  I  was  absent  in  the 
United  States,  passed  another  and  quite  different  one 
criticizing  language  "ascribed"  to  me,  without  ever  mak- 
ing any  effort  to  ascertain  from  me  what  was  really  said. 
I  might  quote  the  two  in  parallel  columns,  but  I  grow 
weary  of  showing  the  details  of  Blount's  false  or  mistaken 
statements,  and  refer  those  interested  to  the  official 
records  which  he  perhaps  did  not  take  the  precaution  to 
consult. 

I  gave  the  Assembly  and  every  one  else  interested  in  the 
matter  a  chance  to  attack  me  by  incoiporating  in  my  an- 
nual report  for  1910  every  important  statement  made  at 
the  lecture  in  question  and  by  adding  various  new  ones  for 
good  measure,  but  there  was  no  response  !  It  is  a  time- 
honoured  procedure,  but  one  of  somewhat  doubtful  real 
value,  to  build  up  a  man  of  straw  in  order  to  have  the 
pleasure  of  tearing  it  to  pieces.  I  must  decline  to  assume 
responsibility  for  statements  which  I  did  not  make. 

Blount  says  he  thinks  that  Nueva  Vizcaya  is  my 

"  '  brag '  province,  in  the  matter  of  non-Christian  anthropolog- 
ical specimens,  both  regarding  their  number  and  their  variety."  ^ 

With  regret  I  must  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  he 
thinks  wrong.  In  Nueva  Vizcaya  as  originally  consti- 
tuted there  were  representatives  of  three  non-Christian 
tribes,  to    wit,    the    Ifugaos,    numbering   approximately 

»  Blount,  p.  584.      2  Delivered  October  10,  1910.     '  Blount,  p.  577. 


Typical  .Street  in  a  Filipino  Tuwn. 

Contrast  the  neglect  here  shown,  with  the  care  given  the  village  streets  in 
Bukidnon.  yet  the  Filipinos  desire  to  govern  the  Bukiduons. 


A  Typical  Bukidnon  Village  Street. 


CORRIGENDA  657 

a  hundred  and  fifteen  thousand ;  the  Ilongots  numbering 
perhaps  five  thousand ;  and  the  Isinayes,  who  were  numer- 
ically unimportant. 

Years  before  Blount  wrote  his  book  the  number  of  wild 
tribes  was  reduced  to  two  and  that  of  their  individuals  to 
approximately  seven  thousand  by  changes  in  the  provincial 
boundary.  As  we  have  seen,  there  are  slightly  more 
than  one  milUon  non-Christian  inhabitants  in  the  archi- 
pelago. These  facts  are  of  interest  cliiefly  for  the  reason 
that  they  show  how  grossly  unreliable  are  his  statements. 

Finally  he  seeks  to  convey  the  impression  that  the  hill 
people  are  a  rather  harmless  and  lamb-like  lot.   He  says  :  — • 

"...  while  I  was  there,'  though  we  knew  those  people 
were  up  in  the  hills,  and  that  there  were  a  good  many  of  them 
the  civilized  people  all  told  us  that  the  hill  tribes  never  bothered 
them.  And  on  their  advice  I  have  ridden  in  safety,  unarmed, 
at  night,  accompanied  only  by  the  court  stenographer,  over  the 
main  high-road  running  through  the  central  j)lateau  that  con- 
stitutes the  bulk  of  Nueva  Vizcaj'a  province,  saitl  plateau  being 
surrounded  by  a  great  amphitheatre  of  hills,  the  habitat  of  the 
Worcester  pets."  ^ 

Had  Blount  taken  this  ride  before  the  time  when  the 
American  government  established  control  ov-er  the  Silipan 
Ifugaos  there  might  have  been  a  different  story  to  tell 
needing  some  one  else  to  tell  it,  for  the  Ifugaos  were  not 
by  any  means  the  gentle  and  harmless  people  that  one 
would  infer  them  to  have  been  from  reading  the  above- 
quoted  statement. 

At  Payauan,  a  strongly  held  point  within  the  plateau 
referred  to,  they  annihilated  a  Spanish  garrison.  At 
Aua,  further  back  in  the  hills,  they  did  the  same  thing. 
The  Spaniards  never  established  control  over  the  Ifugao 
country,  into  extensive  portions  of  which  they  never 
even  temporarily  penetrated.  On  the  main  trail  which 
connected  the  town  of  Bagabag,  in  Nueva  Vizcaya 
with    the    nearest    town    in    the    province    of    Isabela, 

*  In  Nueva  Vizcaya.  '  Blount,  p.  577. 


658  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

over  which  Blount  rode,  the  Spaniards  found  it  neces- 
sary to  maintain  two  garrisons.  There  were  also  gar- 
risons at  the  terminal  towns  on  this  trail  and  it  was 
prohibited  to  travel  it  without  miUtary  escort.  Even 
so,  parties  were  repeatedlj^  cut  up  by  the  Silipan  Ifugaos, 
and  the  very  soldiers  who  constituted  their  guard  were 
again  and  again  caught  sleeping  and  butchered. 

It  is  only  very  recently  that  the  murderous  raids  of  wild 
men  on  the  Filipinos  of  Isabela  have  been  finally  checked. 

Many  a  time  have  the  FUipinos  of  Bagabag,  in  Nueva 
Vizcaj^a,  thanked  me  for  making  their  lives  and  property 
safe  by  quieting  the  Ifugaos.  Ilongots  killed  Filipinos 
in  the  outskirts  of  Bayombong,  the  capital  of  Nueva 
Vizcaya,  long  after  Blount  left  the  province,  and  during 
a  period  shortly  preceding  his  arrival  conditions  were  very 
bad  throughout  the  Cagayan  vallej^ 

On  August  29,  1899,  the  Insurgent  governor  of  Nueva 
Vizcaj'a  reported  ^  that  he  had  only  a  few  rifles,  that  the 
"Igorrotes"  were  preparing  to  attack  the  towns,  and  that 
he  had  been  forced  to  kill  and  wound  a  number  of  them. 
On  September  6,  General  Tirona  in  Cagayan  asked  that 
General  Tinio  be  ordered  to  give  him  some  of  his  rifles 
to  protect  the  people,  as  the  "Igorrotes"  were  cutting  off 
heads  and  the  towns  were  in  danger.  Tirona  said  that  he 
had  nine  hundred  rifles ;  Tinio  thought  that  he  himself 
had  some  two  thousand  and  could  spare  two  hundred  as  the 
conditions  along  the  coast  were  not  as  serious  as  the  con- 
ditions inland  with  the  savages  preparing  to  attack.^ 

In  Jul}',  1899,  the  governor  of  Benguet  asked  that  orders 
should  be  given  prohibiting  "Igorrotes"  from  leaving 
their  own  towns  as  they  were  growing  restless  and  would 
probably  soon  become  dangerous.  The  Benguet  people 
are  the  most  pacific  of  all  the  hill  men. 

In  October,  1899,  the  Ilocanos  of  Lepanto  petitioned 
Aguinaldo  to  send  them  arms  with  which  to  defend  them- 
selves against  the  people  of  the  hills,  who  objected  to 

'  P.  I.  R.,  150.  4.  » Ibid. 


CORRIGENDA  659 

being  forced  into  paying  what  the  governor  of  Benguet 
Province  called  "voluntary  contributions"  for  the  support 
of  the  war.  WTien  an  attempt  was  made  to  collect, 
they  abandoned  their  towns  and  took  refuge  in  the  hills. 
Next  to  the  Benguet  Igorots,  those  of  Lepanto  have  the 
best  reputation  for  quiet  and  orderliness. 

From  Simeon  Villa's  diary,  heretofore  referred  to,  we 
learn  that  Aguinaldo's  armed  escort  was  attacked  again 
and  again  by  Ifugaos,  Kalingas  and  Bontoc  Igorots  when 
he  passed  through  their  country. 

The  people  of  these  three  tribes,  and  the  Ilongots,  and 
the  wild  Tingians  of  Apayao,  were  fierce,  war-hke,  unsub- 
dued head-hunting  savages  at  the  time  of  the  American 
occupation. 

Friendly  as  is  our  present  relationship  with  the  foi-mer 
head-hunters  of  Luzon,  and  excellent  as  is  now  the  condi- 
tion of  public  order  in  their  territory,  we  still  often  have 
the  fact  brought  home  to  us  that  the  blood-lust  of  these 
sturdy  and  brave  fighters  is  only  dormant.  A  steady  hand 
must  be  held  on  them  for  many  a  year  to  come. 

The  problems  which  the  primitive  peoples  of  the  PhiUp- 
pines  present  are  neither  few  nor  simple.  We  shall  not 
get  far  by  ignormg  them  or  misrepresenting  them.  Let 
us  look  them  squarely  in  the  face. 


CHAPTER  XXIV 

Non-Christian  Tribe  Problems 

And  now  let  us  try  to  gain  a  clear  appreciation  of  some 
of  the  problems  actually  presented  by  the  existence  of 
the  non-Christian  peoples  of  the  Philippines. 

They  belong  to  twenty-seven  tribes  at  the  most.  Prob- 
ably this  number  will  ultimately  be  somewhat  further 
reduced.  The  number  of  dialects  spoken  is  greatly 
in  excess  of  the  number  of  tribes,  as  the  people  of  a  single 
tribe  sometimes  speak  three  or  four  well-marked  dialects. 

The  tribes  are  divided  between  two  wholly  distinct 
races,  to  wit,  Negritos  and  Malays. 

The  Negritos  are  of  very  low  mentality  and  are  in- 
capable of  any  considerable  degree  of  civilization.  Many 
of  them  are  kept  in  a  state  of  abject  peonage,  and  not  a 
few  are  held  in  actual  slavery,  by  their  Christian  Filipino 
neighbours.  In  revenge  for  the  abuses  which  they  suffer 
they  are  prone  to  commit  criminal  acts,  and  the  problem 
which  they  present  resolves  itself  into  protecting  them 
from  their  neighbours  and  their  neighbours  from  them. 
The  latter  thing  would  be  easy  enough  if  the  former  were 
practicable,  but  unfortunately  their  neighbours  cannot 
be  persuaded  to  let  them  alone,  and  never  do  it  except 
under  compulsion. 

The  people  of  all  the  Malay  non-Cliristian  tribes,  with 
the  exception  of  certain  Negrito  mestizos,  are  undoubtedly 
capable  of  attaining  to  a  fairly  high  degree  of  civilization. 
Physically  and,  in  my  opinion,  mentally  the  people  of 
several  of  the  hill  tribes  are  decidedly  superior  to  their  low- 
land Filipino  neighbours,  who  have  degenerated  to  some 
extent  as  a  result  of  less  favourable  climatic  conditions 
and  other  causes. 

660 


NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBE   PROBLEMS  661 

In  social  development  these  Malay  tribes  vary  from  the 
semi-nomadic  Mangyans  of  Mindoro  to  the  highly  civil- 
ized Tingians  of  Abra,  who  are  in  many  ways  superior  to 
the  Ilocanos  with  whom  they  hve  in  close  contact.  Some 
of  these  tribes,  hke  the  Benguet-Lepanto  Igorots  and  the 
Tingians,  are  peaceful  agriculturists ;  others,  hke  the  wild 
Tingians  of  Apayao,  the  Kahngas,  the  Bontoc  Igorots, 
the  Ifugaos,  the  Ilongots,  the  Manobos  and  the  Mandayas, 
are,  or  recently  have  been,  fierce  fighters  prone  to  indulge 
in  such  customs  as  the  taking  of  human  heads  for  war 
trophies,  or  even  the  making  of  human  sacrifices  to  appease 
their  heathen  divinities. 

The  Moros,  who  are  numerically  stronger  than  are  the 
people  of  any  other  one  tribe,  stand  in  a  class  by  them- 
selves on  account  of  their  strong  adherence  to  the  Moham- 
medan faith  and  their  inclination  to  propagate  it  by  the 
sword.  Who  would  hold  them  in  check  if  the  Americans 
were  to  go?  Certainly  not  the  Filipinos.  They  have 
never  been  able  to  do  it  in  the  past,  and  they  cannot 
do  it  now. 

All  the  non-Christian  tribes  have  two  things  in  common, 
their  unwilhngness  to  accept  the  Christian  faith  and  their 
hatred  of  the  several  Filipino  peoples  who  profess  it.  Their 
animosity  is  readily  understood  when  it  is  remembered 
that  their  ancestors  and  they  themselves  have  suffered 
grievous  wrongs  at  the  hands  of  the  Filipinos.  In  spite  of 
all  protestations  to  the  contrary,  the  Fihpinos  are  ab- 
solutely without  sympathy  for  the  non-Christian  peoples, 
and  have  never  voluntarily  done  anything  for  them,  but 
on  the  contrary  have  shamelessly  exploited  them  whenever 
opportunity  has  offered.  They  have  never  of  themselves 
originated  one  single  important  measure  for  the  benefit 
of  their  non-Christian  neighbours,  and  their  attitude 
toward  the  measures  which  have  been  originated  by 
Americans  has  always  been  one  of  active  or  passive  oppo- 
sition. Their  real  belief  as  to  what  should  be  done  with 
the  wild  people  is  that  they  should  be  used  if  they  can  be 

VOL.   II  —  M 


662  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

made  useful,  but  should  be  exterminated  if  they  become 
troublesome.  Governor  Pablo  Guzman,  of  Cagayan, 
actually  said  to  me  that  the  best  thing  to  do  with  the  wild 
people  of  Apayao,  then  supposed  to  number  fifty-three 
thousand,  might  be  to  kill  them  aU. 

Americans  have  adopted  a  firm  but  kindly  policy  in 
dealing  with  the  non-Christian  tribes  and  have  met  with 
extraordinary  success  in  winning  their  good-will  and 
weaning  them  from  the  worst  of  their  evil  customs. 
Even  with  those  of  the  Moros  who  live  outside  of  the  island 
of  Jol6  considerable  progress  has  been  made.  Head- 
hunting has  been  abohshed  among  the  Ifugaos,  Igorots 
and  KaUngas  with  an  ease  which  was  wholly  unantici- 
pated. 

In  all  work  for  the  wild  people  the  attitude  of  governors 
and  heutenant-governors  has  proved  to  be  a  matter  of 
fundamental  importance.  The  problem  in  each  province 
or  subpro\'ince  has  been  a  one-man  problem.  He  who 
would  succeed  in  handhng  wild  men  must  be  absolutely 
fearless,  for  if  he  is  not,  thej'  are  quick  to  discover  the  fact 
and  to  take  advantage  of  it.  He  must  protect  his  people 
from  injustice  and  oppression,  or  they  will  lose  faith  in 
him.  He  must  have  a  genuinely  friendly  feehng  toward 
them,  and  must  bear  them  no  ill  will  even  when  they 
misbehave.  They  will  not  object  to  severe  punishment 
when  they  know  that  it  is  deserved,  but  after  being 
punished  feel  that  the  slate  has  been  wiped  clean,  and 
that  they  are  making  a  fresh  start.  They  believe  in 
letting  by-gones  be  by-gones,  and  their  officials  should 
meet  them  half  way  in  this. 

The  following  occurrence  illustrates  my  point.  Before 
all  the  settlements  of  Ifugao  had  been  brought  under 
control,  Lieutenant-Governor  Galhnan  had  a  headman 
acting  as  a  pohceman,  who  rendered  invaluable  service 
and  was  allowed  to  carry  a  gun.  No  one  dreamed  that 
he  would  ever  be  molested.  When  on  a  trip  to  Lingay 
he  became  overheated,  and  stopped  to  bathe  in  a  stream, 


NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBE   PROBLEMS  663 

leaving  his  gun  on  the  bank.  Some  young  men  improved 
the  opportunity  thus  afforded  to  attack  him.  One  of 
them  threw  a  lance  into  him,  and  then  they  all  started  to 
run  away.  Such  was  his  reputation  and  influence  that  he 
succeeded  in  compeUing  them  to  return  and  pull  the  lance 
out,  but  he  was  fatally  hurt  and  soon  died. 

After  his  death  they  took  his  head  and  his  gun,  and 
immediately  thereafter  the  Lingay  people  sent  to 
Gallman  a  challenge  to  come  and  fight  them.  He 
promptly  accepted  their  invitation,  taking  a  few 
Ifugao  soldiers  with  him.  He  found  the  country  de- 
serted. Women,  children,  pigs  and  chickens  had  been 
sent  into  the  forested  mountains.  Roofs  and  board  sides 
of  houses  had  been  removed  so  that  there  remained  only 
the  bare  frameworks  which  could  not  readily  be  burned. 

For  some  time  Gallman  encountered  no  opposition.  He 
at  last  grew  careless  and  walked  into  an  ambush.  He"  was 
met  with  a  volley  of  stones  and  a  volley  of  lances.  For- 
tunately for  him  the  stones  arrived  first  and  one  of  them, 
striking  him  in  the  face,  knocked  him  senseless.  Another 
injured  his  right  hand  and  knocked  his  revolver  from  his 
grasp.  The  lances  passed  over  him  as  he  fell.  He  slid 
for  some  distance  down  the  almost  precipitous  mountain 
side,  and  his  soldiers  thought  him  dead.  When  he 
recovered  consciousness,  he  heard  them  talking  close  to 
him.  They  agreed  that  they  must  do  two  things : 
first,  prevent  his  head  from  being  taken ;  and,  second, 
punish  his  assailants.  Before  he  could  call  to  them  they 
charged  the  latter  and  scattered  them  right  and  left. 
Gallman  staggered  to  his  feet,  hunted  around  until  he 
found  his  revolver,  and  rejoined  his  men.  It  was  known 
that  their  opponents  had  had  ten  guns  before  killing  the 
pohceman  and  taking  his.  There  followed  a  marked 
unpleasantness,  at  the  end  of  which  Gallman  had  the 
eleven  guns,  and  most  of  those  who  had  been  using  them 
had  been  gathered  to  their  fathers.  He  then  returned 
to  his  station  at  Banaue. 


664  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Three  days  later  the  headmen  of  Lingay  came  walking 
in,  shook  hands  and  announced  that  they  had  had  enough. 
Gallman  asked  them  why  they  had  been  so  foohsh.  They 
replied  that  as  they  already  had  ten  guns,  when  they 
got  one  more  the  young  men  became  overconfident, 
thought  that  they  could  whip  the  constabulary,  get  their 
guns  also  and  dominate  all  that  part  of  Ifugao.  The 
old  men  said  that  they  had  warned  the  young  fellows 
that  their  plan  would  result  in  disaster,  but  as  they  were 
not  to  be  dissuaded,  and  as  they  were  their  young  men, 
had  finally  joined  in.  They  said,  however,  that  they  were 
glad  things  had  come  out  as  they  had,  for  the  young 
men  would  now  behave  themselves,  and  it  is  worthy  of 
note  that  they  have  done  so  ever  since. 

Six  weeks  later,  when  I  visited  Banaue,  the  one  survivor 
of  the  eleven  gunmen  came  in  and  danced  with  the  other 
Ifugaos  on  the  plaza,  apparently  as  happy  as  any  of  them. 

How  many  Filipinos  are  there  who  have  the  courage,  the 
kindhness,  the  knowledge  of  primitive  human  nature 
and  the  sympathy  with  it  which  would  enable  them  to 
treat  the  really  wild  barbarians  as  Gallman  and  Hale 
have  treated  them  ?  Thus  far  I  have  found  one,  and  one 
only. 

In  a  previous  chapter^  I  have  told  the  story  of  a  Kalinga 
with  whom  I  had  just  made  friends  according  to  the 
formula  of  his  tribe  who  put  his  Ufe  in  deadly  peril  twice 
within  the  space  of  twenty-four  hours  in  order  to  save 
mine  when  it  was  gravely  endangered  by  his  fellow-tribes- 
men. Is  such  real  friendship  possible  between  FiUpinos 
and  non-Christians?  Not  at  present.  A  lot  of  ancient 
history  must  first  be  Uved  down. 

In  the  Philippines  it  has  invariably  been  true  that 
the  wild  man  has  in  the  past  been  more  or  less  completely 
despoiled  of  the  fruits  of  his  labour  by  his  so-called  ' '  Chris- 
tian" neighbours  whenever  compelled  to  do  business  with 
them  in  order  to  obtain  some  of  the  necessaries  of  life. 

1  Page  542. 


A  Typical  Improved  Bckid.n-on  House. 


A  Typicai,  Neglected  Filipino  Hocse. 

In  the  Biikidnon  villages  all  the  people  now  take  j)ride  in  keeping  their  houses 
in  good  repair.  Houses  like  the  one  here  shown  are  frequently  seen  in  neigh- 
boring Filipino  towns. 


NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBE   PROBLEMS  665 

He  is  accustomed  to  receive  a  mere  pittance  for  his  prod- 
ucts, and  to  pay  enormous  prices  when  he  makes  pur- 
chases. The  opening  of  the  so-called  "government 
exchanges,"  which  are  stores  where  the  products  of  the 
surrounding  countrj'  are  purchased  and  where  the  things 
required  by  the  hill  people  are  sold  at  a  small  margin  of 
profit,  has  proved  very  useful  in  the  establishment  of 
friendly  and  helpful  relations  with  them.  In  some  places 
they  have  been  persuaded  to  grow  new  and  more  profit- 
able crops.  Some  of  the  Benguet  Igorots,  for  instance, 
now  raise  strawberries  for  sale  at  Baguio,  although  a  few 
years  ago  they  had  never  seen  them. 

If  in  control,  would  the  FiUpinos  reverse  the  policy 
they  have  heretofore  always  followed  in  commercial 
dealings  with  the  wild  men  ?     Most  assuredly  not. 

The  Igorots,  Ifugaos  and  Kalingas  are  adepts  in  the  use 
of  irrigation  water,  and  know  how  to  terrace  the  steepest 
mountain  sides  so  as  to  employ  it  advantageously  wherever 
it  is  available.  The  giving  of  help  in  running  main  irri- 
gation ditches  through  rock  has  been  especially  appre- 
ciated by  them.  The  money  which  we  expend  for  this 
purpose  goes  for  the  establishment  of  proper  grade  lines, 
the  providing  of  necessary  supervision  and  the  purchase 
of  explosives  and  tools  for  rock  work.  The  people  con- 
cerned are  more  than  glad  to  contribute  all  necessary'  la- 
bour free  of  charge. 

Would  the  FiUpinos  continue  to  make  funds  available 
for  such  improvements  in  the  wild  man's  country  ?  A 
thousand  times  no  !  Before  any  one  disputes  me,  let 
him  show  one  instance  where  they  have  done  any  such 
thing  in  any  one  of  the  very  numerous  provinces  where 
the  expenditure  of  funds  for  non-Christians  is  under  their 
control. 

In  dealing  with  tribes  which  have  been  accustomed  to 
hve  by  families,  or  small  groups  of  families,  and  to  select 
veiy  inaccessible  places  for  their  homes,  it  is  of  course 
necessary  to  persuade  them  to  hve  in  larger  groups  and 


666  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

in  reasonably  accessible  places  before  much  progress  can 
be  made  toward  improving  their  condition.  This  is 
usually  not  a  very  difficult  task  if  one  goes  about  it  in  the 
right  way. 

In  Bukidnon,  for  instance,  where  we  are  still  bringing 
people  down  from  the  tree-tops,  in  which  they  and  some  of 
their  ancestors  have  Uved  for  centuries,  and  settling  them 
in  well-ordered  and  beautifully  kept  villages,  when  new 
arrivals  come  in  to  inspect  the  towns  and  interrogate  me 
as  to  the  conditions  under  which  they  may  take  up  resi- 
dence there,  I  often  have  conversations  Uke  this :  — 

"What  about  this  fife  in  town ?" 

"Look  around  and  see  for  yourself.  Talli  with  the 
people  and  hear  what  they  have  to  say  about  it.  They 
will  tell  you  whether  they  like  it  or  not,  and  why." 

"But  what  do  I  have  to  do  if  I  wish  to  five  in  town ?" 

"A  piece  of  ground  will  be  assigned  to  you  and  on  it 
you  must  build  a  decent  house  hke  those  you  see.  This 
house  is  for  you  and  your  family,  not  for  me.  I  come 
here  only  once  or  twice  a  year  and  at  the  most  stay  over 
one  night,  so  I  do  not  need  your  house.  The  lieutenant- 
governor  does  not  need  it.  When  he  comes  he  stays 
at  the  presidencia.  He  will  not  let  any  one  take  it  away 
from  you." 

"Very  well.     What  else?" 

"You  will  have  to  build  a  good,  tight  fence  around 
the  lot  given  you  and  keep  your  domestic  animals  inside 
it.  You  must  also  clean  it  up  thoroughly,  removing  all 
vegetation  and  filhng  all  the  low  places  so  that  water 
cannot  stand  in  them.     Then  you  must  keep  it  clean." 

"What  is  the  use  of  that?" 

' '  The  husaos '  who  cause  sickness  do  no  like  clean 
places  and  stay  away  from  them." 

"I  never  heard  of  that." 

"Ask  the  people  who  have  tried  keeping  their  yards 
clean,  and  they  will  tell  you  that  it  is  true." 

>  Evil  spirits. 


NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBE  PROBLEMS  667 

"Well,  what  else?" 

"As  long  as  you  have  to  keep  your  yard  clean  you 
might  as  well  plant  something  useful  in  it,  so  that  you 
will  get  a  good  return  for  your  laboui'." 

"That  is  a  good  idea.     Is  there  anything  more  ?" 
"Yes.     You  must  take  up  a  piece  of  the  beautiful 
prairie  land  near  town,  build  a  fence  around  it  to  keep 
out  the  wild  hogs  and  deer,  and  plant  it  with  rice,  camotes 
or  something  else  that  will  give  your  family  plenty  of 
food  and  if  possible  leave  a  surplus  to  sell,  so  that  you  can 
buy  better  clothes  with  the  money  you  make." 
"But  I  cannot  break  this  thick  prairie  sod." 
"The  ground  will  be  ploughed  for  you  the  first  time. 
After  that  you  must  look  after  it  yourself." 
"Is  that  all?" 

"No.  There  is  one  additional  very  important  thing. 
I  am  getting  old  and  fat,i  and  I  can  no  longer  scramble 
around  over  these  hills  as  I  used  to  do.  I  want  to  come 
and  see  you  every  year,  and  find  out  how  you  are  getting 
on.  You  will  have  to  help  build  good  trails  for  my 
big  horse,  working  ten  days  every  year,  or  paying  two 
pesos,  so  that  some  one  else  can  be  hired  to  work  in  your 
place.  Everything  else  that  I  have  told  you  must  be 
done,  if  you  come  to  town,  is  for  your  benefit,  not  for  mine, 
and  even  the  trails  are  only  partly  for  my  benefit.  You 
will  find  it  easy  and  safe  to  travel  over  them,  and  when 
you  want  to  go  to  market,  your  carabao  will  be  able  to 
pack  three  or  four  times  as  much  as  he  can  now  carry 
over  bad  paths." 

"Will  I  gain  any  other  advantages  by  Uving  in  town ?" 
"Yes,  two  very  important  ones.     You  and  your  family 
will  be  safe  from  attack,  and  you  will  have  a  chance  to 
send  your  children  to  school." 

"Must  I  come  and  live  in  town  if  I  do  not  want  to  ?" 
"By  no  means.     If  you  prefer  to  live  up  a  tree  in  the 
mountains,  no  one  will  interfere  with  you  so  long  as  you 
'  This  is  only  too  true  ! 


668  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

behave  yourself.  There  are  plenty  of  mountains  and 
plenty  of  trees." 

As  a  result  of  the  simple  arguments  above  outUned 
and  of  the  protection  and  help  given  them,  nearly  all  of 
the  Bukidnon  people  have  left  the  mountain  fastnesses 
through  which  they  have  until  recently  been  scattered, 
and  are  voluntarily  taking  up  their  residences  in  towns 
which  in  their  way  are  models. 

Could  the  Filipinos  keep  them  in  the  towns  where  we 
have  settled  them  ?  No  ;  and  they  would  not  if  they  could. 
They  would  chase  them  back  into  the  forests  as  they  were 
doing  when  we  made  them  stop  it.  Furthermore,  they 
could  not  if  they  would.  In  September,  1912,  I  heard 
the  people  of  eastern  Bukidnon  tell  Governor  Reyes 
of  Misamis  that  if  their  territory  were  put  back  into  his 
province,  they  would  take  to  the  hills  and  Uve  with  the 
Manobos. 

One  of  the  most  important  factors  in  winning  and  re- 
taining the  good  will  of  the  non-Christian  peoples  has 
been  the  extension  to  them  of  protection  from  the  im- 
positions of  their  Filipino  neighbours.  The  following 
is  a  fair  sample  of  the  sort  of  thing  to  which  they  have  in 
the  past  been  subjected. 

During  my  last  trip  through  Bukidnon  I  learned  that  a 
long-haired  mountaineer  who  had  been  encouraged  to  plant 
coffee  and  Manila  hemp  had  acted  on  the  suggestion,  work- 
ing very  hard  and  establishing  an  excellent  plantation  which 
had  prospered.  Wlien  he  had  products  ready  for  market 
he  had  taken  them  to  the  coast  town  of  BaUngasak.  He 
did  not  speak  the  language  of  the  Visayan  Filipino  inhabit- 
ants of  that  place,  so  fell  into  the  hands  of  one  of  them 
who  knew  his  dialect.  This  rascal  helped  him  to  sell  his 
produce,  but  took  a  heavy  commission  for  this  service. 
The  hillman  was  nevertheless  delighted  with  the  result, 
whereupon  his  "commissioner"  suggested  that  what  he 
really  needed  was  a  partner  in  town  to  sell  his  crops, 
so  that  he  could  spend  his  whole  time  in  cultivating  his 


NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBE   PROBLEMS  669 

fields  and  not  have  to  go  to  market.  This  struck  the 
hiUman  as  a  good  idea.  The  Filipino  made  out  what 
purported  to  be  articles  of  partnership  and  the  hillman 
signed  them  with  his  mark,  in  the  presence  of  witnesses. 

A  few  months  later  he  sent  a  valuable  shipment  of  coffee 
and  hemp  to  his  "partner."  When  weeks  had  passed 
without  his  hearing  from  it,  he  went  to  Balingasdk  to 
find  out  what  was  wrong,  whereupon  his  "partner" 
stated  that  he  was  greatly  obhged  to  him  for  his  trouble 
in  cultivating  and  harvesting  the  products  of  the  farm. 
The  hillman  demanded  his  share  of  the  returns  and 
the  "partner"  calmly  assured  him  that  he  had  no  share, 
having  sold  his  farm  at  the  time  of  his  last  visit.  In- 
vestigation proved  that  this  ignorant  man  had  signed  a 
bill  of  sale  for  his  place. 

Lieutenant-Governor  Fortich  interested  himself  in 
the  case  and  caused  suit  to  be  brought  against  the  rascally 
"partner"  for  steahng  the  hillman's  produce.  The 
fiscal,  or  public  prosecuting,  officer  was  a  bright  young 
Filipino  who  had  recently  graduated  from  an  American 
university.  Nevertheless,  he  had  the  suit  thrown  out 
of  court  because  the  "partner"  of  the  hillman  claimed 
that  the  farm  was  his,  and  a  question  of  property  owner- 
ship could  not  be  conveniently  determined  in  connec- 
tion with  a  criminal  suit. 

At  this  stage  of  events  I  took  a  hand  and  brought  the 
matter  to  the  attention  of  the  Honourable  Gregorio  .Araneta, 
secretary  of  fuiance  and  justice.  The  fiscal  had  sug- 
gested that  the  wild  man  could  bring  a  civil  suit  for 
damages  against  his  "partner."  How  could  this  helpless 
barbarian  have  gone  to  Cagayan,  hired  a  lawyer  and 
lived  there  while  his  case  was  pending?  He  was  ab- 
solutely helpless.  Naturally,  I  was  not.  Another  suit 
was  brought  and  the  "partner"  was  sentenced  to  pay  a 
fine  and  was  given  a  term  in  jail. 

This  is  no  isolated  case.  The  wild  men  are  constantly 
deprived  of  their  crops  or  their  lands ;  cheated  in  the  sale 


670  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

of  their  products  and  in  their  purchases;  arrested  and 
fined  on  trumped-up  charges ;  compelled  to  work  for 
others  -nithout  compensation ;  charged  by  private  individ- 
uals for  the  privilege  of  using  government  forests  or  taking 
up  pubhc  lands ;  and  badgered  and  imposed  upon  in  a 
thousand  and  one  other  ways. 

If  the  Fihpinos  were  put  in  control,  would  there  rise 
up  among  them  unselfish  men  who  would  check  the 
rapacitj^  of  their  fellows,  and  extend  to  the  helpless  peoples 
the  protection  they  now  enjoy  ? 

At  all  events,  those  who  have  made  it  their  business 
to  protect  the  people  of  the  non-Cliristian  tribes  have  not 
been  popular  among  the  Filipinos.  As  a  precautionary 
measure,  I  warned  every  man  appointed  governor  of,  or 
Ueutenant-governor  in,  a  special  government  province 
that  he  must  expect  sooner  or  later  to  be  accused  of  many 
of  the  crimes  recognized  by  existing  laws.  Every  such 
man  who  does  his  duty  eventually  has  false,  and  usually 
foul,  charges  brought  against  him.  A  common,  and 
indeed  the  favourite,  complaint  is  that  he  has  been  guilty 
of  improper  relations  with  women.  The  FiUpino  is  an 
expert  m  framing  up  cases  of  this  sort,  and  seems  to 
take  special  dehght  in  it,  partly  no  doubt  because  such 
charges  are  so  excessively  difficult  to  disprove. 

Cruel  abuse  of  the  wild  men,  or  their  famiUes ;  falsifi- 
cation of  public  documents ;  misappropriation  of  pubhc 
funds ;  adultery ;  rape,  —  these  are  all  common  charges, 
while  more  than  one  of  my  subordinates  has  been  accused 
of  murder,  and  one  has  actually  been  brought  into  court 
on  such  a  charge.  It  is  certainly  no  sinecure  to  be  an 
officer  of  a  special  government  province. 

A  potent  means  of  winning  the  undjdng  regard  of  the 
wild  man  is  to  cure  him  when  he  is  sick,  or  heal  him 
when  he  is  injured.  Hospitals  have  already  been  es- 
tabUshed  in  two  of  the  special  government  provinces  and 
are  doing  untold  good.  Practically  ever\'^  officer  of  these 
provinces  carries  a  set  of  simple  remedies  with  him  when 


a 
< 


^    s 


NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBE   PROBLEMS  671 

he  travels,  and  treats  the  sick  without  compensation  as 
opportunity  offers,  but  this  work  is  as  yet  in  its  infancy. 

The  Filipinos  have  not  doctors  enough  to  heal  their 
own  sick.  Would  they  remember  to  heal  the  wild  men  ? 
Hardly. 

Several  of  the  wild  tribes  have  progressed  much  more 
rapidly  during  the  brief  period  since  the  American  occu- 
pation than  have  any  of  the  Filipino  peoples,  and  if 
given  adequate  protection  and  friendly  assistance  they 
will  continue  to  progress.  Their  splendid  phj^siques 
and  high  intelligence,  no  less  than  their  truthfulness, 
honesty  and  morality,  certainly  make  them  well  worth 
saving. 

Under  Filipino  rule  the  more  helpless  of  these  tribes 
would  speedily  come  under  the  control  of  their  former 
oppressors,  but  people  like  the  Ifugaos,  Bontoc  Igorots, 
Kalingas  and  wild  Tingians  would  fight  to  the  death 
before  submitting  to  them,  and  there  would  result  a 
guerrilla  warfare  as  endless  and  disastrous  as  that  which 
has  lasted  so  long  between  the  Dutch  and  the  Achinese. 
There  is  every  theoretical  reason  to  believe  that  the 
Filipinos  would  adopt  toward  such  hostile  primitive  peoples 
the  policy  of  extermination  which  the  Japanese  have  been 
so  vigorously  carrying  out  in  dealing  with  the  hill  people 
of  northern  Formosa,  who  do  not  differ  in  any  important 
respect  from  the  hill  people  of  northern  Luzon,  with 
whom  such  helpful  and  friendly  relations  have  now  been 
established. 

We  have  encouraged  the  primitive  Philippine  peoples 
to  stand  up  for  their  rights.  We  have  promised  them 
our  protection  and  help  if  they  would  do  it,  and  thus  far 
we  have  kept  our  promise.  To  break  it  now,  and  turn  them 
over  to  the  tender  mercies  of  the  Filipinos,  who  have 
never  ceased  to  make  threats  as  to  what  they  will  do 
when  they  get  the  chance,  would  in  my  opinion  be  a 
crime  against  civilization. 

The  Moros  openly  boast  that  if  the  Americans  go  they 


672  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

will  raid  the  Christian  towns,  and  this  is  no  idle  threat. 
They  will  most  assuredly  do  it. 

Were  American  control  to  be  withdrawn  before  the 
civilization  of  the  wild  tribes  had  been  effected,  their  future 
would  be  dark  indeed.  Under  continued  American  con- 
trol they  can  be  won  over  to  civiUzed  ways,  and  will  in  the 
end  become  mentally  and  morally,  as  they  now  are 
physically,  superior  to  the  lowlanders. 

No  man  has  been  blessed  with  better  subordinates  than 
I  have  had  to  assist  me  in  the  work  carried  on  under  my 
direction  for  the  non-Christian  tribes  of  the  Philippines. 
I  wish  it  clearly  understood  that  it  is  to  the  loyalty  and 
efficiency  of  these  men  that  the  results  which  have  been 
obtained  are  due.  Fearlessly,  tirelessly,  uncomplainingly, 
they  have  borne  their  heavy  shares  of  the  white  man's 
burden,  finding  their  greatest  reward  in  the  respect, 
gratitude,  and  in  many  cases  the  affection,  of  those 
whom  they  have  so  faithfully  and  effectively  served. 

Think  of  Pack,  weakened  by  illnesses  which  twice 
brought  him  within  a  hair's  breadth  of  death,  wearing 
himself  out  riding  over  the  Mountain  Province  trails, 
many  of  which  he  himself  had  laboriously  built,  in  order 
to  keep  the  little  handful  of  men  who  control  its  400,000 
non-Christian  inhabitants  up  to  the  high-water  mark 
of  efficiency,  when  he  could  have  gone  home  any  day 
and  spent  his  remaining  years  in  leisurely  comfort ; 
of  Bryant,  wandering  for  weeks  on  end  through  the 
trackless  forests  of  Nueva  Vizcaya  in  order  to  get  in 
touch  with  Ilongot  savages  who  were  a  good  deal  more 
than  "half  devil"  with  the  balance  not  "half  child"  but 
peculiarly  treacherous,  vicious  and  savage  man ;  of 
Offley,  packing  the  bare  necessities  of  life  on  his  own  back 
while  he  struggled  out  to  the  coast  from  the  centre  of 
Mindoro,  where  his  frightened  carriers  had  deserted  him ; 
of  Kane,  burning  in  the  heat  of  the  lowlands  or  soaked 
and  shivering  on  chiUy  mountain  crests,  while  building  new 
roads  and  keeping  old  ones  open  for  traffic ;    of  Lewis, 


NON-CHRISTIAN    TRIBE   PROBLEMS  673 

trying  to  cover  a  territory  large  enough  to  tax  the  energies 
of  three  men,  and  in  his  efforts  to  do  so  riding  until  so 
weary  that  at  night  he  fell  from  his  horse  unable  to  dis- 
mount ;  of  Fortich,  a  Filipino  Ueutenant-governor, 
faithfully  carrying  out  the  white  man's  pohcy  and  pro- 
tecting the  Bukidnons  from  his  own  people  who  charged 
him  with  murder  because  he  drove  them  from  their  prey ; 
of  Gallman,  risking  his  hfe  a  thousand  times  in  a  successful 
individual  effort  to  bring  125,000  head-hunting  savages 
under  effective  control  and  to  establish  relations  of 
genuine  friendship  with  them ;  of  Hale,  turning  tattooed 
Kalinga  devils  into  effective  officers  for  the  maintenance  of 
law  and  order,  or  making  a  bundle  of  the  lances  thrown  at 
him  and  sending  them  back  to  the  people  who  threw 
them  with  a  mild  suggestion  that  it  was  impolite  to  treat 
a  would-be  friend  in  such  an  unceremonious  way ;  of 
Johnson,  tramping  through  the  reeking  filth  of  the  Butuan 
swamps  with  a  cancer  eating  away  the  bone  of  his  leg, 
and  referring  to  it  as  "a  little  swelling"  when  asked 
what  made  him  lame ;  of  Bondurant,  spending  the  last 
afternoon  of  his  life  in  pursuing  Moro  outlaws  through 
that  worst  of  all  tropical  infernos,  a  mangrove  swamp, 
when  burning  with  pernicious  malarial  fever  and  fighting 
for  the  very  breath  of  life  ;  of  Miller,  faithful  unto  death  ! 

We  are  wont  to  quote  with  feeling  the  famihar  words, 
"Greater  love  hath  no  man  than  this,  that  he  lay  down  his 
life  for  his  friend,"  but  what  shall  we  say  of  the  love  of 
duty  of  men  like  Miller  and  Bondurant,  who  in  doing 
their  country's  work  cheerfully  laid  down  their  lives  for 
an  alien  people  ? 

While  in  the  United  States  in  1910  I  read  Rudyard 
Kipling's  "If"  and  thereafter  did  not  rest  until  I  had  sent 
a  copy  of  it  to  each  governor  and  lieutenant-governor 
employed  in  the  special  provincial  government  service 
of  the  Philippine  Islands.  Kipling  wrote  for  these  men  of 
mine  up  in  the  hills  without  knowing  it.  They  understand 
him  and  he  would  understand  them. 


674  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

There  is  not  one  of  them  who  has  not  learned  to 

"...  fill  the  unforgiving  minute 
With  sixty  seconds'  worth  of  distance  run  "  ; 

not  one  whose  personal  experience  has  left  him  deaf  to 
the  appeal  of  the  lines  :  — 

"If  you  can  keep  your  head  when  all  about  you 

Are  losing  theirs  and  blaming  it  on  you ; 
If  you  can  trust  yourself  when  all  men  doubt  you, 

But  make  allowance  for  their  doubting  too; 
If  you  can  wait  and  not  be  tired  by  waiting, 

Or  being  lied  about  don't  deal  in  Kes, 
Or  being  hated  don't  give  way  to  hating, 

And  yet  don't  look  too  good,  nor  talk  too  wise." 

Furthermore,  each  of  them  has  again  and  again  finished 
on  his  nerve.     Did  not  the  words, — 

"If  you  can  force  your  heart  and  nerve  and  sinew 
To  serve  your  turn  long  after  they  are  gone, 
And  so  hold  on  when  there  is  nothing  in  j^ou 

Except  the  Will  which  says  to  them :   '  Hold  on  ! '  " 

run  through  Bondurant's  mind  that  last  afternoon  when 
he  was  following  Moro  outlaws  through  a  foul  mangrove 
swamp,  while  his  senses  reeled  with  the  fever  which  was 
so  soon  to  end  his  life  ? 

In  his  wonderful  quadruplet  of  stanzas  Kipling  has 
fixed  one  criterion  of  manhood  which  it  is  hard  indeed 
to  meet :  — 

"  If  you  can  bear  to  hear  the  truth  you've  spoken 
Twisted  by  knaves  to  make  a  trap  for  fools. 
Or  watch  the  things  you  gave  your  life  to,  broken. 
And  stoop  and  build  them  up  with  worn-out  tools." 

I  beg  my  fellow-countrymen  to  remember  that  the 
non-Christians  of  the  Philippines  constitute  an  eighth 
of  the  population ;  that  the  work  undertaken  for  their 
physical,  mental  and  moral  advancement  has  succeeded 
far  beyond  the  hopes  of  those  who  initiated  it ;  that  its 


NON-CHRISTIAN   TRIBE   PROBLEMS  675 

results  would  go  down  like  a  house  of  cards  if  American 
control  were  prematurely  wdthdrawTi.  Shall  the  men 
who  have  devoted  their  lives  to  these  things  be  forced 
to  watch  them  broken,  and  then  be  denied  the  poor 
privilege  of  building  them  up  again  ?  If  the  splendid 
results  of  so  much  efficient,  faithful,  self-sacrificing  and 
successful  effort  were  to  be  lost,  would  not  the  dead  who 
gave  their  lives  for  them  turn  in  their  graves  ? 

The  greatest  of  the  non-Christian  tribe  problems  in 
the  Philippines  at  present  is,  "Shall  the  work  go  on?" 

There  is  one  satisfaction  which  no  man  can  take  from 
those  of  us  who  have  worked  for  the  advancement  of 
these  backward  and  hitherto  neglected  peoples.  We  have 
shown  what  can  be  done! 


CHAPTER  XXV 

Slavery  and  Peonage 

Chattel  slaverj^  existed  in  the  Philippine  Islands  when 
Magellan  discovered  them  in  1521.     It  exists  there  to-day. 

Morga,  who  was  in  the  Phihppines  from  1595  to  about 
1608,  and  is  admittedly  the  most  rehable  chronicler  of  the 
events  of  those  early  days,  has  given  the  following  in- 
teresting account  of  the  conditions  then  existing : '  — 

"There  are  three  classes  of  persons  among  the  natives  of 
these  Islands,  by  which  the  commonwealth  is  divided :  yrin- 
cipales,  of  whom  I  have  spoken  before ;  timawa  which  is  the 
same  as  plebeians,  and  slaves,  of  principales  as  well  as  of 
timawa.  These  slaves  were  of  various  classes :  some  are  in 
entire  servitude  and  slavery,  like  those  which  we  have,  and 
these  are  called  sagigilir;  Ihey  served  in  the  interior  of  the 
houses  and  so  also  the  children  descended  from  them ;  others, 
who  have  their  o^\^l  dwellings,  which  they  inhabit  with  their 
family,  away  from  the  house  of  their  master,  and  these  come 
in  at  times  to  help  the  latter  in  their  fields  and  crops,  as  also 
aboard  the  vessel  when  they  embark,  and  in  the  construction 
of  their  houses  whenever  they  erect  such,  and  they  also  serve 
in  their  houses  whenever  there  is  a  guest  of  some  distinction, 
and  they  are  under  obligation,  whenever  the  master  has  them 
called,  to  come  to  his  house  and  to  serve  him  in  this  ministry 
■ftdthout  pay  or  other  stipend;  these  are  called  72ama)nahai, 
and  their  children  and  descendents  are  slaves  of  the  same 
condition.  Of  these  slaves  sagigilir  and  naniamahai  there  are 
some  who  are  slaves  entirely,  and  others  who  are  only  half 
slaves,  and  others  who  are  slaves  only  for  a  fourth  part.  This 
originates  thus:  if  either  the  father  or  the  mother  was  free 
and  they  had  a  single  child,  the  latter  was  half  free  and  half 
slave,  if  they  had  more  than  one  child,  the  children  were 
distributed  in  this  way :  the  first  followed  the  condition  of  the 

1  Rizal's  1890  edition  of  Morga's  "Sueesos  de  las  Islas  Filipinas," 
p.  297,  et  seq. 

676 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  677 

father,  be  he  free  or  a  slave,  and  the  second  that  of  the  mother ; 
and  if  the  number  was  uneven,  the  last  child  was  half  free  and 
half  slave;  and  those  descended  from  such  child,  if  they  had 
a  free  father  or  a  free  mother,  remained  slave  only  for  a  fourth 
part,  because  they  were  children  of  a  free  father,  or  mother, 
and  of  a  half  slave.  These  half  or  quarter  slaves,  namamahai  or 
sagigilir,  serve  their  masters  only  every  second  month,  re- 
spectively, in  proportion  to  their  condition  as  slave. 

"Among  the  natives  the  ordinary  price  of  a  slave  sagigilir 
used  to  be,  if  much,  ten  taes  of  good  gold,  worth  80  pesos,  and 
if  he  is  a  namamahai  half  of  that,  and  thus  in  proportion  the 
others,  taking  into  account  the  personahty  and  age. 

"It  cannot  be  established  as  a  principle  from  where  these 
classes  of  servitude  among  the  natives  arose,  for  they  are  all  of 
the  islands  and  not  foreigners;  it  is  understood  that  they 
made  them  in  their  wars  and  differences ;  and  the  most  certain 
is  that  those  who  were  most  powerful  made  and  took  as  slaves 
the  others  for  slight  causes  and  occasions,  and  most  often 
through  loans  and  usurious  contracts  current  amongst  them,  the 
payment,  risk  and  debt  increasing  with  the  lapse  of  time  until 
they  became  slaves ;  and  thus  all  these  forms  of  servitude  have 
their  violent  and  unjust  origin,  and  it  is  about  them  that  there 
arise  the  greater  part  of  the  lawsuits  that  exist  among  the 
natives  and  with  which  they  keep  busy  the  judges  in  the  forum 
of  the  court,  and  the  confessors  in  that  of  the  conscience." 

To  the  last  of  the  preceding  paragraphs  Rizal  makes 
the  following  annotation,  which,  mutatis  mutandis,  should 
give  leading  Filipinos  of  to-day  matter  for  reflection  :  — ■ 

"This  class  of  slaves  exists  even  now  in  many  parts,  and 
before  all  in  the  province  of  Batangas,  but  it  must  be  confessed 
that  their  condition  is  very  different  from  that  of  a  slave  in 
Greece,  or  Rome,  from  that  of  the  negro,  and  even  of  those 
made  in  later  times  by  Spaniards.  .  .  . 

"  Fihpinas,  in  spite  of  so  many  centuries  of  christianizar 
tion,  in  spite  of  the  efforts  of  some  few  noble  minds,  priests 
as  well  as  civilians,  continues  still,  and  is  desired  to  continue, 
almost  in  the  same  state  a.s  formerly,  for  those  who  chrect 
the  country  look  more  to  the  present  than  to  the  future,  and 
because  they  are  guided  not  by  confidence,  but  by  fear.  The 
efforts  of  the  religious  corporations  to  improve  this  state  of 
things  have  never  been  as  efficacious,  nor  as  strenuous,  as 
might  have  been  expected  from  them." 


678  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

Morga  continues : '  — 

"  These  slaves  are  the  greatest  wealth  and  capital  which  the 
natives  of  these  islands  possess,  because  they  are  to  them  very 
useful  and  necessary  for  their  labors  and  farms ;  and  among 
them  they  are  sold,  exchanged,  and  made  objects  of  contract, 
like  any  other  merchandise,  from  one  pueblo  to  the  other, 
from  one  province  to  the  other,  and  likewise  from  one  island 
to  the  other.  For  which  reason,  and  in  order  to  avoid  so  many 
lawsuits  that  would  arise,  if  the  question  of  these  servitudes, 
their  origin  and  beginning,  were  taken  up,  they  [the  slaves, 
Tr.]  are  retained  and  kept  as  they  were  kept  formerly." 

Rizal  comments  on  this  passage  as  follows :  — 

"Thus  Catholicism  not  only  did  not  hberate  the  poor  class 
from  the  tyranny  of  the  oppressive,  but  with  its  advent  in 
the  Philippines  increased  the  number  of  tyrants.  Time  alone, 
and  instruction,  which  with  it  brings  suaver  customs,  will 
ultimately  redeem  the  Pariahs  of  the  Philippines,  for  we  see  that 
the  apostles  of  the  peace  did  not  find  in  themselves  sufficient 
valour  to  battle  with  the  oppressors,  and  this  in  times  of  great 
faith;  on  the  contrary,  they  rather  contributed  indirectly  to 
their  misery,  as  we  see  from  the  foregoing." 

The  most  frequent  cause,  already  mentioned  above, 
from  which  these  conditions  of  ser\'itude  arose,  is  again 
pointed  out  by  Morga  in  the  following  passage :  ^  — 

"Loans  with  interest  were  in  very  common  practice,  exces- 
sively high  rates  of  interest  being  current,  so  that  the  debt 
doubled  and  multiplied  all  the  time  during  which  the  payment 
was  deferred,  until  there  was  taken  from  the  debtor  what  he 
possessed  as  capital,  and,  when  ultimately  nothing  more  was 
left,  his  person  and  liis  children." 

Of  these  statements  Rizal  says :  — 

"This  is  the  sad  truth,  and  so  much  the  truth  that  it  subsists 
until  now.  In  many  pro-vinces,  and  in  many  towns,  there  is 
taking  place,  word  for  word,  what  Morga  says,  it  being  to  be 
lamented  that  at  present  not  only  Indios  [Filipinos,  Tr.]  con- 
tinue this  usury,  but  also  the  mestizos,  the  Spaniards,  and 
even  various  priests.    And  it  has  come  to  this  that  the  Govem- 

»  "  Sueesos,"  p.  300.  ^  Ibid.,  p.  305. 


o 
pa 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  679 

ment  itself  not  only  permits  it,  but  in  its  turn  exacts  the  capital 
and  the  person  in  payment  of  the  debt  of  others,  as  occurs 
with  the  cabeza  de  barangay." 

It  would  be  easy  to  compile  passages  similar  to  the 
preceding  from  other  authors,  but  those  given  are  explicit 
and  authoritative  enough  to  make  it  clear,  first,  that 
slavery  existed  in  the  Philippines  at  the  time  of  the  con- 
quest as  a  general  tribal  institution  of  social  and  eco- 
nomical character  and  in  minutely  regulated  form ;  and, 
second,  that  although  it  lost,  with  the  advent  of  the 
Spaniards,  the  character  of  an  institution,  and  indeed 
was  formally  abolished  by  early  edicts  from  Spain,  it 
continued  to  exist  as  an  unauthorized  practice,  so  that 
Rizal,  writing  at  the  close  of  the  nineteenth  century 
could  say  that  slaves  still  existed  in  many  parts  of  the 
country. 

In  a  statement  recently  published  in  the  New  Yoi'k 
Evening  Post,  Senor  Quezon,  Resident  Delegate  from  the 
Philippines  to  Congress,  has  said  :  — 

"Since  there  is  not,  and  there  never  was,  slavery  in  the 
territory  inhabited  by  the  Christian  Filipinos,  which  is  the  part 
of  the  Islands  sul^ject  to  the  legislative  control  of  the  Assembly, 
this  House  has  refused  to  concur  in  the  anti-slavery  bill  passed 
by  the  Philippine  Commission." 

Whom  will  the  American  public  believe,  Morga,  the 
historian,  and  Rizal,  the  Filipino  patriot,  or  Quezon,  the 
Filipino  politician  ? 

While  I  entertain  no  doubt  as  to  the  answer,  I  shall 
nevertheless  discuss  at  length  the  more  recent  history 
and  present  status  of  slavery  and  peonage  in  the  Philip- 
pines, because  of  the  vital  importance  -of  full  knowledge 
of  the  facts  to  intelligent  consideration  of  the  claim  that 
the  Filipinos  have  arrived  at  a  stage  of  civilization  com- 
parable with  that  of  the  more  advanced  nations  of  the 
world,  and  are  capable  of  establishing  and  maintaining  a 
just  and  humane  government. 


680  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

The  Spanish  Penal  Code  did  not  prohibit  or  penalize 
slavery,  or  the  purchase  or  sale  of  human  beings.  It  did 
contain  provisions  against  forcible  detention  of  individuals 
and  the  abduction  of  minors,  but  in  the  Phihppines  at 
least  they  were  more  honoured  in  the  breach  than  in  the 
observance  during  the  Spanish  regmie. 

The  Moros  raided  the  towais  of  the  peaceful  Filipino 
inhabitants  of  the  Visayan  Islands  and  of  Luzon  until 
within  quite  recent  times.  An  unhappy  fate  awaited  the 
prisoners  whom  they  took.  INIen  were  frequently  com- 
pelled to  harvest  for  their  captors  the  crops  which  they 
themselves  had  planted,  and  were  then  mercilessly 
butchered.  Women,  girls  and  boys  were  carried  away 
into  slavery,  the  former  to  serve  as  household  drudges  or 
as  concubines,  and  the  latter  to  be  brought  up  as  slaves 
pure  and  simple.  Some  men  met  a  similar  fate.  The 
only  reason  that  more  were  not  enslaved  was  that  it  was 
usually  considered  too  much  trouble  to  make  full-grown 
individuals  work.  Slaves  were  held  as  chattels  if  it 
suited  the  convenience  of  their  masters  to  retain  them, 
and  otherwise  were  sold,  bartered  or  given  away.  Zam- 
boanga  was  at  the  outset  largely  populated  by  escaped 
Moro  slaves  who  had  sought  the  protection  of  the  Spanish 
garrison  there.  Coming  originally  from  widely  separated 
^parts  of  the  archipelago,  these  unfortunates  had  no  com- 
mon native  dialect,  hence  there  arose  among  them  a 
Spanish  patois  now  known  as  Zajuhoangueho. 

The  American  occupation  brought  many  and  brusque 
changes  in  political  conditions.  The  attitude  of  Ameri- 
cans toward  slavery  and  peonage  was  very  different  from 
that  of  the  easy-going  Spaniards,  who  had  never  sanc- 
tioned it  but  had  never  made  any  determined  effort  to 
break  it  up. 

From  the  effective  establishment  of  United  States 
sovereignty  in  1899  until  July  4,  1901,  the  Philippines 
were  under  military  rule,  which  has  one  great  advantage : 
its  methods  usually  bring  quick  results. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  681 

Doubtless  the  majority  of  the  slaves  then  held  in  the 
islands  were  too  timid,  and  too  suspicious  of  the  character 
and  purposes  of  Americans,  to  appeal  to  them  for  protec- 
tion ;  but  there  were  not  a  few  whose  lives  had  become  so 
unbearable  that  they  were  prepared  to  take  almost  any 
risk  on  the  chance  of  securing  release.  People  of  this 
class  ran  away  from  their  masters  and  sought  the  protec- 
tion of  army  officers.  I  am  glad  to  say  that  in  every 
such  instance  which  has  come  to  my  knowledge  it  was 
promptly  given.  Not  only  were  they  ad\'ised  that  they 
could  not  be  held  in  bondage,  and  were  free  to  go  where 
they  pleased,  but  when  practicable  their  masters  were 
warned  against  attempting  to  regain  control  over  them. 
It  is  probable  that  the  large  majority  of  such  cases  were 
never  officially  reported.  Most  of  the  army  officers  con- 
cerned were  in  some  doubt  as  to  their  legal  status  in  the 
premises,  but  they  knew  that  the  constitution  of  the 
United  States  prohibits  slavery ;  their  sympathies  went 
out  to  the  -ftTetched  human  beings  who  appealed  to  them 
for  aid,  and  they  decided  to  be  a  law  unto  themselves. 

After  the  establishment  of  civil  government  some  army 
officers  continued  to  exercise  arbitrary  powers  in  dealing 
with  such  cases  of  slavery  as  came  to  their  attention, 
while  others  contented  themselves  with  reporting  them 
to  the  civil  authorities. 

The  conditions  which  prevailed  in  the  Moro  Province 
in  1902  are  concisely  described  by  its  military  governor. 
General  George  W.  Davis,  in  a  report  written  on  August 
25  of  that  year.     He  said  :  — 

"With  a  people  who  have  no  conception  of  government  that 
is  not  arbitrary  and  absolute ;  who  hokl  human  life  as  no  more 
sacred  than  the  life  of  an  animal ;  who  have  become  accustomed 
to  acts  of  violence ;  who  are  constrained  by  fear  from  continu- 
ing the  practice  of  piracy ;  who  still  carry  on  slave  trade  ;  who 
habitually  raid  the  homes  of  mountain  natives  and  enslave 
them ;  who  habitually  make  slaves  of  their  captives  in  war  — 
even  when  of  their  owa  race ;  who  not  uncommonly  make 
delivery  of  their  own  kindred  as  slaves  in  satisfaction  of  a  debt 


682  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

for  liquidation  of  which  they  have  not  the  ready  money ;  who 
habitually  observe  the  precepts  of  the  Koran,  which  declares 
that  female  slaves  must  submit  to  their  masters,  —  it  is  useless 
to  discuss  a  plan  of  government  that  is  not  based  on  physical 
force,  might,  and  power." 

Senor  Quezon,  in  describing  conditions  in  the  Moro 
country,  has  said  :  ^  — 

"American  authorities  made  treaties  with  the  Sultan  of 
Jolo  whereby  slavery  was  legalized  and  recognized  among  the 
-non-Christian  jMoros  and  received  the  protection  of  the  United 
States  army  and  civil  authorities.  This  state  of  things  con- 
tinued for  a  long  time  under  official  recognition  and  even  after 
the  treaties  in  question  were  abandoned  it  was  allowed  to  go  on 
tlespite  the  protests  of  Filipino  and  American  students  of  the 
question." 

It  is  true  that  General  Bates  attempted  to  negotiate  a 
treaty  with  the  Sultan  of  Jol6,  in  which  he  felt  himself 
compelled  to  recognize  slavery  as  an  existing  Moro  custom. 
This  action  was  unauthorized  and  was  disapproved  by 
his  superiors.  It  did  not  legalize  slavery.  Neither  Moro 
nor  any  other  kind  of  slavery  was  ever  protected  by  the 
civil  authorities. 

The  act  providing  for  the  organization  of  the  Moro 
Pro\-ince  vras  passed  on  June  1,  1903,  and  hardly  had  the 
civil  officers  therein  pro\'ided  for  been  appointed  when, 
on  September  24,  1903,  the  legislative  council  passed  an 
act  entitled  "An  Act  defining  the  crimes  of  slaveholding 
and  slavehunting  and  prescribing  the  punishment  there- 
for," 2  which  was  promptly  approved  by  the  Philippine 
Commission  and  thus  came  to  have  the  force  and  effect 
of    law.     Under    it    active    measures    were  adopted  to 

'  "The  Filipino  People,"  Vol.  2,  No.  1,  p.  15,  September,  1913. 

'  On  July  1.5,  1913,  I  published  an  ofBeial  report,  as  secretary  of 
the  interior,  on  "Slavery  and  Peonage  in  the  Philippine  Islands."  It 
is  hereinafter  referred  to  in  foot-notes  under  the  title  of  "Slavery  and 
Peonage."  Beginning  on  p.  84  of  this  document  will  be  found  extracts 
from  court  records  sho-«-ing  eon\-ictions  obtained  under  this  act,  which 
is  quoted  in  full  on  p.  83  of  the  same  document. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  683 

break  up  slavery  in  the  Moro  Province.  They  have  re- 
sulted very  successfully,  and  persons  who  have  cap- 
tured others  to  be  held  or  sold  as  slaves,  as  well  as 
persons  who  have  actually  sold,  bought  or  kept  slaves, 
have  been  convicted  and  punished. 

Senor  Quezon's  statement  relative  to  the  attitude  of  the 
civil  authorities  in  this  matter  is  therefore  recklessly  false. 

The  existence  of  slavery  in  the  Moro  Province  was  well 
known  from  the  outset,  hence  the  immediate  enactment 
of  legislation  to  meet  the  special  conditions  which  pre- 
vailed there. 

Little  by  little  the  commission  learned  that  slavery 
was  by  no  means  confined  to  Moro  territory,  and  that 
peonage  was  general  throughout  the  islands. 

Before  going  further,  I  wish  to  make  clear  the  sense  in 
which  I  use  these  terms. 

I  define  slavery  as  the  condition  of  a  human  being 
held  as  a  chattel  and  compelled  to  render  service  for 
which  he  is  not  compensated.  As  food  and  clothing  are 
necessarily  furnished  by  the  slave  owner,  they  are  not 
considered  to  constitute  compensation. 

Peonage  I  define  as  the  condition  of  a  debtor  held  by 
his  creditor  in  a  form  of  qualified  servitude  to  work  out  a 
debt. 

On  April  28,  1903,  the  senior  inspector  of  con- 
stabulaiy  in  Isabela  wired  the  first  district  chief  of  con- 
stabulary, Manila,  as  follows  :  — 

"  In  this  province  a  common  practice  to  own  slaves.  These 
are  bought  by  proprietarios  [property  owners.  —  D.  C.  W.] 
from  Igorrotes  and  Calingas  who  steal  same  in  distant  places 
from  other  tribes.  Young  boys  and  girls  are  bought  at  about 
100  pesos,  men  30  years  old  and  old  women  cheaper.  When 
bought,  are  generally  christened  and  put  -to  work  on  ranch  or 
in  house,  and  I  think  generally  well-treated.  In  this  town  a 
number  sold  within  last  few  months,  and  as  reported  to  me, 
Governor  has  bought  three.  Shall  I  investigate  further? 
Instructions  desired. 

(Signed)     "Sorenson." 


684  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Senior  Inspector  Sorenson  was  instructed  to  make  a 
thorough  investigation  of,  and  a  detailed  report  on,  the 
slave  question. 

On  May  2  he  comphed  with  these  instructions, ^  describ- 
ing the  conditions  under  which  slaves  were  taken  by  the 
neighbouring  Kalingas  and  Ifugaos,  whom  he  wrongly 
calls  "Igorrotes,"  the  methods  employed  in  selling  them, 
and  the  treatment  subsequently  given  them  by  their 
purchasers. 

He  also  furnished  a  list  of  "Igorrotes"  sold  in  the  prov- 
ince during  the  past  year,  with  names  of  the  purchasers 
and  prices  paid.  The  ages  of  these  unhappy  individuals 
varied  from  eight  to  twenty-seven  years,  the  prices  paid 
for  them,  from  one  hundred  and  ten  to  two  hundred  and 
fifty  Mexican  dollars. 

This  report  led  Governor  Taft  to  write  to  Governor 
Dichoso  of  Isabela,  who  was  charged  with  o^^^ling  a  slave, 
asking  him  for  a  frank  statement  of  the  facts  as  to  the 
prevalence  of  slavery  in  his  province. 

Governor  Dichoso's  reply,  dated  September  9,  1903, 
will  make  interesting  reading  for  those  who  claim  that 
slavery  does  not  exist,  and  has  never  existed,  among  the 
Filipinos.  I  give  it  practically  in  full,  omitting  only  the 
titles  of  the  governor :  — 

' '  Having  noted  the  contents  of  the  official  letter  of  the  Honour- 
able the  Civil  Governor  in  the  Philippine  Islands,  Mr.  W.  H. 
Taft,  dated  the  8th  of  August,  last,  and  of  the  copy  of  the  report 
annexed  thereto,  which  were  received  yesterday,  I  have  the 
honour  to  respectfully  reply  that  during  the  21  years,  ffiore  or 
less,  that  I  have  resided  in  this  provincial  capital  (llagan), 
I  have  never  thought  of  buying  a  member  or  a  child  of  the  race 
mentioned  in  the  "report,  or  of  any  other  tribe,  to  serve  as  a 
slave  in  my  household,  not  for  the  reason  that  this  is  pro- 
hibited and  punished  by  section  484  and  the  following  sections 
of  the  Spanish  Code  now  in  force,  relative  to  the  crime  of  kid- 
napping, but  because  it  goes  against  my  nature  to  trest  in  this 

>  For  the  full  text  of  this  interesting  and  important  report  see 
"Slavery  and  Peonage,"  p.  85. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  685 

manner  a  person  who,  like  all  human  beings  alive,  is  a  likeness 
of  the  Highest.  This  I  prove  by  means  of  the  documents 
annexed  hereto. 

"I  could  easily  have  done  so  in  time  of  the  late  Spanish  Gov- 
ernment, because  I  had  good  opportunities  for  doing  so,  and 
could  have  afforded  to  do  so  on  account  of  my  social  position 
from  that  time  on  up  to  date,  during  which  period  I  held 
successively  the  following  public  offices  :  — 

******* 

"This  having  been  my  status,  and  considering  the  power 
and  the  opportunity  which  I  had  for  obtaining  slaves,  I  might 
not  have  had  only  one,  but  enough  to  harvest  the  tobacco  on 
my  plantation,  and  the  other  crops  which  I  had  planted. 

"Under  the  past  Government  there  existed  slaves  in  this 
province,  but  only  a  .small  number,  for  only  wealthy  families 
could  afford  to  keep  them.  The  same  was  the  case  in  the  neigh- 
bouring Provinces  of  Neuva  Vizcaya  and  Cagayan ;  in  the  former 
they  also  used  to  have  slaves  of  the  Ifugao  tribe,  and  in  the 
latter  Negritos,  but  very  few  of  these. 

"Since  the  glorious  Star-Spangled  Banner  has  been  imfolded 
over  the  Province  of  Isabela,  the  slaves  existing  in  the  same, 
which  had  been  purchased  in  that  time  and  recently,  are  very 
well  treated  and  seem  to  be  members  of  the  family,  because  the 
military  authorities  prohibited  their  masters  from  ill-treating 
them  as  they  were  wont  to  do.  Since  then  many  of  the  slaves 
have  run  away  from  their  owners  and  have  sought  new  masters 
who  treat  them  well,  as  it  happened  in  the  case  of  an  Igorrote 
woman  of  the  Ifugao  tribe,  who  was  about  40  years  of  age,  and 
who  had  been  in  the  service  of  a  lady  in  the  pueblo  of  Echague 
for  many  years.  When,  in  the  year  1900,  the  military  enforced 
the  prohibition  of  ill-treatment  of  slaves  in  the  said  pueblo,  this 
Igorrote  woman  ran  away  and  presented  herself  at  my  house, 
I  being  at  this  time  justice  of  the  peace  of  this  provincial  capital, 
and  asked  me  to  employ  her  as  servant.  My  principle  not  to 
have  slaves  preventing  me  from  complying  with  her  wishes, 
I  directed  her  to  apply  to  Mr.  Andres  Claraval  and  his  wife, 
Filomena  Salinas.  They  accepted  her,  and  a  short  time  after- 
wards they  had  her  baptized  and  christened  Magdalena  Claraval. 
She  is  being  treated  like  an  adopted  daughter  by  them. 

"The  gentlemen  who  are  mentioned  in  the  report  as  having 
purchased  slaves  really  acquired  Igorrotes  by  purchase  and 
keep  them  in  their  house,  some  of  them  having  died  since. 
Some  of  these  transactions  were  made  in  the  Spanish  times,  as 
in  the  case  of  the  late  Mr.  Policarpo  Gangan,  who  bought  6 


686  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

or  7  Ifugaos,  whom  on  his  death  he  left  to  his  children,  Mr. 
Pedro  Gangan,  Mrs.  Susana  Gangan,  Miss  Maria  Gangan,  and 
Mrs.  Rufina  Gangan,  and  others  were  made  recently  and 
secretly,  while  I  was  absent  from  town  on  official  business  in  the 
pueblos  of  this  province.  Mr.  Thomas  Gollayan,  the  late  pro- 
vincial secretary,  bought  two  Igorrotes  while  I  was  in  Manila  in 
December  and  January,  last.  They  were  well  aware  of  the  fact 
that  I  prosecuted  kidnapping  with  tenacity,  my  object  being  to 
put  a  stop,  if  po.ssible,  to  this  abominable  practice,  which  has 
since  some  time  prevailed  in  the  pueblos  of  this  province.  .  .  . 

"In  order  to  prove  that  I  endeavoured  to  make  the  proper 
investigation  for  the  purpose  of  proving  whether  slavery  really 
existed  in  this  province,  I  have  the  honour  to  annex  an  affidavit 
by  Agapito  Telan,  a  resident  of  Ilagan,  in  which  it  appears 
that  he  sold  Igorrotes  of  the  Ifugao  tribe  to  several  residents 
of  this  town.  I  was  unable  to  ascertain  the  numbers  of  Igorrotes 
of  the  same  tribe  sold  by  Modesto  Sibal,  Lorenzo  Montevirgen, 
Lorenzo  Montalvo,  Andres  Castro,  and  Cosme  Ferrer,  who  are 
engaged  in  the  same  business  as  Agapito  Telan,  as  it  appears 
from  the  deposition  of  the  latter,  for  the  reason  that  these  per- 
sons did  not  appear  before  me,  although  in  1902  I  had  on 
several  occasions  verbally  requested  the  late  municipal  presi- 
dent, Mr.  Pascual  Paguirigan,  to  cause  them  to  appear  in  an 
unofficial  manner.  I  was  not  surprised  that  they  did  not  ap- 
pear before  me,  as  Paguirigan  was  involved  in  the  investiga- 
tion, as  it  happened  in  the  case  of  the  aforesaid  Agapito  Telan, 
who  appeared  before  me  when  I  asked  the  acting  municipal 
president  to  have  him  do  so. 

"I  was  afraid  to  direct  those  persons  to  appear  before  me 
by  means  of  written  orders,  because  I  had  not  document  or 
complaint  whereon  to  base  them,  as  required  by  the  procedure 
now  in  force,  and  feared  that  on  account  of  the  unlawful  nature 
of  the  summons  they  might  proceed  against  me  for  coaccion, 
and  sue  me  besides  for  damages. 

"According  to  my  personal  observation  and  to  what  I  have 
seen  in  the  other  pueblos  of  this  Province  of  Isabela,  but  prin- 
cipally in  the  provincial  capital,  the  Igorrotes  who  are  said 
to  be  slaves  cannot  be  considered  as  such  since  the  times  of  the 
military  government,  as  they  are  considered  and  treated  as 
members  of  the  family  of  the  chief  of  the  household.  Never- 
theless, I  am  and  shall  continue  to  be  inexorable  in  the  prosecu- 
tion of  slavery,  as  it  is  a  crime  and  should  be  prosecuted  as  such, 
in  order  to  prevent  at  least  that  the  persons  engaged  in  this 
business  commit  this  crime  again. 


> 


=  Q 


.  5  a 

-  -  c 

o  =  c 

=  3  . 

O  -  2 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  687 

"It  is  my  humble  opinion  that  an  act  should  be  passed  to  the 
end  of  eradicating  this  practice  which  has  become  general 
throughout  the  Cagayan  Valley.^  Otherwise,  as  I  have  seen 
in  my  continual  efforts,  the  provincial  authorities  cannot  do 
anything  to  check  the  evil,  however  they  may  try.  It  is  neces- 
sary that  some  one  should  be  made  to  feel  the  rigour  of  the  act 
suggested  and  suffer  the  punishment  designated  by  it. 

"As  a  rule  the  inhabitants  of  this  province  already  under- 
stand personal  liberty  and  know  that  a  person  is  entitled  to  go 
wherever  he  pleases,  which  liberty  has  given  birth  to  the  humane 
treatment  of  the  fellow-men  which  now  prevails. 

"Caciquism  is  still  existing  in  parts  of  this  pro\nnce,  but  I 
am  confident  that  with  the  cooperation  of  sensible  persons  in 
my  continuous  efforts  it  will  be  completely  eradicated,  and 
personal  liberty  will  reign  supreme,  as  in  every  repubhc  where 
the  laws  assure  complete  and  real  liberty,  the  liberty  from 
slavery." 

As  supporting  evidence  Governor  Diehoso  forwarded 
with  his  letter  a  number  of  statements  from  persons 
resident  in  the  capital  of  Isabela  to  the  effect  that 
during  the  twenty-one  years  that  he  had  Uved  there  he 
had  never  purchased,  intended  to  purchase,  or  kept  in 
his  house  any  Igorrote  of  the  Ifugao  or  any  other  tribe. 

In  addition  he  forwarded  a  somewhat  unique  docu- 
ment in  the  form  of  a  sworn  statement  by  a  slave  dealer 
which  is  of  such  interest  that  I  give  it  in  its  entirety :  — 

"I,  Agapito  Telan,  a  resident  of  this  provincial  capital 
(Ilagan),  certify:  On  the  19th  of  June,  1903,  I  was  summoned 
by  the  provincial  governor,  Mr.  Francisco  Diehoso  y  Reyes, 
and  when  I  was  with  him  in  the  office  of  the  provincial  govern- 
ment, he  and  the  secretary  took  my  sworn  deposition,  as  fol- 
lows :  — 

"Upon  being  asked  to  state  the  number  of  children  of  the 
infidel  tribe  of  the  Ifugaos  sold  by  me  to  several  residents  of 
this  provincial  capital,  the  approximate  age  of  these  children, 
the  names  of  the  persons  to  whom  they  were  sold,  the  number 
of  children  bought  by  these  persons,  the  value  of  each  of  the 
said  children,  their  sex,  and  the  year,  month,  and  day  on  which 
the  said  sales  were  made,  deponent  repUed  that  in  the  year 

'  This  valley  includes  the  Provinces  of  Cagayan  and  Isabela. 


688  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

1902,  in  the  month  of  September,  and  on  a  day  which  he  cannot 
remember,  he  sold  to  the  late  Policarpo  Gangan  two  Ifugao  boys, 
of  the  ages  of  8  and  9,  respectively,  for  the  sum  of  360  Mexican 
dollars,  another  boy,  9  years  of  age,  he  sold  to  Juan  Dauag  for 
the  sum  of  180  Mexican  dollars,  and  another  boy,  8  years  of 
age,  he  sold  to  Seferino  Malana  for  the  sum  of  160  Mexican 
dollars,  the  latter  two  being  sold  on  the  same  month  and  year 
aforementioned,  and  in  Ilagan  also. 

"In  the  year  of  1903  the  deponent  sold  a  boy  and  a  girl  of  the 
Ifugao  tribe,  who,  judging  by  their  physical  development,  were 
about  6  and  8  years  old ;  the  boy,  six  years  of  age,  he  sold  to 
Pascual  Paguirigan,  late  municipal  president,  and  the  girl  to 
Dona  Rufina  Gangan,  for  the  sum  of  180  Mexican  dollars  each. 
This  was  in  January,  but  deponent  does  not  remember  the  day. 

"In  February  he  sold  a  boy  and  a  girl  of  the  same  tribe, 
8  years  of  age,  the  former  to  Cirilo  Gantinao  and  the  latter  to 
Salvador  Aggabao,  for  180  Mexican  dollars  each.  The  pur- 
chasers are  residents  of  this  town. 

"Upon  being  asked  who  are  the  other  persons  who,  like 
deponent,  are  engaged  in  taking  Ifugao  children  from  the  settle- 
ments of  the  infidels  and  then  selling  the  same  to  whomever 
wants  them,  and  that  he  state  where  they  reside,  deponent 
replied  that  the  persons  who  are  engaged  in  the  same  business 
as  he,  are  Modesto  Sibal,  Lorenzo  Monte-Virgen,  and  Lorenzo 
Montalvo,  residents  of  the  pueblo  of  Gamii,  and  Andres  Castro 
and  Cosme  Ferrer,  residents  of  this  provincial  capital. 

"Upon  being  asked  whether  he  knew  if  these  persons  are 
like  him  engaged  in  the  purchase  of  minors  and  what  was  the 
number  of  children  taken  by  each  during  the  year  of  1902  and 

1903,  and  if  so,  to  state  to  whom  they  were  sold,  and  at  what 
price  the  deponent  replied  that  he  is  completely  ignorant  of 
the  matter  in  regard  to  which  information  is  requested,  but 
that  it  was  possible  that  they  had  taken  more  children,  as  they 
are  living  nearer  to  the  settlements  from  which  they  are  taken, 
and  as  they  are  able  to  make  the  trip  three  times  to  the  defend- 
ant's once. 

"Asked  what  methods  they  employ  for  the  purpose  of  get- 
ting children  from  that  tribe,  deponent  says  that  all  they  do  is 
to  enter  into  a  contract  with  those  whom  thej^  consider  their 
dattos  or  chiefs,  and  who  come  down  from  the  mountains  with 
the  children,  which  are  purchased  from  them  by  the  persons 
engaged  in  this  trade. 

"Asked  to  state  the  price  of  the  children  bought  at  the  accus- 
tomed places  for  these  transactions  for  the  purpose  of  reselling 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  689 

them,  the  deponent  states  that  the  children  are  sold  at  the 
same  price  at  which  they  are  purchased  at  that  place. 

"He  having  thus  stated,  the  foregoing  was  read  to  him,  and 
he  agreed  to  it,  signing  it  after  the  Provincial  Governor,  which 
I,  the  secretary  appointed  for  this  act,  attest. 

"Francisco  Dichoso, 
"  Provincial  Governor. 
"Agapito  Telan, 
"  Fernando  Domingo. 
"  Secretary  appointed. 
(Sgd.)     "Agapito  Telan. 

"Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  me  this  10th  day  of  Sep- 
tember, 1903. 

(Sgd.)     "Francisco  Tauad, 
"Clerk  of  the  Court,  Ilagan." 

The  existence  of  slavery  in  Misamis,  a  regularly  organ- 
ized pro\ance,  had  been  disclosed  at  a  still  earlier  date. 

In  May,  1902,  its  Filipino  governor,  Sr.  Manuel  Cor- 
rales,  was  asked  to  report,  and  did  report,  on  slavery  in 
that  province,  under  the  following  circumstances :  — 

On  May  2,  1902,  General  George  W.  Davis  telegraphed 
the  Adjutant-General,  Manila  :  — 

"Following  telegram  respectfully  repeated:  'Zamboanga, 
May  1,  1902,  via  Malabang,  to  Wade.  Commanding  Officer, 
Misamis,  reports  April  30,  that  Presidente  notified  him  that 
he  was  going  to  send  armed  party  to  capture  two  Moro  slaves 
which  have  escaped  from  their  Filipino  master  whose  names 
were  not  given.  Says  there  are  many  Filipinos  who  own  slaves. 
Presidente  was  told  that  the  troops  had  nothing  to  do  with 
civilian  affairs.  I  have  no  doubt  but  that  the  Filipinos  on  the 
north  coast  here  have  many  slaves.  At  Butuan  I  saw  one  in 
November  that  had  been  recently  purchased.'" 

Governor-General  Wright  referred  a  copy  of  this  tele- 
gram to  Governor  Corrales  with  an  indorsement  — 

"calling  his  attention  to  the  within  communication.  Informa- 
tion is  desired  as  to  whether  or  not  the  within  facts  are  true  as 
stated,  and  also  whether  there  are  any  persons  held  in  involun- 
tary servitude  other  than  convicts  within  the  province,  and  if 
so,  that  full  particulars  be  given." 


690  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Governor  Corrales  himself  has  none  too  good  a  record 
in  connection  with  the  treatment  accorded  the  non- 
Christians  of  his  province,  and  would  certainly  not  paint 
a  darker  picture  than  was  called  for  by  the  facts,  yet  in 
his  reply  '  he  gives  the  names  of  six  towns  in  which  "one 
still  finds  a  few  slave  servants,  most  of  them  acquired 
many  years  ago."     He  adds  :  — 

"At  the  present  time,  there  are  but  few  sales  of  slaves  pro- 
ceeding from  the  mountain  tribes,  which  arc  now  relatively 
civilized.  In  Iligan  and  Misamis,  I  have  heard  that  such  sales 
were  more  frequent,  for  two  reasons :  (1)  the  Moro  race  is 
more  despotic  and  more  numerous ;  (2)  the  weekly  market  in 
Iligan  gives  them  an  opportunity  to  carry  on  that  sort  of  busi- 
ness, although  they  have  to  do  it  by  stealth,  on  account  of  the 
watchfulness  of  the  authorities. 

"  I  will  call  your  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  slaves  proceed- 
ing from  the  Moro  district  constitute,  in  the  Moro  villages,  an 
inferior  social  class,  the  slave  family,  whose  origin  is  due  to  the 
prisoners  taken  by  the  Dattos  on  their  e:cpeclitions  ;  when  they 
are  transferred  to  the  Christians  in  Iligan  or  Misamis,  because 
their  masters  wish  to  make  money,  or  are  hard  pressed  by  the 
famines  which  are  so  frequent  in  the  region  of  the  Lanao,  their 
condition  is  considerably  improved  by  the  good  treatment  and 
the  better  and  more  abundant  food  which  they  obtain  in  their 
new  situation,  by  the  mere  fact  that  they  live  with  a  more  civil- 
ized people. 

"Those  who  come  from  the  mountain  tribes  are  not  born 
slaves ;  with  few  exceptions,  the  chiefs  and  principal  men  of 
these  tribes  do  not  own  slaves  which  they  use  for  their  service 
or  for  agricultural  work,  as  the  Moros  do.  Slaves  are  gener- 
ally obtained  in  the  following  way  :  — • 

"It  happens  that  a  chief  with  beUicose  and  sanguinary  in- 
stincts, who  leads  a  nomad  life  and  does  not  belong  to  the  peace- 
ful class  which  is  given  to  farm  life,  organizes  a  gang  of  men 
of  his  sort,  makes  incursions  in  the  wildest  parts  of  the  woods 
and  raids  the  lone  huts  inhabited  by  savage  and  nomad  families ; 
he  kills  by  treachery  the  growia-up  people  and  carries  off  the 
children,  which  he  can  easily  master ;  he  then  sells  them  to  the 
peaceful  farm  dwellers,  who  sell  them  in  their  turn  to  the  Chris- 
tian pueblos. 

'  For  the  full  text  of  this  document  see  "Slavery  and  Peonage,"  pp. 
12-14. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  691 

"As  I  have  already  said,  such  cases  are  happily  rare.  In 
Iligan  and  Misamis,  which  are  far  from  the  capital  of  the  prov- 
ince, and  therefore  from  the  Court  and  the  provincial  author- 
ities, the  slaves  have  had  less  opportunity  to  claim  their  rights, 
and  it  is  not  astonishing  that  neither  the  slaves  nor  their  masters 
have  a  true  notion  of  what  is  meant  by  individual  liberty,  al- 
though the  former  are  at  least  sure  of  their  lives  since  they  left 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  !Moros,  at  whose  absolute  mercy  they 
were,  and  are  much  better  treated  among  the  Christians. 

"I  intend  taking  all  necessary  measures  within  my  jurisdic- 
tion in  order  to  put  an  end  to  such  a  hateful  trade,  and  wait  for 
any  further  instructions  which  you  may  deem  it  convenient  to 
give  me." 

Unfortunately  neither  the  measures  taken  by  Governor 
Corrales  nor  those  adopted  by  his  successors  have 
sufficed  to  end  this  "hateful  trade"  in  the  pro\'ince  of 
Misamis. 

In  July  of  the  present  year,'  a  man  accused  of  holding 
two  Bukidnon  children  in  slavery  did  not  deny  the  charge, 
but  set  up  the  defence  that  he  was  a  resident  of  Misamis, 
where  there  was  no  law  against  this  crime.  He  had  been 
proceeded  against  under  an  anti-slavery  law  passed  by 
the  commission  for  the  provinces  under  its  exclusive 
jurisdiction,  on  the  theory  that  he  resided  in  Agusan.  He 
won  his  case,  proving  that  his  house  was  about  a  hundred 
yards  over  the  line. 

The  revelations  contained  in  the  reports  above  men- 
tioned naturally  called  for  action.  Inspector  Sorenson's 
report  was  referred  to  the  commission  with  the  following 
indorsement :  — 

"Office  of  the  Civil  Governor, 

"Manil.'I,  August  13,  1903. 

"The  Senior  Inspector  of  Constabulary  in  the  Province  of 
Isabela  reports  that  there  is  quite  a  slave  trade  in  the  Cagayan 
Valley.  The  report  of  Sorenson,  the  Inspector,  is  submitted  to 
the  Commission  and  I  suggest  a  reference  to  Commissioner 
Wright  in  order  that  he  may  include  in  the  Criminal  Code  some 
clauses  which  will  enable  us  to  reach  this  abuse. 

(Signed)     "Wm.  H.  Taft, 

"Civil  Governor." 
» 1913. 


692 


THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 


The  report  was,  by  direction  of  the  commission,  re- 
ferred to  Commissioner  Wright  as  suggested  by  Governor 
Taft  for  consideration  in  connection  with  a  proposed  new 
Criminal  Code  which  was  being  prepared,  under  his 
general  supervision,  for  enactment.  An  immense  amount 
of  work  was  necessary  on  this  code,  and  it  was  never 
completed  and  enacted.  Various  matters  needing  atten- 
tion have  since  been  reached  through  the  medium  ot 
special  laws,  and  it  is  obvious  that  it  was  mtended  to 
pursue  this  course  in  this  instance,  as  is  shown  by  the 
fact  that  Governor  Dichoso's  reply  was  forwarded  to 
General  Wright  on  October  19,  1903,  with  the  following 
indorsement :  — 

[First  Indorsement] 

"Executive  Bureau, 
"Manila,  October  19,  1903. 

"Respectfully  referred  to  the  Secretary  of  Commerce  and 
Police  for  his  information  and  consideration  m  cx)nnection  with 
the  proposed  Act  denouncing  slavery  and  kidnapping  and 
kindred  offences  as  crimes.  ^^.^^^^     ,^^^    ^    ^^^_ 

"Civil  Governor." 

Why  such  an  act  was  not  drafted  and  passed  I  do  not 
know  I  was  then  absent  on  leave,  and  did  not  even 
learn  of  the  existence  of  any  of  the  above-quoted  docu- 
ments until  years  afterward.  My  personal  attention  was 
forcibly  drawn  to  the  existence  of  slavery  outside  of  the 
Moro  territory  when  I  first  inspected  Nueva  Vizcaya  m 
1905  The  territory  occupied  by  the  Ifugaos,  since  sepa- 
rated as  a  sub-province  of  the  Mountain  Province,  was 
then  a  part  of  Nueva  Vizcaya,  which  had  been  organized 
as  a  province  under  a  special  act  and  was,  in  a  way,  sub- 
ject to  my  executive  control.  ,,     ^-       . 

Its  governor,  Louis  G.  Knight,  called  my  attention  to 
the  fact  that  Ifugao  children  were  frequently  enslaved  by 
Filipinos  of  Nueva  Vizcaya  and  Isabela.  I  asked  him  to 
get  specific  data  so  that  we  might  prosecute  the  offenders. 


(  V  •  ■ .    *,'','^? 


O 

a 
o 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  693 

He  soon  sent  to  the  Executive  Secretary  a  report  ^  which 
gave  full  details  of  a  number  of  recent  cases  of  the  buy- 
ing and  selling  of  Ifugaos  as  slaves,  contained  a  state- 
ment that  Governor  Knight,  who  was  himself  a  lawyer, 
could  "find  nothing  whatever  in  the  penal  code  defining 
or  punishing  as  a  crime  the  buying  or  selling  of  human 
beings,"  and  recommended  that  "this  crime  be  defined 
and  punished  in  the  proposed  new  penal  code." 

The  report  was  referred  to  me  by  the  executive  secre- 
tary on  September  20,  1905,  and  on  September  22  was 
by  me  forwarded  to  the  Honourable  Luke  E.  Wright, 
governor-general,  with  an  indorsement  — 

"inviting  attention  to  the  inclosed  statements  from  the  Gov- 
ernor of  Nueva  Vizcaya,  relative  to  the  traffic  in  Igorrote  chil- 
dren in  his  province. 

"The  undersigned  has  reason  to  believe  that  Negrito  chil- 
dren and  children  of  other  non-Christian  tribes  are  occasionally 
bought  and  sold  by  civilized  natives,  and  is  strongly  of  the 
opinion  that  in  case  the  Penal  Code  does  not  provide  adequate 
punishment  for  such  offences,  it  should  be  so  amended  as  to 
make  it  possible  to  inflict  severe  penalties  upon  those  who  buy 
and  sell  human  beings  in  this  Archipelago. 

(Signed)     "Dean  C.  Worcester, 

"Secretary  of  the  Interior." 

The  papers  were  referred  by  Governor-General  Wright 
to  the  Attorney-General  — 

"  for  an  opinion  as  to  whether  there  is  not  some  provision  in 
the  present  Penal  Code  which  will  provide  adequate  punish- 
ment for  such  offences  as  are  related  herein." 

The  opinion  of  the  Attorney-General  rendered  in  re- 
sponse to  this  request'  encouraged  me  to  beheve  that 
something  could  be  done  under  existing  law. 

'  For  the  full  text  of  this  document  see  "Slavery  and  Peonage,"  pp. 
23-25. 

-  "Respectfully  returned  to  the  Honourable  the  Governor-General 
of  the  Philippine  Islands,  with  the  following  opinion : 

"The  acts  given  in  the  attached  letter  of  the  Provincial  Governor 
of  Nueva  Vizcaya,  dated  September  14,  1905,  in  so  far  as  they  refer 

VOL.   II — o 


694  THE   PHILIPPIXES   P-\ST  AND   PRESENT 

I  returned  the  papers,  together  with  the  opinion,  to  the 
governor  of  Nueva  Vizcaj^a  and  three  test  suits  were 
brought  as  promptlj'  as  possible. 

One  of  them  has  become  historic.  It  was  brought 
against  Tomas  Cabanag,  a  well-kno^vn  slave  dealer  who 
made  a  business  of  brndng  and  selUng  Ifugao  children. 

to  the  purchase  and  sale  of  human  beings,  are  not  pro^aded  for  or  pun- 
ished under  the  existing  Penal  Code ;  but  such  actions  are  punishable 
under  that  Code  when  they  constitute  either  the  kidnapping  of  a 
minor,  iUegal  detention  or  serious  threats,  according  to  sections  481, 
484  and  494  thereof. 

"Therefore,  in  accordance  with  the  fourth  paragraph  of  the  L=tter 
of  the  said  Pro\'incial  Governor,  I  am  of  the  opinion  that  not  only  the 
Igorrotes  who  stole  the  Igorrote  boy,  but  also  those  who  received  and 
sold  him.  as  well  as  the  woman  who  bought  him  for  forty  pesos,  are 
guilty  of  illegal  detention.  The  latter  is  furthermore  guilty  of  grave 
threats,  inasmuch  as  she  threatened  to  kill  the  purchased  Igorrote  if 
he  tried  to  escape  from  her  sennee. 

"With  reference  to  paragraphs  5,  6,  7  and  8  of  the  attached  letter, 
I  believe  that  those  who  stole  the  Mttle  Igorrote  and  also  the  woman 
Antonia,  who  sold  him  when  knowing  him  to  have  been  kidnapped, 
are  guiltj'  of  the  offence  of  illegal  detention. 

"If  the  boy  who  was  stolen  and  sold,  referred  to  in  paragraphs 
9,  10,  11,  12  and  13  of  the  enclosed  letter,  was  under  seven  j'ears  of  age, 
then  those  who  stole  him  are  guUty  of  the  offence  of  kidnapping  a 
minor,  and  the  Igorrote  woman,  Antonia,  and  the  wife  of  Senor  Arriola, 
the  Clerk  of  the  Court,  are  accomplices  in  the  crime.  But  if  the  child 
was  over  seven  years  old,  then  the  oflfenee  would  be  illegal  detention. 
The  same  maj'  be  said  of  the  case  recounted  in  paragraphs  14  and  15  of 
this  communication.  The  parties  who  stole,  sold  and  bought  the  little 
Igorrote  are  guilty  of  kidnapping  a  minor  or  of  iUegal  detention  accord- 
ing to  the  age  of  the  victim. 

"The  acts  committed  by  Captain  Vicente  Tomang,  referred  to  in 
paragraph  16  of  this  letter,  are  punishable  both  as  a  serious  threat  and 
as  illegal  detention,  because  he  unlawfully  deprived  the  two  Igorrote 
women  of  their  liberty  when  they  desired  to  leave  his  service,  for  which 
purpose  he  threatened  to  kill  them. 

"Although  not  asked  for  in  the  indorsement  to  which  this  is  a  reply, 
I  venture  to  suggest  that  the  Igorrotes  who  armed  themselves  and 
formed  a  band  for  the  purpose  of  kidnapping  persons  for  subsequent 
sale,  be  punished  under  Act  1121,  which  penalizes  as  bandolerismo  the 
abduction  of  persons  for  any  purpose,  even  though  there  may  be  no 
extortion  or  ransom  demanded,  if  the  abduction  be  done  by  an  armed 
band. 

(Signed)     "  L.  R.  Wilflet, 

"  Aitorney-General." 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  695 

He  was  charged  mth  illegal  detention  in  connection  with 
the  admitted  sale,  by  him,  of  an  Ifugao  girl  named 
Gamaya.' 

He  was  convicted  in  the  Court  of  First  Instance.  I 
quote  the  following  extract  from  the  decision  of  the  court : 

"The  Congress  of  the  United  States  has  declared  that  human 
slavery  shall  not  exist  in  these  islands  and  while  no  law,  so  far 
as  I  can  discover,  has  yet  been  passed  either  defining  slavery  in 
these  islands  or  affixing  a  punishment  for  those  who  engage  in 
this  inhuman  practice  as  dealers,  buyers,  sellers,  or  derivers,  the 
facts  established  in  this  case  show  conclusively  that  the  child 
Jimaya  was  by  the  defendant  forcibly  and  by  fraud,  deceit  and 
threats  unlawfully  deprived  of  her  liberty  and  tliat  his  object 
and  purpose  was  an  unlawful  and  illegal  one,  to  wit,  the  sale  of 
the  child  for  money  into  human  slavery.  This  constitutes  the 
crime  of  Detencion  ilegal  defined  and  penalized  by  Article  481 
of  the  Penal  Code  and  this  Com't  finds  the  defendant  guilty  as 
charged  in  the  information." 

The  case  was  promptly  appealed  to  the  Supreme  Court 
and  was  there  lost  on  March  16,  1907. 

Gamaya,  a  thirteen-year-old  Ifugao  girl,  had  been 
purchased  from  her  mother  for  pigs,  hens,  rice  and 
a  cloak,  under  the  absurd  pretext  that  the  object  of  the 
purchase  was  to  keep  her  at  home,  where  she  would,  of 
course,  naturally  have  remained  in  any  event.  She  was 
allowed  to  stay  with  her  mother  during  a  period  of  some 
three  years.  In  this  manner  the  purchaser  was  saved 
the  cost  of  boarding  her  while  she  was  growing  up.  Hav- 
ing now  reached  what  the  Igorots  consider  a  marriage- 
able age,  she  was  sold  to  a  man  who  was  engaged  in  the 
business  of  buying  in  Nueva  Vizcaya  children  to  sell  in 
the  lowlands  of  Isabela ;  in  other  words,  to  a  slave  dealer. 
He  sold  her  to  an  inhabitant  of  the  town  of  Caoayan,  in 
Isabela,  who  had  instructed  him  to  buy  a  girl.  Caoayan 
is  distant  many  days  of  hard  overland  travel  from  this 
girl's  home.     Wlien  taken  there  she  was  among  an  alien 

•  Also  written  "  Jamaya." 


696  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

people  of  another  tribe  and  another  religion,  and  although, 
as  stated  by  the  Supreme  Court,  she  was  not  kept  under 
lock  and  key  and  although  that  court  held  that :  — 

"...  There  can  be  no  unlawful  detention  under  article 
481  of  the  Penal  Code  without  confinement  or  restraint  of  per- 
son, such  as  did  not  exist  in  the  present  case." 

and  held  further  that :  — • 

"Under  the  complaint  for  this  crime  it  is  possible  to  convict 
for  coaccion  under  proof  of  the  requisites  of  that  offence  .  .  . 
but  among  those  requisites  is  that  of  violence  through  force  or 
intimidation,  even  under  the  liberal  rule  of  our  jurisprudence 
.  .  . ;  consequent!}'  the  charge  of  coaccion  against  the  accused 
cannot  be  sustained  upon  the  evidence." 

it  is  nevertheless  true  that  this  child,  who  had  been 
thrice  sold,  was  detained  just  as  effectively  in  Caoayan 
as  if  chained  to  a  post  in  the  house  of  the  man  who  bought 
her,  and  was  required  by  him  to  perform  menial  labour 
without  compensation.  It  would  have  been  utterly  im- 
possible for  her  to  escape  and  to  make  her  way  back 
through  Isabela  and  Nueva  Vizcaya  to  her  own  people, 
no  matter  how  strenuously  she  might  have  endeavoured 
to  do  so. 

It  is  extremely  difficult  to  prove  forcible  detention  in 
connection  with  most  cases  of  slavery  in  these  islands. 
Negrito  slaves  are  usually  purchased  when  mere  babes 
and  later  have  no  recollection  of  their  parents  or  of  their 
former  wild  life  in  the  hills.  Babes  or  very  young  chil- 
dren bring  a  better  price  than  do  older  children,  for  the 
reason  that  they  are  less  likely  to  run  away. 

Adult  Negritos,  and  adult  members  of  other  tribes 
held  in  slavery,  have,  as  a  rule,  been  made  to  feel  the  heavy 
hand  of  the  oppressor  and  are  so  afraid  of  their  lives  that 
they  will  not  testify.  Only  under  very  exceptional  cir- 
cumstances will  they  admit  that  they  are  being  held 
against  their  will,  although  they  are  quick  to  make  their 
escape  when  a  favourable  opportunity  presents  itself. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  697 

The  difficulty  involved  in  protecting  these  simple 
people  is  illustrated  by  the  following  case  which  came  to 
my  personal  attention  :  — 

An  eleven-year-old  Bukidnon  girl  was  carried  away  from 
northern  Mindanao  to  Bohol  by  a  Filipino  school-teacher 
who  had  been  discharged  from  the  insular  service.  Her 
parents  gave  every  indication  of  bitter  grief  and  begged 
to  have  their  daughter  restored  to  them.  This  was  finallj- 
accomplished,  to  their  great  joj^,  as  a  result  of  my  efforts. 
The  kidnapper  was  ultimately  brought  into  court,  but 
before  the  case  came  up  for  trial  the  parents  had  been 
subjected  to  such  "influence"  that  when  called  to  the 
witness-stand  they  swore  that  the  kidnapper  had  taken 
their  daughter  with  their  full  knowledge  and  consent. 

In  order  to  be  reasonably  effective,  laws  in  these  islands 
must  be  so  framed  as  to  make  it  possible  to  protect  people 
too  ignorant,  or  too  timid,  to  protect  themselves. 

Returning  now  to  the  Supreme  Court  decision,  the 
court  also  held  that :  — 

"...  the  defendant  appears  to  have  engaged  in  the  business 
of  bujang  in  Nueva  Vizcaya  children  to  sell  in  the  lowlands 
of  Isabela." 

But  it  further  held  that :  — 

"Not  even  the  abhorrent  species  of  traffic  apparentlj''  carried 
on  by  the  accused  justifies  a  sentence  not  authorized  by  law." 

More  important  still,  the  court  held  that :  — 

"The  judge  below  quotes  the  Bill  of  Rights  of  the  Philippines 
contained  in  the  Act  of  Congress  of  July  1,  1902,  declaring  that 
'neither  slaverj'  nor  involuntarj^  ser\'itude,  except  as  a  punish- 
ment for  crime  whereof  the  party  shall  have  been  duly  convicted, 
shall  exist  in  said  Islands.'  This  constitutional  provision  is 
self-acting  whenever  the  natiu^e  of  a  case  permits  and  any  law 
or  contract  providing  for  the  servitude  of  a  person  against  liis 
will  is  forbidden  and  is  void.  For  two  obvious  reasons,  how- 
ever, it  fails  to  reach  the  facts  before  us :  — 

"First.  The  emplojTnent  or  custody  of  a  minor  with  the 
consent  or  sufferance  of    the  parents  or    guardian,  although 


698  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

against  the  child's  own  will,  cannot  be  considered  involuntary 
servitude. 

"Second.  We  are  dealing  not  with  a  civil  remedy  but  with 
a  criminal  charge,  in  relation  to  which  the  Bill  of  Rights  defines 
no  crime  and  provides  no  punishment.  Its  effects  cannot  be 
carried  into  the  realm  of  criminal  law  without  an  act  of  the 
legislature," 

and  also  that :  — 

"To  sum  up  this  case,  there  is  no  proof  of  slavery  or  even  of 
involuntary  servitude,  inasmuch  as  it  has  not  been  clearly 
shown  that  the  child  has  been  disposed  of  against  the  will  of 
her  grandmother  or  has  been  taken  altogether  out  of  her  con- 
trol. If  the  facts  in  this  respect  be  interpreted  otherwise,  there 
is  no  law  applicable  here,  either  of  the  United  States  or  of  the 
Archipelago,  punishing  slavery  as  a  crime." 

In  view  of  the  facts  above  cited  the  necessity  for  legis- 
lation seemed  obvious. 

The  commission  in  its  capacity  as  sole  legislative  body 
for  the  territory  inhabited  by  Moros  or  other  non-Chris- 
tian tribes  might  have  passed  an  act  prohibiting  and 
penalizing  slavery,  involuntary  servitude  and  peonage  in 
that  territory ;  but  such  an  act  unless  supplemented  by 
a  similar  one  applicable  to  the  neighbouring  Filipino  ter- 
ritory where  most  of  the  slaves  are  actually  held  would 
obviously  have  been  ineffective,  while  the  desirability  of 
having  uniform  legislation  throughout  the  PhiUppines 
was  evident. 

The  Philippine  Assembly  was  about  to  meet  for  the 
first  time.  The  work  of  drafting  a  proper  bill  was  duly 
provided  for  and  I  am  sure  that  no  member  of  the  com- 
mission for  a  moment  entertained  the  belief  that  there 
would  be  any  difficulty  in  securing  the  concurrence  of  the 
assembly  in  the  passage  of  a  reasonable  act  prohibiting 
and  penalizing  slavery,  involuntary  servitude,  peonage 
and  the  sale  and  purchase  of  human  beings.  The  gentle- 
man charged  with  drafting  the  bill  encountered  difficulty 
in  so  framing  it  that  it  would  accomplish  the  desired  end 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  699 

without  unduly  interfering  with  the  rights  of  parents  over 
their  children.     Long  delay  ensued. 

I  myself  finally  drafted  a  bill  entitled :  "An  Act  pro- 
hibiting slavery,  involuntary  servitude,  peonage,  or  the 
sale  of  human  beings  in  the  Philippine  Islands,"  and  in- 
troduced it  in  the  commission. 

It  was  passed,  in  sHghtly  amended  form,  on  April  29, 
1909,  and  sent  to  the  Philippine  assembly,  where  it  was 
introduced  on  May  6,  1909.  On  May  7  it  was  referred  to 
the  Committee  on  Revision  of  Laws,  and  on  May  17  it  was 
returned  by  that  committee  with  the  following  report :  — 

"May  17,  1909. 

"Mr.  Speaker:  The  committee  concurs  with  the  Commis- 
sion in  the  approval  of  Bill  No.  100  with  the  following  amend- 
ments : 

"(a)  That  the  word  'slavery'  be  stricken  out  of  the  title  of 
the  Act,  because  it  does  not  exist  in  the  Philippines. 

"  (6)  That  from  section  1,  page  1,  lines  7  and  8,  the  following 
words  be  stricken  out:  'take  the  fruits  of  his  labours,  compel 
him  to  deliver  to  another  the  fruits  of  his  labours,'  since  the 
acts  contained  therein  constitute  other  crimes  that  may  be 
robo,  hurto,  or  estafa. 

" (c)  From  line  11  in  the  same  section  the  words :  'less  than 
six  months  nor;'  and  from  line  12  the  words:  'less  than  one 
hunched  pesos  and  not ; '  because  the  acts  penalized  in  section  1 
may  be  of  such  slight  importance  that  they  should  not  deserve 
a  punishment  of  imprisonment  for  six  months  or  a  fine  of  one 
hundred  pesos. 

"(d)  From  line  22  (p.  2),  the  word:  'peso,'  substituting  for 
it:    'two  pesos  and  a  half.' 

"With  these  enactments  Commission  Bill  No.  100  is  dra-WTi 
up,  according  to  the  one  attached  hereto. 

"For  these  reasons  the  committee  submits  for  the  considera- 
tion of  the  Assembly  Commission  Bill  No.  100  and  recommends 
its  approval  with  the  amendments  introduced. 

"Respectfully  submitted. 

(Signed)     "Aguedo  Velarde, 
"  Chairman,  Committee  on  Revision  of  Laws. 

"To  the  Honourable, 

"The  Speaker  of  the  Philippine  Assembly." 


700  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

This  report,  if  adopted,  would  have  emasculated  the 
bill  by  striking  out  the  minimum  penalties,  but  it  was 
not  adopted.  On  May  19  the  assembly  laid  the  bill  on 
the  table  without  discussion. 

So  began  a  long  struggle  to  secure  the  cooperation  of 
the  assembly  in  the  enactment  of  legislation  on  this  im- 
portant subject. 

I  did  not  feel  that  the  assembly  ought  to  be  allowed  to 
make  a  joke  of  the  provision  of  the  Act  of  Congress  of 
July  1,  1902,  that  "Neither  slavery,  nor  involuntary  ser- 
vitude, except  as  a  punishment  for  crime  whereof  the 
party  shall  have  been  duly  convicted,  shall  exist  in  said 
islands,"  and  inserted  a  frank  statement  of  the  case  in 
my  annual  report.  During  my  absence  it  was  cut  out 
by  the  governor-general  acting  on  the  cabled  suggestion 
of  General,  then  Colonel,  Mclntyre,  speaking  for  the 
secretary  of  war.  The  Secretary,  it  is  understood,  based 
his  decision  on  the  statement  of  alleged  facts  and  the 
argument  in  the  above-mentioned  memorandum  pre- 
pared by  General  McIntjTe,  and  signed  by  General 
Edwards,  then  chief  of  the  bureau  of  insular  affairs. 
Various  of  these  statements  of  alleged  facts  were  incorrect, 
and  much  of  the  argument  was  fallacious,  but  the  toute 
ensemble  was  plausible,  and  likely  to  mislead  any  one  not 
thoroughly  famihar  with  local  conditions  in  the  Phihp- 
pines.  I  did  not  see  this  communication  until  three 
years  later,  and  so  had  no  opportunity  seasonably  to 
discuss  it,  or  to  present  my  side  of  the  case. 

On  learning  that  all  reference  to  slavery  had  been  cut 
out  of  my  report,  I  sent  the  following  memorandum  to  the 
governor-general :  — ■ 

"Baguio,  February  28,  1909. 
"  Memorandum  far  the  Honourable  the  Governor-General. 

"Practices  in  the  matter  of  purchasing  and  practically  en- 
slaving the  children  of  wild  people,  and  holding  wild  people 
in  the  state  of  peonage,  closely  approaching  slavery,  are  more 
grave  and  more  common  than  is  ordinarily  understood  here ; 


so 


-=   fe-S 


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o 


b  = 

5  ° 

H 

c 
c 

> 
o 
O 

CO 

o 


a 

S3 

o 


SLAVERY   AND   PEONAGE  701 

and,  in  my  opinion,  as  stated  in  my  report,  ought  to  be  brought 
to  the  attention  of  the  Congress  of  the  United  States  if  the  situa- 
tion is  not  dealt  with  effectively  by  the  Philippine  Legislature 
at  its  next  regular  session. 

"I  do  not  object  to  the  omission  from  my  report  of  the 
matter  treating  on  this  subject,  mth  the  understanding  that  a 
strong  effort  will  be  made  here  to  secure  legislation  which  will, 
at  least,  penahze  the  sale  for  cash  or  other  valuable  considera- 
tion of  human  beings. 

"As  things  stand  at  present,  we  should  be  placed  in  a  some- 
what embarrassing  situation  if  any  one  thoroughly  acquainted 
with  the  facts  were  to  ask  us  what  we  had  done  to  make  effec- 
tive the  provisions  of  the  Act  of  Congress  prohibiting  slavery. 

"Dean  C.  Worcester, 
"Secretary  of  the  Interior." 

The  following  year  I  introduced  in  the  commission  the 
bill  which  the  assembly  had  rejected.  Action  upon  it 
was  postponed,  pending  the  receipt  of  information  which 
was  requested  from  the  assembly  as  to  the  reason  for  the 
failure  of  that  body  to  pass  it  the  preceding  year.  Shortly 
after  this  was  obtained  in  the  form  of  the  above-quoted 
extract  from  the  minutes  of  that  body  I  was  called  to  the 
United  States  and  no  further  action  was  taken  in  the 
matter  at  that  time,  although  the  Governor-General  in 
his  message  to  the  Legislature  had  included  the  follo"ning 
recommendation :  — 

"There  is  no  express  provision  of  law  prohibiting  slavery  or 
involuntary  servitude  in  the  Philippine  Islands.  While  the  law 
pro\ad(>s  certain  methods  of  punishing  the  practice  of  slaver}', 
as  for  example,  the  law  for  illegal  detention,  yet  it  does  not  seem 
right  that  an  enhghtened  and  modern  country  should  have  no 
way  of  punishing  the  purchase  or  sale  of  human  flesh.  It  is 
recommended  that  this  be  remedied  by  appropriate  legislation 
at  the  coming  session." 

I  had  also  again  attempted  to  discuss  this  important 
matter  in  my  annual  report. 

I  myself  reached  Washington  at  about  the  time  this 
document  arrived  there,  but  that  part  of  it  dealing  with 


702  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

slavery  and  peonage  was  cut  out  without  either  consult- 
ing me  or  giving  me  a  hearing.  I  was  advised  by  General 
Mclntyre  that  the  secretary  had  disapproved  it. 

In  writing  to  me  under  date  of  January  11,  1913,  Mr. 
Dickinson  said :  — 

"  I  have  read  with  much  interest  the  copy  of  your  communi- 
cation of  October  28,  1912,  with  the  Acting  Governor-General 
in  regard  to  the  law  prohil:)iting  slavery.  The  whole  matter 
interests  me  very  much  and  is  very  enlightening  to  me. 

"I  note  what  you  say  in  regard  to  the  matter  coming  up 
during  my  administration  and  the  memorandiun  made  by 
General  Edwards.  My  memory  may  be  badly  at  fault,  but  I 
really  cannot  recall  that  this  matter  ever  came  to  my  personal 
attention.  I  may  have  forgotten  it  among  the  many  hundreds 
of  things  that  came  before  me,  but  I  certainly  have  no  recol- 
lection in  regard  to  it." 

I  am  quite  prepared  to  believe  that  the  matter  was 
never  allowed  to  come  to  his  personal  attention  ! 

On  January  31,  1911,  I  again  introduced  this  bill  in 
the  commission.  It  was  amended  in  minor  details  and 
passed  on  that  date  and  was  duly  forwarded  to  the  assem- 
bly. There  it  was  introduced  on  February  2  and  on 
February  3  was  laid  on  the  table.  I  here  give  the  full 
record.  It  is  significant  as  showing  the  lack  of  interest 
displayed  by  the  assembly  in  this  important  subject. 

"An  Act  pRomsiTiNG  Slavery 

"  The  Speaker.  Commission  Bill  No.  88  is  submitted  to  the 
House  for  consideration.     Read  the  bill. 

"The  Secretary,     [reading].  .  .  . 

"Senor  Sotto.  The  Committee  on  Revision  of  Laws  pro- 
poses that  this  bill  be  laid  on  the  table. 

"The  Speaker.     Is  there  any  objection? 

"  The  House.     None. 

"  The  Speaker.     On  the  table." 

In  my  report  as  secretary  of  the  interior  for  the  fiscal 
year  ended  June  30,  1911,  I  again  took  up  this  subject. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  703 

After  this  report  had  been  submitted  to  the  commission 
I  myself  cut  out  all  mention  of  slavery  at  the  request  of 
Governor-General  Forbes,  who  urged  that  we  make  a 
last  effort  to  get  the  assembly  to  act  before  appealing  to 
Congress. 

In  spite  of  the  desirabihty  of  having  uniform  legisla- 
tion on  such  a  matter  as  this  in  adjacent  provinces,  the 
commission  felt  that  it  could  no  longer  with  propriety 
delay  action  for  the  territory  under  its  exclusive  jurisdic- 
tion, and  on  August  7,  1911,  passed  the  bill  for  Agusan, 
Nueva  Vizcaya  and  the  Mountain  Pro^^nce. 

The  same  act  was  again  passed  by  the  commission  for 
the  territory  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  legislature, 
when  that  body  reconvened.  The  assembly  referred  it 
to  committee  on  October  27,  1911,  and  tabled  it  without 
discussion  on  February'  1,  1912. 

In  my  annual  report  for  1912  I  included  the  follo\\ang 
recommendation :  — 

"That  for  the  adequate  protection  of  the  non-Christian  tribes 
a  final  and  earnest  effort  be  made  to  secure  the  concurrence  of 
the  Philippine  Assembly  in  the  passage  for  the  territory  under 
the  jurisdiction  of  the  Philippine  Legislature  of  an  Act  identical 
with,  or  similar  to.  Act  No.  2071,  entitled  'An  Act  prohibiting 
slavery,  involuntary  se^^•itude,  peonage,  and  the  sale  or  pur- 
chase of  human  beings  in  the  ^Mountain  Province  and  the 
Provinces  of  Nueva  Vizcaya  and  Agusan,  and  providing  pun- 
ishment therefor,'  and  that  in  the  event  of  failure,  the  attention 
of  Congress  be  called  to  this  important  matter  to  the  end  that 
it  may  pass  adequate  legislation  if  it  deems  such  a  course  in  the 
public  interest." 

This  time  I  sent  the  copy  for  the  report  to  the  printer 
without  awaiting  further  possible  requests  or  orders  to 
remain  silent,  for  I  was  thoroughly  convinced  that  it  was 
useless  to  expect  action  from  the  assembly  and  that 
nothing  remained  but  to  appeal  to  congress  to  pass  sup- 
pletory  legislation  making  effective  the  provision  of  the 
Act  of  July  1,  1902,  prohibiting  slavery  and  involuntary 
servitude  in  the  PhiUppine  Islands. 


704  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

At  the  next  session  of  the  legislature  the  commission 
again  passed  the  bill.  The  assembly  referred  it  to  com- 
mittee on  October  26,  and  tabled  it  without  discussion  on 
January  8,  1913. 

From  the  above  record  it  will  be  plain  that,  beginning 
in  1909,  the  commission  passed  laws  prohibiting  and  penal- 
izing slavery  and  peonage  annually  during  four  successive 
years,  and  that  the  assembly  tabled  each  of  the  four 
measures  without  deigning  to  give  any  of  them  one 
moment's  discussion.  Much  less  have  they  ever  asked 
for  any  information  as  to  the  necessity  for  such  legislation. 

While  no  member  of  the  assembly  had  ever  made  any 
official  statement  on  the  subject,  the  Fihpino  press  had 
on  various  occasions  denounced  me  as  a  liar  or  an  igno- 
ramus, and  an  enemy  of  "the  Filipino  people,"  for  saying 
that  slavery  existed. 

In  preparation  for  what  I  deemed  to  be  a  probable  re- 
quest from  Congress  for  a  detailed  statement  of  facts,  I 
now  proceeded  to  get  together  the  information  on  file  in 
government  offices  and  courts,  called  upon  various  officers 
of  the  government  for  data  in  their  possession  which  had 
never  been  made  of  record,  and  initiated  new  investiga- 
tions, using  for  this  purpose  the  poUce  of  Manila,  the 
Philippine  constabulary  and  various  other  agencies. 
Drawing  on  the  abundant  material  thus  obtained,  I 
began  the  preparation  of  a  report  to  the  coimnission, 
recommending  that  the  necessity  for  legislation  be  called 
to  the  attention  of  Congress,  and  supplying  abundant 
data  relative  to  the  existence  of  slavery  and  peonage  in 
the  Philippines. 

Before  this  report  was  completed  there  occurred  a  most 
unexpected  event. 

Dr.  W.  O.  Stillman,  President  of  the  American  Humane 
Association,  had  written  me  months  before  asking  about 
the  power  of  the  Philippine  Legislature  to  enact  humane 
legislation,  and  further  inquiring  what  laws  of  this  sort, 
if  any,  had  been  enacted.     In  my  reply  I  had  called  his 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  705 

attention  to  the  act  of  the  commission  prohibiting  slavery 
and  peonage  in  certain  provinces,  and  to  the  fact  that 
the  attitude  of  the  assembly  had  prevented  the  enact- 
ment of  similar  prohibitive  legislation  for  the  remaining 
territory.  My  letter,  which  furnished  no  supporting 
data,  was  eventually  published  by  this  gentleman  and 
was  read  in  the  United  States  Senate  by  Senator  Borah. 
On  May  1,  1913,  the  senate  passed  the  following  resolu- 
tion :  — 

"Resolved,  That  the  Secretary  of  War  be,  and  he  is  hereby, 
directed  to  send  to  the  Senate  any  and  all  facts  bearing  directly 
or  indirectly  upon  the  truth  of  the  charge  publicly  made  that 
human  slavery  exists  at  this  time  in  the  Philippine  Islands  and 
that  human  beings  are  bought  and  sold  in  such  Islands  as 
chattels." 

The  reply  addressed  by  the  secretary  of  war  to  the 
president  of  the  Senate  on  May  6,  1913,  contains  the 
following  statement :  — 

"There  is  not  in  this  Department,  to  the  knowledge  of  the 
Secretary  thereof  or  of  the  head  of  the  Bureau  having  charge 
of  insular  affairs,  a  record  of  any  facts  bearing  directly  or  in- 
directly upon  the  truth  of  the  charge,  publicly  made,  that 
human  slavery  exists  at  this  time  in  the  Philippine  Islands  and 
that  human  beings  are  bought  and  sold  in  such  Islands  as 
chattels." 

This  was  a  most  peculiar  statement.  The  passage  cut 
out  of  my  1909  report  was  certainly  on  file  there,  and  it 
explicitly  stated  that  slavery  existed  in  the  Islands. 

The  similar  passage  from  my  1910  report  should  have 
been  on  file  there,  and  last  but  not  least,  when  finally, 
after  the  lapse  of  years,  I  saw  the  so-called  "Ed- 
wards" memorandiun,  in  reality  written  by  General 
Mclntyre,  on  wliich  the  Secretary  of  War  had  based  his 
action  in  ordering  all  reference  to  slavery  cut  out  of  my 
1910  report,  I  had  made  a  full  reply  to  it,  containing  a 
specific  statement  that  slaverj^  and  the  sale  of  human 
beings  were  common  in  certain  parts  of  the  islands  and 


706  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

citing  certain  specific  cases.  I  had  specially  requested 
that  this  communication  be  filed  in  the  bureau  of  insular 
affairs,  and  General  Mclntyre,  the  chief  of  that  bureau, 
who  acknowledged  its  receipt,  could  hardly  have  for- 
gotten its  existence. 

The  war  department  reported  on  this  matter  without 
seeking  any  information  from  Manila.  I  can  only  con- 
clude that  Secretary  Garrison  was  deceived  by  some  ir- 
responsible subordinate. 

As  promptly  as  practicable  I  completed  my  report 
and  sent  it  to  the  commission,  which  read  and  con- 
sidered it  on  May  17,  1913,  immediately  passing  the 
following  resolution :  — 

"Whereas  the  Act  of  Congress  passed  July  1,  1902,  'tempo- 
rarily providing  for  civil  government  of  the  Philippine  Islands 
and  for  other  purposes '  provides  that '  neither  slavery  nor  invol- 
untary servitude  except  as  a  punishment  for  crime  whereof  the 
parties  have  been  duly  convicted  shall  exist  in  said  Islands,' 
and 

"Whereas  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  Philippine  Islands  in 
the  case  of  the  U.  S.  vs.  Cabanag  (Vol.  VIII,  p.  64,  Phil.  Repts.), 
decided  on  March  16,  1907,  decided  that  'there  is  no  law 
applicable  here  either  of  the  United  States  or  of  the  Archipelago 
punishing  slavery  as  a  crime ; '  and 

"Whereas,  in  order  to  remedy  this  condition  in  accordance 
with  the  above-mentioned  provisions  of  the  said  Act  of  Con- 
gress, the  Philippine  Commission  in  its  exclusive  legislative 
jurisdiction  over  all  that  part  of  the  Philippine  Islands  inhabited 
by  Moros  or  other  non-Christian  tribes  passed  Act  No.  2071, 
and  as  a  branch  of  the  Philippine  Legislature  has  in  four  suc- 
cessive sessions  passed  an  act  prohibiting  and  penalizing  slav- 
ery, involuntary  servitude,  peonage,  or  the  sale  of  human 
beings,  and 

"Whereas  during  each  of  said  sessions  the  Assembly  has 
failed  to  concur  in  the  passage  of  such  Act ;  now,  therefore,  be 
it 

"Resolved,  That  the  Honourable  the  Governor-General  be 
requested  to  send  to  the  Honourable  the  Secretary  of  War  a 
copy  of  the  proposed  law  entitled  'An  Act  prohibiting  slavery, 
involuntary  servitude,  peonage,  or  the  sale  of  human  beings  in 
the  Philippine  Islands '  as  passed  by  the  Commission  in  the  last 


SLAVERY   AND   PEONAGE  707 

session  of  the  last  Legislature,  but  which  failed  of  passage  in 
the  Assembly,  with  the  recommendation  that  a  copy  of  the  law  be 
sent  to  Congress  wth  the  request  that  the  necessary  legislation 
be  enacted  to  render  fully  effective  the  above-mentioned  pro- 
visions of  the  Act  of  Congress  of  July  1,  1902." 

I  was  subsequently  requested  by  the  governor-general 
to  address  the  report  to  him  rather  than  to  the  com- 
mission, to  the  end  that  the  Filipino  members  of  that 
body  might  be  spared  the  embarrassment  which  would 
otherwise  result  from  the  necessity  of  voting  either  for 
its  acceptance  or  for  its  rejection,  and  I  very  wilhngly 
made  the  requested  change. 

The  printing  of  the  report  was  delayed  until  July  19, 
1913,  and  I  brought  it  up  to  that  date,  as  evidence  con- 
tinued to  pour  in. 

In  this  document  I  gave  specific  cases  of  chattel  slavery 
in  the  provinces  of  Nueva  Vizcaya,  Isabela,  Tarlac,  Zam- 
bales,  Pampanga,  Batangas,  Palawan,  Agusan,  Ambos 
Camarines,  the  Moro  province,  the  Mountain  province 
and  Manila  itself,  describing  quite  fully  the  conditions 
under  which  Ilongots,  Ifugaos,  Negritos,  Tagbanuas, 
Manobos,  Mandayas,  Moros  and  Filipinos  are  bought, 
sold  and  held  as  chattel  slaves. 

I  will  here  only  briefly  summarize  them. 

The  Negritos  are  savages  of  low  mentality,  and  most 
of  them  lead  a  nomadic  or  senoi-nomadic  life.  They 
constantly  get  the  worst  of  it  in  the  struggle  for  existence 
and  to-day  are  found  only  on  the  islands  of  Mindanao, 
Palawan,  Tablas,  Negros,  Panay  and  Luzon,  where  for 
the  most  part  they  inhabit  very  remote  and  inaccessible 
mountain  regions.  Owing  to  their  stupidity  and  their 
extreme  tunidity  it  is  comparatively  ea&y  to  hold  them  in 
slavery,  and  they  are  probably  thus  victimized  more  than 
are  the  people  of  any  other  tribe.  They  are  constantly 
warring  with  each  other  in  the  more  remote  of  tlie  moun- 
tain regions  which  they  inhabit.  It  would  be  going  too 
far  to  say  that  their  moral  sense  has  been  blunted.     It  is 


708  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

probably  nearer  the  truth  to  say  that  they  never  had  any. 
It  is  therefore  a  simple  matter  for  Filipino  slave  dealers 
to  arrange  with  Negritos  for  the  purchase  of  their  fellow- 
tribesmen.  The  latter  then  proceed  to  obtain  captives 
by  raiding  some  hostile  group  of  their  own  people,  killing 
ruthlessly  if  occasion  arises. 

They  are  more  ready  than  are  the  people  of  any  other 
Philippine  tribe  to  sell  their  children  or  other  dependent 
relatives,  and  do  this  not  infrequently  when  pressed  by 
hunger,  a  condition  apt  to  arise  because  of  their  utter 
improvidence.  Unfortunately,  the  matter  does  not  end 
liere.  It  is  by  no  means  unknown  for  Filipinos  to  join 
in  their  slave-hunting  raids,  or  even  to  organize  raids  of 
their  own,  kUling  Negrito  parents  in  order  to  get  posses- 
sion of  their  children.  I  submit  the  following  case  to 
illustrate  this  latter  procedure  :  — 

"Camp  Stotsenburg,  Pampanga,  P.  I., 
"September  26,  1910. 
"The  Adjutant, 

"Camp  Stotsenburg,  Pampanga,  P.  I. 

"Sir  :  I  have  the  honour  to  inform  you  that  a  report  has  this 
day  been  made  to  me  that  a  party  of  hostile  Filipinos,  about 
15  in  number,  armed  with  1  rifle,  1  revolver  and  the  remainder 
with  bolos,  presumably  ladrones,  entered  a  small  Negrito 
barrio  situated  about  one  and  one  half  miles  directly  southeast 
from  the  Post  during  the  forenoon  of  Tuesday,  September  20, 
1910,  and  killed  three  men  and  carried  away  two  small  chil- 
dren. I  have  visited  the  barrio  and  the  body  of  one  man  show- 
ing frightful  mutilation,  both  head,  feet  and  hands  completely 
severed  from  the  body,  was  found.  This  settlement  is  situated 
in  a  dense  jungle  and  the  other  bodies  were  presumably  carried 
away  or  hidden,  so  that  they  could  not  be  found. 

"But  one  person  can  be  found  who  witnessed  the  affair, 
an  aged  Negrito  woman,  who  can  scarcely  walk  from  the 
treatment  she  received  at  the  hands  of  these  outlaws.  She 
states  that  she  would  bo  able  to  recognize  and  identify  some 
of  the  party.  I  am  informed  by  Negritos  living  in  the  vicinity 
that  this  party  of  outlaws  has  a  rendezvous  a  short  distance 
east  of  Solbac  where  they  might  be  apprehended. 

"The  killing  took  place  without  the  reservation,  but  the 


-  XI 


5f  o 


-   "2. 3 


.=  -a 

3 

c  y 


fc.  J3 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  709 

matter  is  of  sufficient  importance,  since  all  the  Negritos  living 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  post  are  greatly  excited  and  distm-bed,  to 
warrant  the  recommendation  that  it  be  referred  to  the  Senior 
Inspector  of  Constabulary,  San  Fernando,  Pampanga,  P.  I.,  for 
such  action  as  he  may  desire  to  take. 
"Very  respectfully, 

(Signed)     "Kyle  Rucker, 
"  1st  Lieut,  and  Squadron  Adjutant,  14th  Cav.  Intelligence  Officer." 

The  subsequent  fate  of  these  Negrito  children  is  made 
plain  by  the  following  letter  :  — 

"Philippine  Constabulary, 
"San  Fernando,  Pampanga,  P.  I., 
"  October  4,  1910. 

"My  Dear  Holmes:  We  have  a  case  up  here  of  murder 
committed  near  the  to^vn  of  Angeles  in  which  several  Negritos 
are  mixed  up. 

"We  managed  to  locate  two  Negrito  children  who  had  been 
sold  by  the  man  who  killed  their  father.  They  were  in  the 
possession  of  a  man  named  Ambrocio  David  who  says  he  paid 
sixty  pesos  for  them  and  says  they  are  his  property. 

"I  think  that  we  can  convict  the  murderer  of  the  children's 
father,  if  we  can  catch  him,  but  this  sale  of  Negritos  has  gone 
such  a  pace  that  almost  every  family  in  Pampanga  has  at 
least  one  as  a  'Companion'  of  their  children,  they  say,  but 
really  as  a  slave. 

"The  Fiscal  says  there  is  no  law  against  the  sale  or  purchase 
of  Negritos  and  I  cannot  find  it,  although  I  seem  to  remember 
a  law,  but  whether  it  alludes  to  Negritos  or  only  Moros  I  am 
unable  to  say. 

"If  there  is  a  law,  what  number  is  it,  and  if  not,  can  you  get 
me  an  opinion  of  the  Attorney-General  or  some  ruling  so  as  to 
show  us  how  to  act  in  this  and  future  cases  of  this  kind. 

"Yrs. 

"W.S.  North, 
"S.  I." 

In  this  case  one  of  the  kidnappers  was  convicted  of 
murder,  but  nothing  could  be  done  to  him  for  selUng  the 
Negrito  children  nor  could  anything  be  done  to  Senor 
Ambrocio  David  for  buying  the  children  or  for  claiming 
that  they  were  his  property. 


710  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Like  many  primitive  peoples,  the  Negritos  are  inordi- 
nately fond  of  strong  alcoholic  drinks.  It  is  strictly 
against  the  law  to  give  or  sell  any  of  the  white  man's 
liquors  to  them,  but  this  naturally  does  not  restrain  slave 
hunters,  who  frequently  get  adults  deeply  intoxicated  and 
then  trade  with  them  for  their  children  or  kidnap  the 
drunken  persons  themselves  and  drag  them  away. 
Negritos  are  held  to-day  in  bondage,  in  considerable  num- 
bers, in  provinces  like  Zambales,  Pampanga,  Tarlac,  Panga- 
sinan  and  Cagayan.  Wliile  they  are  not  displayed  for 
sale  in  any  market  in  Pampanga,  they  can  be  readily 
negotiated  for  in  several  cUfferent  public  markets  of  that 
province ;  and  if  none  happen  to  be  available  at  the 
moment,  the  would-be  purchaser  is  assured  that  the 
supply  in  the  mountains  is  inexhaustible  and  that  his 
needs  can  soon  be  met. 

The  publication  of  my  report  has  caused  consternation 
among  slave  owners  in  many  provinces.  Some  slaves 
have  since  escaped  and  little  effort  has  been  made  to  re- 
capture them.  Others  have  been  voluntarily  set  free 
by  their  masters,  but  in  Pampanga  the  trade  still  goes 
merrily  on.  Until  recently  Negritos  have  been  peddled 
around  the  country  adjacent  to  Manila  like  carabaos  or 
horses,  and  it  is  but  a  short  time  since  their  purchasers 
have  in  some  instances  refused  to  give  them  up,  stoutly 
asseverating  that  they  were  their  property.  Now,  how- 
ever, warned  by  experience,  owners  make  no  such  claim, 
but  advance  various  more  or  less  ingenious  explanations 
of  the  fact  that  they  have  Negritos  in  their  possession 
and  deny  that  they  are  slaves.  Some  of  them  insist  that 
it  is  a  Negrito  custom  to  kill  orphan  children,  and  that 
they  have  taken  orphans  out  of  kindness  in  order  to  save 
their  lives.  Patient  investigation  has  failed  to  show  the 
existence  of  any  such  custom  among  the  Negritos. 

Perhaps  the  commonest  procedure  of  all  is  to  claim 
that  Negrito  slaves  are  "adopted  children"  or  "members 
of  the  family."     The  presumption  against  a  Filipino's 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  7H 

taking  into  his  family  one  of  these  little  woolly-headed, 
black,  dwarf  savages  is  strong.  In  no  single  case  have  I 
been  able  to  obtain  evidence  of  real,  legal  adoption.  The 
following  document  illustrates  the  procedure  which  seems 
invariably  to  have  been  followed :  — 

"On  the  25th  of  December,  1912,  I,  the  authorized  curate  of 
this  district,  Lubao,  Pro\'ince  of  Pampanga,  baptized  solemnly, 
and  put  on  the  blessed  Okos  in  this  church  in  my  charge  on 
one  Negrita  ten  and  eight  years  of  age  (18),  and  have  given 
the  name  of  Juana,  daughter  of  a  father  poor  and  unknown. 
The  foster  mother.  Dona  Pia  Vitug,  married  in  this  towTi 
received  the  charge  as  a  parent  to  care  for  the  spiritual  welfare 
and  other  obligations. 

"I  for  the  truth  sign, 

"Friar  Pedro  Diez." 

(Girl  given  the  name  of  Juana  de  Jesus  Vitug.) 

A  document  of  this  sort  imposes  no  legal  obligation 
whatever  on  the  owner  of  a  slave,  and  makes  no  change 
in  the  status  of  the  slave,  but  merely  serves  as  a  basis 
for  the  claim  that  he  or  she  "is  treated  as  a  member  of 
the  family." 

This  is  a  cheap  and  easy  method  of  securing  a  slave,  and 
the  child  thus  "adopted"  may  be  compelled  to  labour  for 
a  lifetime  without  compensation,  or  turned  over  for  a 
consideration  to  be  similarly  "adopted"  by  some  one  else. 

Other  Filipinos  who  do  not  claim  that  their  Negrito 
slaves  are  members  of  their  families  find  complete  justi- 
fication for  purchasing  them  in  the  allegation  that  they 
have  taken  them  to  Christianize,  thus  preventing  their 
going  to  hell ! 

In  the  provinces  of  Agusan  and  Surigao  the  slave- 
taking  raids  of  the  Mandayas  and  Manobos  are  historic. 
In  the  more  remote  parts  of  these  provinces  they  continue 
from  time  to  time  up  to  the  present  day.  "VMiile  one 
of  them  lies  within  the  territory  for  which  the  com- 
mission has  been  able  to  legislate,  what  shall  we  say 
of  those  who  contend  that  slavery  does  not  exist  in  the 


712  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Philippine  Islands  in  the  face  of  such  occurrences  as  have 
taken  place  there?  The  same  query  holds  for  the  sub- 
province  of  Ifugao  in  the  Mountain  Province  and  for 
Nueva  Vizcaya.  The  Ifugaos  have  been  especially  vic- 
timized. The  following  kinds  of  servitude  are  recognized 
by  them :  — 

Jim-hut.  This  is  the  name  applied  to  real  slaves. 
The  Jim-hut  becomes  an  article  of  commerce  and  often 
changes  owners  several  times  before  reaching  the  country 
of  the  Ba-li-uon  (Christians). 

Nij-cop.  This  is  the  name  applied  to  children  who  have 
been  really  adopted  under  a  formal  contract  made  with 
their  parents  or  nearest  relatives  in  case  the  parents  are 
dead.  The  Nij-cop  acquire  certain  property  rights  from 
their  new  parents-by-adoption. 

Baj-dl.  Tliis  is  the  name  given  to  orphan  children 
who  have  been  formally  taken  in  charge  by  some  well-to- 
do  Ifugao  and  who  are  unable  to  support  themselves. 
The  Baj-dl  is  a  tentative  Nij-cop,  for  if  he  turns  out  to  be 
bright  and  industrious,  he  may  become  a  member  of  the 
family  and  acquire  property  rights. 

Ta-gd-Ia.  Tliis  is  the  name  applied  to  servants  who 
receive  regular  compensation. 

It  is  a  matter  of  common  knowledge  throughout  the 
sub-province  that  there  are  li\ang  to-day  in  Isabela  hun- 
dreds of  Ifugaos  who  have  been  sold  to  Filipinos  as  slaves. 

In  Nueva  Vizcaya  it  has  been  possible  to  deal  with  the 
more  flagrant  cases  since  the  passage  by  the  commission 
of  the  law  above  referred  to,  but  the  conamission  is  power- 
less to  pass  a  law  effective  in  Isabela. 

The  holders  of  slaves  now  seek  to  evade  the  law  by 
nominally  hiring  them  at  a  monthly  salary  wliich  is  not 
paid.  The  promulgation  of  Act  No.  2071  prohibiting  and 
penalizing  slavery  enabled  Lieutenant-Governor  Jeff  D. 
Galhnan  of  Ifugao  to  liberate  some  forty  boys  and  girls 
held  by  Filipinos  in  Nueva  Vizcaya.  In  no  single  case, 
however,  could  it  be  proved  that  the  child  had  been  sold. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  713 

The  persons  who  held  them  testified  in  each  instance  that 
they  were  "hired  servants." 

When  they  learned  of  the  provisions  of  the  above- 
mentioned  act  they  were  easily  prevailed  upon  to  pay. 
"salaries"  long  overdue  to  their  "servants"  and  the 
latter  were  allowed  to  return  to  their  homes. 

It  was  found  that  some  of  the  persons  originally  sold 
into  slavery  in  Nueva  Vizcaya  had  run  away  from  their 
masters  and  become  vagabonds.  Few  really  wanted  to 
return  to  their  parents,  whose  language  in  many  cases 
they  had  almost  forgotten. 

I  wish  this  were  the  worst,  but  the  worst  is  yet  to 
come.  Not  only  do  the  Filipinos  buy,  sell  and  hold  the 
wild  people  as  slaves,  but  Filipino  children  have  been 
kidnapped,  or  enticed  from  their  homes,  by  other  Fili- 
pinos, and  sold  as  slaves  to  their  own  kind.  Yomig  girls 
have  been  sold  outright  to  Chinese  who  purchased  and 
kept  them  for  immoral  purposes.  They  have  been  sold 
to  panderers  and  keepers  of  houses  of  prostitution  and 
compelled  to  enter  upon  lives  of  shame.  Filipino  children 
and  young  women  have  been  sold  to  Chinese  who  have 
taken  them  to  China.  God  only  knows  what  fate  may 
have  befallen  them  there.  In  such  cases  the  victims  dis- 
appear from  these  islands,  never  to  return. 

Some  slaves  are  well  treated.  Others  are  half  starved, 
brutally  beaten,  injured  or  even  killed.  The  Manobos 
and  Manadaj'as  of  Agusan  and  Surigao,  and  the  Bagobos 
of  the  Moro  Province,  have  been  accustomed  to  sacrifice 
slaves  to  appease  their  heathen  deities.  The  Manobos 
on  occasion  even  have  their  boys  take  lances  and  try 
the  effect  of  different  thrusts  on  slaves  tied  to  trees  or 
posts. 

Those  who  desire  long  lists  of  specific  cases  of  slavery 
will  find  them  in  my  report.  I  think  that  I  have  here 
abundantly  demonstrated  the  fact  that  genuine  slavery 
exists  in  the  Philippine  Islands.  It  can  never  be  success- 
fully checked  until  there  is  a  law  of  general  appUcation 


714  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

throughout  the  archipelago  penahzing  the  sale,  barter, 
or  purchase  of  human  beings.  What  reason  has  the 
Philippine  Assembly  for  refusing  to  pass  the  necessary 
act? 

Without  hesitation  I  assert  that,  apart  from  false  and 
foolish  pride  which  makes  the  persons  concerned  unwill- 
ing to  admit  the  fact  of  the  existence  of  slavery,  their 
chief  reason  for  objecting  to  this  law  is  that  it  would  not 
only  prohibit  and  penalize  slavery,  but  would  prohibit 
and  penalize  peonage,  which  is  so  common  and  wide- 
spread that  it  may  properly  be  called  general.  Indeed,  I 
have  no  hesitation  in  asserting  that  it  prevails  in  every 
municipality  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Slavery  is  a  serious  matter,  but  peonage  is  far  more 
serious  because  of  the  very  much  larger  number  of  persons 
involved.  It  Ues  at  the  root  of  the  industrial  system  of 
the  Philippines. 

Much  has  been  said  relative  to  the  probable  attitude 
of  large  American  landowners  toward  Filipino  labourers. 
Thus  far  their  attitude,  and  that  of  all  other  classes  of 
-Americans,  has  been  infinitely  better  than  has  that  of 
the  wealthy  Filipinos  themselves.  The  truth  is  that 
peonage  is  repugnant  to  the  average  American.  One  of 
the  complaints  persistently  made  against  us  by  the  Fili- 
pinos is  that  we  have  raised  the  daily  wage  throughout 
the  islands,  and  this  is  true.  When  I  was  there  in  the 
Spanish  days,  it  was  possible,  in  many  regions,  to  obtain 
abundant  labour  at  five  cents  per  day  with  food,  and  ten 
cents  with  food  was  the  general  rule.  Now  the  same  class 
of  labour  costs  at  least  twenty-five  cents  per  day  with  food, 
and  in  some  provinces  it  costs  fifty  cents  or  more.  It  must 
be  frankly  admitted  that  Americans  are  responsible  for  this 
sad  condition  of  affairs  !  American  landowners  who  desire 
to  pay  their  employees  regularly  a  living  daily  wage  en- 
counter difficulty  in  doing  so,  for  the  reason  that  the 
labourers  have  become  accustomed  to  the  old  system, 
the  evils  of  which  they  know,  and  are  afraid  of  a  new 


Governor  Frederick  Johxson  of  Agusax. 
He  is  holding  up  the  butt  of  a  huge  hemp  stalk.     Governor  Johnson  continued 
at  his  post  for  a  year  while  a  cancer  was  destroying  the  bones  of  his  leg,  with- 
out letting  any  one  know  of  his  trouble.    His  heroism  cost  him  his  life. 


1 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  715 

one,  fearing  that  it  may  involve  worse  evils  of  vphich  they 
know  nothing. 

Incidentally,  Americans  have  learned  that  their  la- 
boui-ers  are  worth  more  if  well  fed,  and  this  is  another 
grievance  held  against  us  in  certain  quarters. 

With  many  of  the  Filipinos  it  is  a  different  story. 

The  rich  and  powerful  man,  commonly  known  as  a 
cacique,  encourages  the  poor  man  to  borrow  money 
from  him  under  such  conditions  that  the  debt  can  never 
be  repaid,  and  holds  the  debtor,  and  frequently  the 
members  of  his  family  as  well,  in  debt  servitude  for  life. 
One  might  fill  a  score  of  volumes  with  records  of  cases 
and  I  can  here  do  no  more  than  to  select  a  few  typical 
illustrations  of  the  workings  of  this  vicious  system. 

The  Filipinos  are  born  gamblers.  Gambling  is  their 
besetting  sin.  The  poor  are  usually  glad  to  get  the 
opportunity  to  borrow  money,  and  will  do  this  on 
almost  any  terms,  if  necessary,  in  order  to  continue  to 
indulge  in  their  pet  vice.  They  are  thoughtless  about 
their  ability  to  repay  loans,  and  thus  readily  fall  into  the 
power  of  the  cacique  money-lenders,  who  thereafter  use 
them  as  house  servants  or  labourers,  under  conditions 
such  as  to  render  their  escape  from  debt-servitude  prac- 
tically impossible. 

Indeed,  if  they  seek  to  escape,  the  caciques  often  threaten 
them  with  the  law,  or  actually  invoke  it  against  them, 
while  if  they  endeavour  to  homestead  pubhc  land  and  thus 
better  their  condition,  the  caciques  only  too  often  cause 
opposition  to  be  made  to  thek  claims  and  keep  it  up 
until  they  become  discouraged. 

The  following  facts  have  been  furnished  me  by  Hon. 
James  A.  Ostrand,  judge  of  the  court  of  land  reg- 
istration. 

"In  1907  a  woman,  whose  surname,  I  think,  is  Quintos, 
asked  me  to  lend  her  twenty-five  pesos  with  which  to  'redeem' 
her  daughter  who  had  been  mortgaged  for  that  amount  to  a 
Chinese  merchant,  whose  name  at  present  I  do  not  recall,  but 


716  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

who  had  his  establishment  on  the  ground  floor  of  the  house  of 
Ubaldo  Diaz  in  Lingayen.  The  woman  stated  that  the  China- 
man was  corrupting  the  morals  of  the  girl,  and  that  this  was  the 
reason  why  she  wanted  to  make  the  redemption.  I  told  her 
that  under  the  circumstances  no  redemption  was  necessary,  but 
that  I  would  see  that  the  girl  was  allowed  to  leave  the  China- 
man, who,  on  proper  representations,  was  induced  to  let  the 
girl  go  home.  She  stayed  with  her  mother  for  a  couple  of  weeks 
but,  by  adding  P75  to  the  mortgage  debt,  the  Chinaman  got 
her  back  and  shortly  before  I  left  Lingayen  I  learned  that  the 
girl,  though  scarcely  fifteen  years  old,  had  given  birth  to  a 
child." 

"In  1907  a  woman  from  the  town  of  Balincaguin  in  Pangas- 
indn  came  to  my  office  and  stated  that  she,  about  six  years 
before  had  'mortgaged'  [the  terms  'salda'  in  Ilocano  and 
'sanla'  in  Pangasindn  are  usually  translated  mortgage,  but 
also  imply  pledge,  as  the  crechtor  generally  takes  possession  of 
the  mortgaged  property]  her  twelve-year  old  son  for  some 
twenty  pesos  to  Don  Cirilio  Braganza,  the  member  of  the 
second  Philippine  legislature  for  the  district  in  which  I  was 
then  living;  that  her  son  had  been  working  for  Braganza  ever 
since,  and  that,  according  to  her  reckoning,  the  debt  had  already 
been  paid,  but  that  Braganza  had  unjustly  charged  the  loss 
of  a  carabao  to  her  son's  account,  thus  adding  P120,  if  I  remem- 
ber correctly,  to  the  debt.  She  further  stated  that  she  had 
asked  Braganza  to  release  the  boy,  but  that  he  refused  to  do  so. 
I  informed  her  of  the  provisions  of  the  PhiUppine  Bill  in  regard 
to  involuntary  servitude,  and  advised  her  that  her  son  was 
free  to  leave  Mr.  Braganza's  services  if  he  so  desired.  She 
said  that  if  the  boy  should  leave,  she  was  afraid  something 
might  happen  to  liim  as  Braganza  was  very  influential  in  that 
locality.  I  then  gave  her  a  note  for  Braganza  requesting  him 
to  let  the  boy  go.  Shortly  afterwards  Braganza  came  to  me 
and  gave  me  his  version  of  the  case,  stating  that  he  had  always 
treated  the  boy  well,  and  that  the  loss  of  the  carabao  was 
entirely  due  to  the  boy's  neghgence,  and  that  he,  Braganza, 
would  not  consent  to  the  boy's  leaving  him  before  the  carabao 
was  paid  for.  At  last  reports  the  boy  was  still  with  Braganza 
and  may  be  there  yet.  I  may  add  that  I  believe  Braganza 
told  the  truth,  and  that  the  boy  was  guilty  of  negligence  in 
connection  with  the  loss  of  the  carabao." 

The  net  result  in  this  case  was  that  a  boy  was  "mort- 
gaged" for  a  P20  debt  and  after  six  years  the  debt  had 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  717 

very  largely  increased,  probably  in  part  as  a  result  of  the 
carelessness  of  the  boy. 

In  a  letter  to  Judge  Ostrand  I  had  defined  peonage  as 
"the  condition  of  a  debtor  held  by  his  creditor  in  a  form 
of  quahfied  servitude  to  work  out  a  debt."  Of  its  prev- 
alence the  judge  says :  — 

"While  practising  law  in  the  Province  of  Pangasindn,  dur- 
ing the  years  1905  to  1909,  hardly  a  week  passed  but  what 
cases  of  involuntary  servitude,  as  defined  in  the  within  communi- 
cation, came  under  my  observation." 

He  also  calls  attention  to  the  fact  that  interference 
with  the  system  does  not  increase  one's  popularity :  — 

"Interference  by  third  parties  in  cases  of  involuntary  servi- 
tude is  not  looked  upon  with  favour,  and  is  generally  considered 
highly  reprehensible.  I  remember,  for  instance,  a  case  where 
Mr.  Pedro  Sison  [not  the  member  of  the  Legislature],  then  a 
prominent  resident  of  Lingayen,  was,  as  he  himself  regarded 
it,  made  the  victim  of  unwarranted  interference.  A  woman 
bought  a  small  parcel  of  land  from  Mr.  Sison,  agreeing  to  work 
out  the  purchase  price,  forty  pesos.  She  worked  with  Mr. 
Sison  for  six  years,  at  the  end  of  which  period  the  debt  had 
increased  to  over  si.xty  pesos,  according  to  Mr.  Sison's  accounts. 
In  the  meantime  the  woman  became  a  Protestant,  and  Rev. 
E.  S.  Lyons,  the  Methodist  missionary  in  Pangasindn,  advised 
her  to  leave  Mr.  Sison's  service.  Upon  her  doing  so  Mr.  Sison 
became  very  indignant  not  only  at  her,  but  also  at  Mr.  Lyons, 
and  for  some  time  thought  seriously  of  having  the  latter  crimi- 
nally prosecuted.  He  appeared  to  be  very  much  surprised  when 
he  found  that  there  was  no  penal  provision  covering  Mr.  Lyons's 
action.  Mr.  Sison  was  otherwise  a  very  estimable  and  good- 
natured  man,  but  he  never  until  his  dying  day,  which  occurred 
a  couple  of  years  afterwards,  got  over  his  bitter  resentment 
toward  Mr.  Lyons." 

Judge  Ostrand  summarizes  the  results  of  his  observa- 
tions as  follows :  — 

"Nearly  all  the  involuntary  servitude  cases  of  which  I  have 
any  knowledge  have  arisen  from  the  practice  of  mortgaging 
half-grown  children.  The  sum  advanced  is  usually  some 
twenty  or  thirty  pesos.     As  the  money  seldom  draws  interest 


718  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND  PRESENT 

at  a  lower  rate  than  ten  per  cent  a  month,  and  the  creditor 
furnishes  the  child  food  and  such  clothing  as  it  may  need,  its 
services  are  ordinarily  not  considered  worth  more  than  the 
amount  of  the  interest,  and  the  debt  instead  of  being  reduced 
usually  increases  as  the  years  pass.  I  venture  to  say  that 
among  the  Filipinos  in  some  sections  of  the  Islands  the  major- 
ity of  house  servants  are  obtained  and  employed  in  this 
manner." 

It  would  indeed  seem  that  with  interest  at  the  rate  of 
120  per  cent  per  year  and  the  creditor  in  a  position  to  fix 
his  own  price  for  food,  clotliing  and  other  necessaries  fur- 
nished his  debtors  while  they  were  trying  to  work  out 
their  debts,  they  would  not  be  likely  to  succeed  in  doing 
so ! 

In  this  connection  I  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  in 
the  course  of  the  discussion  recently  caused  by  requests 
for  the  resignation  of  certain  public  officials  who  had 
been  loaning  money  at  usurious  rates  of  interests,  several 
of  the  native  papers  took  the  attitude  that  18  per  cent 
per  year  was  a  very  moderate  rate  of  interest. 

If  the  unfortunate  peon  finally  rebels,  the  rich  cacique 
often  invokes  the  law  against  him  by  having  him  prose- 
cuted on  some  false  criminal  charge. 

In  this  connection  the  following  letter  is  of  interest :  — 

"  Philippine  Constabulary, 
"Office  of  the  Senior  Inspector, 
"Pampanga,  San  Fernando,  September  26,  1912. 

"The  Superintendent,  Information  Division,  P.  C, 
"Manila,  P.  I. 

"  (Thru'  Adjutant,  District  of  Central  Luzon.) 
"  Sir  :     Reference   to   the    prosecution   of   Maria   Guzman 
before  the  Justice  of  the  Peace  of  Apalit  for  'Infraction  of 
Law  2098 '  (your  file  No.  8634-75)  I  have  the  honour  to  attach 
copy  of  decision  in  the  case,  and  remarks :  — 

"About  three  (3)  years  ago  Simeon  de  los  Reyes,  by  and 
with  the  consent  of  his  wife  Maria  Guzman,  borrowed  and  signed 
receipt  for  fifty  pesos  (P50)  to  Maria  Santos  of  ApaUt,  con- 
tracting that  his  wife  work  out  the  debt  moulding  earthen  jars 
—  that  for  every  hundred  jars  made  Maria  Guzman  received 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  719 

?1,  25  centavos  of  which  was  to  go  on  the  debt.  The  woman 
states  she  could  make  about  fifty  jars  per  week,  so  that  her 
actual  wages  were  50  centavos  per  week,  or  $.005  per  jar.  This 
without  board,  as  the  woman  states  that  any  money  she  got 
for  food  was  charged  on  original  debt. 

"By  the  first  part  of  this  year  the  debt  had  'decreased'  to 
P70,  when  another  receipt  for  that  amount  was  signed  by  the 
husband,  de  los  Reyes,  and  the  old  receipt  for  P50  destroyed. 
In  the  month  of  August  ultimo  the  Santos  woman  refused  to 
advance  Maria  Guzman  more  money,  so  Maria  Guzman  left 
and  joined  her  husband,  who  was  working  in  Manila.  The 
debt  at  time  of  trial  amounted  to  F79  and  a  fraction. 

"Warrants  of  this  nature  are  being  continually  sent  from 
Pampanga,  either  by  messenger  or  mail,  direct  to  the  Superin- 
tendent Information  Division,  without  passing  through  my 
hands.     The  reason  is  evident. 

"It  is  respectfully  requested  that  in  the  future  all  warrants 
reaching  your  office  in  this  way  be  referred  back  to  me  before 
execution. 

"Very  respectfully, 

(Signed)     "L.  T.  Rohreb, 

"Senior  Inspector." 

This  woman,  if  she  succeeded  in  making  fifty  earthen 
jars  per  week,  received  wages  amounting  to  twenty-five 
cents  against  which  her  creditor  charged  her  food  and 
doubtless  also  her  clothing.  In  other  words,  she  was  in 
effect  charged  for  the  privilege  of  making  fifty  jars  per 
week  for  her  master.  The  interest  on  her  debt  was 
meanwhile  piUng  up  while  the  principal  steadily  increased, 
and  when  she  grew  weary  of  her  hopeless  task  and  ran 
away,  her  taskmaster  prosecuted  her. 

The  following  letter  presents  a  typical  case  of  peonage : 

"ROSALES, 

"March  26,  1912. 
"Chief  of  the  Secret  Service  Dept.,  Manila  : 

"Dear  Sib:  On  behalf  of  Garegorio  Ahnario  a  young  girl 
residing  at  my  house  I  write  to  ask  you  if  you  cannot  have  this 
matter  attended  to. 

"Six  years  ago  a  man  named  Tomas  Almario,  li\-ing  at  pres- 
ent in  Rosales,  borrowed  some   money  (twenty  pesos  only). 


720  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

This  man  was  unable  to  repay  this  money  so  he  sold  this  girl 
named  Inocencia  Almario  to  a  Mr.  Galban.  I  think  he  is  the 
President  of  Bautista.  Her  sister  has  been  to  Bautista  to  take 
this  girl  away  but  she  has  been  rebuked  by  these  people  in  my 
presence.  They  state  she  owes  F60  the  extra  P40  being  interest 
on  the  P20  borrowed  6  years  ago.  They  have  got  this  girl  and 
another  girl  working  as  slaves  and  to-day  I  heard  that  the  girl  es- 
caped in  a  carromatta  but  they  sent  an  automobile  after  her  and 
took  her  into  Bautista  beating  her  all  the  way.  In  the  interest  of 
justice  I  hope  you  will  have  this  girl  released  and  hand  her 
over  to  her  sister  in  my  house  here  out  of  the  hands  of  those 
wretches.  I  also  found  out  that  this  girl  is  being  sent  from 
place  to  place  amongst  men  who  take  girls  to  cover  debts.  If 
you  send  a  man  here  to  Rosales  I  have  the  proof  and  will  show 
you  where  this  girl  is  and  will  get  the  evidence  against  these 
people.  I  understand  that  the  President  of  Bautista  is  the 
man  who  is  at  the  bottom  of  the  whole  affair.  I  hope  you  will 
put  a  stop  to  this  slavery.  I  have  the  man  here  who  owes  the 
money  and  sold  the  two  girls  to  this  man.  I  have  the  .sister 
here ;  also  the  other  relatives  to  prove  that  this  girl  has  worked 
as  a  slave  for  6  years  to  cover  a  debt  of  twenty  pesos  and  now 
they  want  60  before  they  will  release  her.  Please  release  my 
sister  and  oblige 

"Yours  truly, 

"  j[her  mark]  Garegorio  Almario. 
Witness:   (Signed)     "W.A.Cole. 
"Address  Garegorio  Almario, 
"c/o  W.  A.  Cole,  Rosales,  Pang." 

I  have  not  made  the  slightest  effort  to  get  the  peonage 
records  of  PhiUppine  assemblymen,  but  have  taken  cases 
as  they  came,  yet  three  of  the  limited  number  here  dis- 
cussed concern  members  or  ex-members  of  the  assembly. 
Is  it  any  wonder  that  that  body  refuses  to  consider  a  law 
prohibiting  and  penaUzing  peonage  ? 

My  investigation  of  tliis  matter  has  developed  some 
interesting  phases  of  human  nature.  Knowing  the  cer- 
tain unpopularity  which  would  result  from  telling  the 
truth,  not  a  few  persons  who  might  have  given  valuable 
testimony  refused  to  tell  what  they  knew,  or  even  denied 
that  they  knew  anything.  Others  made  written  state- 
ments which  I  was  unable  to  use,  as  they  insisted  that 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  721 

their  names  be  withheld,  and  I  wanted  testimony  only 
from  witnesses  who  had  the  courage  of  their  convictions. 
Fortunately  there  was  no  lack  of  people  unafraid  to  tell 
the  truth.  Among  witnesses  to  the  existence  of  chattel 
slavery  were  army  officers,  constabulary  officers,  the 
Manila  chief  of  police  and  many  men  of  the  police  force 
of  that  city,  judges,  CathoUc  priests,  the  mother  superior 
of  a  convent,  the  insular  auditor  and  a  number  of  his 
deputies,  provincial  governors,  both  Filipino  and  Ameri- 
can, provincial  treasurers,  the  director  of  education, 
school  teachers,  an  ethnologist,  newspaper  men,  business 
men  and  women  both  English  and  American.  I  accepted 
only  written  and  signed  statements.  The  long  list  of 
cases  in  my  official  report  was  a  sample  list,  not  an  ex- 
haustive one.  I  stand  ready  to  furnish  specific  instances 
of  chattel  slavery,  ad  nauseam,  giving  names  of  slaves, 
their  vendors  and  purchasers,  prices  paid  and  dates  of 
transactions.  I  hold  more  than  a  thousand  tj^aewritten 
pages  of  evidence,  and  it  continued  to  come  in  up  to  the 
day  of  my  departure  from  Manila. 

The  attitude  of  the  Filipino  politicians  toward  this 
great  mass  of  data  and  the  witnesses  who  fm-nished  it  is  a 
most  interesting  study,  from  which  may  be  deduced  logical 
conclusions  of  far-reaching  importance.  Let  us  examine 
it. 

In  the  issue  of  the  Boston  Herald  for  June  24,  1912,  Sr. 
Quezon,  resident  delegate  from  the  Philippines  to  Con- 
gress, published  an  article  entitled  "The  Filipinos  as 
Legislators,"  '  attacking  Governor-General  Forbes  for  re- 
ferring in  a  public  speech  to  the  attitude  of  the  assembly 
on  the  slavery  question.  I  will  quote  and  comment  on 
its  essential  statements  :  — 

"The  fact  that  the  Assembly  has  refused  to  approve  of  the 
bill  referred  to  by  Governor  Forbes,  bespeaks  the  legislative 
ability  of  our  Assemblymen,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  pas- 

•  Republished  in  "Slavery  and  Peonage,"  pp.  37-39. 


722  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

sage  by  the  Commission  of  said  bill  indicates  either  the  incom- 
petency or  the  negligence  of  the  Commissioners.  Do  we  have 
slavery  and  compulsory  service  in  the  Philippines  or  not?  If 
we  do  not,  the  bill  to  abolish  it  is  umiecessary.  If  we  do,  it  is 
also  unnecessary,  because  the  Act  passed  by  Congress,  creating 
the  present  Philippine  Government,  which  serves  as  our  con- 
stitution, already  prohibits  slavery  and  compulsory  service, 
and,  therefore,  no  act  of  the  Philippine  Legislature  is  needed 
to  declare  it  illegal." 

This  is  a  puerile  quibble.  The  act  referred  to  pro- 
hibits slavery,  but  does  not  penalize  it. 

"If  there  is  slavery  and  compulsory  service  in  the  Philip- 
pines, the  Governor-General  as  the  Chief  Executive,  and  the 
members  of  the  Philippine  Commission,  who,  ^vith  the  Governor- 
General,  compose  the  executive  department  of  the  Islands,  are 
all  of  them  guilty  in  not  enforcing  and  executing  the  constitu- 
tion of  the  Archipelago." 

False.  The  Supreme  Court  of  the  Philippines  has  held 
that  the  "constitution"  here  referred  to  is  non-enforceable 
without  exactly  such  suppletory  legislation  as  the  com- 
mission passed  and  the  assembly  tabled. 

"If  there  is  anything  in  the  PhiHppines  akin  to  slavery  or 
compulsory  service,  it  can  not  be  found  in  the  provinces  to 
which  the  legislative  jurisdiction  of  the  Assembly  extends." 

Utterly  false. 

"Should  there  be  such  a  thing  in  the  territories  inhabited 
by  the  few  non-Christian  Filipinos,  which  are  under  the  exclu- 
sive control  of  the  Phihppine  Commission,  I  am  sure  the  slave- 
holders can  only  be  the  Government  officials,  who  are  ap- 
pointed by  the  Secretary  of  the  Interior,  the  Honourable  DeanC. 
Worcester,  the  head  of  the  executive  department  in  charge  of 
said  territories." 

False  and  absurd.  The  larger  majority  of  existing 
slaves  are  held  by  Christian  Filipinos.  Not  a  single 
official  in  the  territory  in  question  was  subject  to  appoint- 
ment or  removal  by  me.     Not  one  has  ever  owned  a  slave, 


z 

o 
a 


< 


3^ 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  723 

to  my  knowledge.     This  statement  illustrates  Quezon's 
disregard  for  the  truth. 

"It  will  not  be  out  of  place  to  indicate  here  the  reason  where- 
for  the  Philippine  Commission  has  passed  the  bill  alluded  to  by- 
Governor  Forbes.  The  members  of  the  PhiUppine  Commis- 
sion are  sternly  opposed  to  Philippine  independence.  More- 
over, they  are  opposed  to  allowing  the  Filipino  people  to  have  a 
legislature  wholly  constituted  of  natives  for  reasons  too  apparent 
to  be  mentioned.  One  of  their  everyday  arguments  is  'that 
the  premature  withdrawal  of  the  United  States  would  result 
in  the  establishment  of  an  oligarchy  composed  of  small  and 
favoured  ruling  classes  who  would  oppress  the  masses.' 

"The  passage  by  the  PhiUppine  Commission  of  the  anti- 
slavery  bill  placed  the  PhiUppine  Assembly  in  a  very  awkward 
position  (as  it  was  perhaps  intended  to  do) ;  to  concur  in  the 
passage  of  the  bill  was  to  admit  that  there  is  such  a  thing  as 
slavery  and  compulsory  service  in  the  Philippines,  which  is  not 
a  fact.  To  reject  the  bill  would  be  construed  as  incUcating  that 
the  members  of  the  Assembly  were  advocates  of  slavery.  The 
moral  courage  of  our  AssembljTuen  was  shown  when  they  took 
the  former  course,  that  of  truth.  The  members  of  the  Com- 
mission denounce  the  attitude  of  their  colegislators  as  proof  of 
lack  of  sjTnpathy  for  the  masses  of  the  people." 

False,  interesting,  and  important.  There  were  four 
rUipino  members  of  the  commission  at  this  time,  all  of 
whom  were  in  favour  of  ultimate  independence,  and  one 
of  whom  was  a  leading  advocate  of  immediate  independ- 
dence.  AU  voted  for  the  anti-slavery  laws  which  the 
assembly  refused  to  pass. 

The  Fihpinos  were  not  w^holly  to  blame  for  the  existence 
of  slavery  at  the  time  of  the  American  occupation,  but  the 
politicians  are  unable  to  grasp  the  fact  that  the  way  to 
deal  with  a  cancer  is  to  cut  it  out,  not  to  deny  its  exist- 
ence, and  by  their  refusal  to  legislate  have  now  made 
themselves  fully  responsible  for  the  continued  existence 
of  slavery  and  peonage  in  the  regularly  organized  pro\dnces 
of  the  Philippines.  The  FiUpino  newspapers  have  even 
gone  so  far  as  to  claim  that  there  could  be  no  slavery 
until  a  law  defined  it,  hence  to  enact  such  a  law  would 
create  slavery. 


724  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Resident  Commissioners  Earnshaw  and  Quezon  were 
prompt  and  emphatic  in  their  denials  of  the  existence  of 
slavery  when  Senator  Borah  read  in  the  Senate  Chamber 
my  letter  to  Dr.  Stillman.  Sr.  Earnshaw  did  not  know 
any  better.  Sr.  Quezon  claims  to  know  the  facts.  He 
himself  has  said  :  — 

"As  a  Filipino  familiar  with  the  facts  in  the  case,  I  do  not 
hesitate  to  qualify  the  letter  of  Secretary  Worcester  as  being 
at  once  false  and  slanderous.  It  is  false,  because  there  does 
not  exist  slavery  in  the  Philippines,  or,  at  least,  in  that  part  of 
the  country  subject  to  the  authority  of  the  Philippine  Assembly. 
It  is  slanderous  because  it  presents  the  Philippine  Assembly,  by 
innuendo,  if  not  openly,  as  a  body  which  countenances  slavery." 

He  was  unquestionably  familiar  with  the  facts,  or  many 
of  them.  Did  he  know  of  the  report  of  the  Filipino 
Governor  Dichoso,  describing  slavery  in  Isabela ;  of  that 
of  the  Filipino  Governor  Corrales,  describing  slavery  in 
Misamis ;  of  that  of  the  Filipino  Governor  Pimentel, 
describing  the  sale  of  Filipino  children  into  slavery  to 
Chinese ; '  of  that  of  the  American  Governor  George 
Curry,  describing  slavery  in  Isabela ;  ^  of  that  of  the 
American  Governor  Knight,  describing  slavery  in  Nueva 
Vizcaya ;  ^  of  that  of  the  Filipino  Governor  Sanz,"*  describ- 
ing the  enticing  from  their  homes  of  numerous  Filipino 
children  of  Romblon  and  the  disposal  of  them  as  peons 
or  slaves ;  of  the  reports  of  army,  constabulary  and 
police  officers ;  and  of  the  records  of  courts  on  slavery 
and  peonage?  Under  the  circumstances  explanation  or 
retraction  would  seem  to  be  in  order,  but  we  have  had 
from  him  only  two  more  puerile  quibbles.  In  a  published 
statement  he  has  said  that  slavery  does  not  exist  as  an 
institution  in  the  Philippines.  Wlio  ever  said  it  did  ?  It 
exists  there  as  a  demonstrated  fact,  and  it  ought  to 
be   made    a  crime.     In    another   pubUshed   statement,* 

1  "  Slavery  and  Peonage,"  pp.  14—15. 

2  Ihid.,  p.  21.  3  /biti.,  pp.  23-25.  *  Ibid.,  pp.  17-19. 

5  "The  Filipino  People,"  Vol.  II,  No.  1,  p.  15,  September,  1913. 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  725 

Quezon  says :  — 

"The  allegation  is  a  most  serious  one  and  we  think  it  desir- 
able to  meet  the  charge  directh'  \\ithout  hesitation  by  asserting 
that  it  is  unqualifiedly  false  and  that  the  accusations  made  in 
the  report  are  not  only  not  sustained,  but  cannot  be  sustained 
by  any  evidence  tending  to  show  that  such  a  'system'  exists." 

The  placing  in  quotation  marks  of  a  word  not  used  by 
me  fairly  illustrates  one  of  the  typical  methods  of  the 
FiUpino  politician,  and  for  this  reason  alone  I  refer  to  it 
and  to  the  following  statements  from  the  same  editorial, 
which  will  serve  a  similar  purpose  :  — 

"There  is  a  very  serious  aspect  of  this  report  of  Commissioner 
Worcester's.  If  the  system  he  speaks  of  exists  and  is  known  to 
him  —  indeed  has  been  known  to  him  for  a  long  time  —  why 
did  he  never  correct  it  ?  He  says  that  the  Philippine  Assembly 
has  blocked  action.  The  truth  is  that  he  and  his  fellows  had 
absolute  power  long  before  the  Philippine  Assembly  ever  came 
into  existence. 

"...  Mr.  Worcester  now  practically  admits  that  he  knew 
of  similar  conditions  elsewhere  than  among  the  Moros,  but 
that  he  never  had  anything  to  say  about  them  and  allowed  them 
to  go  on  until,  it  would  seem,  he  thought  that  he  could  make 
some  political  capital  out  of  a  controversy  with  the  Philippine 
Assembly  regarding  anti-slavery  legislation." 

It  did  not  lie  in  my  power  to  correct  it.  On  the  Philip- 
pine Commission  rests  the  full  responsibility  for  failure 
to  enact  anti-slavery  legislation  from  the  time  when  it 
first  learned  of  the  existence  of  tliis  crime  among  the 
Filipinos  until  it  passed  its  first  act  proliibiting  and  penahz- 
ing  it  on  April  29,  1909.  As  I  have  already  shown,  the 
matter  was  dealt  -Rdth,  in  1903,  by  directing  the  inclusion 
of  proper  legislation  in  a  proposed  new  Penal  Code  never 
completed.  Valuable  years  were  then  lost  in  testing  the 
adequacy  of  existing  law,  and  when  it  proved  inadequate 
further  time  was,  in  my  opinion,  needlessly  wasted  in 
drafting  the  necessary  act.  To  this  extent,  and  to  this 
extent    only,   the   commission    shares   responsibility  for 

VOL.  II Q 


726  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

existing  conditions.     Since  April  29,  1909,  that  respon- 
sibility has  rested  on  the  assembly  alone. 

I  have  given  two  of  the  reasons  for  its  refusal  to  act. 
There  is  another,  but  I  should  have  hesitated  to  give  it, 
as  it  would  have  been  hard  to  prove,  had  not  Speaker 
Osmena  furnished  the  necessary  evidence.  He  is  com- 
monly considered  to  be  the  leading  Fihpino  statesman  of 
the  day,  so  special  importance  attaches  to  his  utterances 
and  he,  if  any  one,  can  speak  with  authority  concerning 
the  attitude  of  the  assembly.  The  ominous  rumble  from 
the  United  States  which  reached  these  distant  shores  led 
him  to  give  out  a  newspaper  interview  explaining  the  in- 
activity of  that  body.     He  said  :  — 

"Never  has  Mr.  Worcester  attempted  to  furnish  us  with 
the  facts  which  he  has  placed  before  Congress.  The  bill  itself 
was  sent  to  the  Assembly  for  action  but  on  account  of  the 
unfriendliness  of  the  members  for  the  secretary  of  the  interior 
and  the  lack  of  sympathy  between  the  Assembly  and  him,  it 
was  not  given  the  consideration  that  it  would  have  received  if 
Mr.  Worcester  had  at  the  same  time  sent  us  the  facts  which 
he  has  sent  on  to  the  United  States. 

"IMr.  Worcester  as  the  secretary  of  the  interior,  and  not  as 
commissioner  was  in  duty  bound  to  furnish  the  Assembly  with 
the  facts  that  he  claims  to  have  found.  It  is  the  duty  of  all  of 
the  administrative  officers  of  the  government  to  enlighten  the 
legislature  and  to  furnish  it  ^\^th  information  gained  officially 
by  them.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  Mr.  Worcester  showed  that  he 
was  not  anxious  for  the  Assembly  to  consider  the  matter  by 
never  once  even  mentioning  the  subject  to  me,  as  is  customary 
with  other  matters  for  legislation  which  the  secretaries  have 
wished  taken  up  by  the  Assembly." 

If  this  were  not  so  pathetic  it  would  be  very,  very 
funny.  The  assembly  is  now  made  up  of  81  Filipino 
delegates  representing  34  provinces.  An  unfeehng  Ameri- 
can secretary  of  the  interior,  residing  at  Manila,  is 
charged  with  having  failed  to  inform  them  of  what  was 
going  on  under  their  very  noses.  All  information  deemed 
by  the  commission  necessary  to  justify  legislation  was 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  727 

transmitted  by  me  to  that  body  when  we  lost  our  slavery 
case  in  the  Supreme  Court. 

Never  dm'ing  all  the  years  that  this  matter  has  been 
pending  has  there  been  the  slightest  suggestion  that  the 
assembly  desired  to  receive  information  concerning  it. 
If  its  members  were  to  tell  the  half  of  what  they  them- 
selves know  about  slavery  and  peonage  the  facts  which  I 
have  been  able  to  gather  would  fade  into  insignificance, 
but  this  is  not  the  important  thing  in  this  interview. 

The  important  thing  is  that  dislike  of  the  person  who 
happened  to  introduce  in  the  commission  a  bill  prohibit- 
ing slavery  and  peonage  in  the  Philippines  is  considered 
a  valid  reason  for  the  refusal  of  the  assembly  to  consider 
it  during  four  successive  years. 

Shall  thousands  of  suffering  human  beings  be  allowed 
to  go  on  sweating  blood  for  such  a  reason  ? 

It  is  my  earnest  hope  that  as  a  result  of  the  publicity 
which  has  now  been  given  this  matter  there  will  be  speedy 
action,  either  by  the  Philippine  Legislature  or  by  the 
Congress  of  the  United  States. 

I  hope  that  every  right-minded  person  who  reads  these 
lines  will  insist  that  we  have  done  \Aath  concealment  of 
the  truth  and  suppression  of  the  facts ;  have  done  with 
boggling  over  hurting  the  feelings  of  the  Filipino  people ; 
and  will  demand  that  those  who  have  power  to  end  the 
disgraceful  conditions  which  now  exist  in  the  islands 
shall  promptly  and  effectively  exercise  it. 

The  native  press  has  naturally  bitterly  opposed  any 
investigation  of  the  truth  or  falsity  of  my  statements. 
The  following  extract  from  a  recent  editorial  is  typical  of 
its  attitude :  — 

"Slavery  is  not  slavery  unless  it  has  the  characteristics 
of  frequency  and  notoriousness.  Is  there  here,  or  has  there 
ever  been,  at  least  since  Christian  civilization  has  reigned, 
anything  that  resembles  it  ?  Where  is,  or  who  has  seen  pre- 
vious to  now,  such  characteristic  slavery?  Mr.  Worcester? 
Let  him  point   it  out,  let  him  give  a  detailed  account  of  it, 


728  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

let  him  define  it.  What  will  you  bet  that  ho  will  not  do  so? 
How  is  he  going  to  do  it  if  it  does  not  exist !  It  was  enough 
for  him  to  say:  "There  is  slavery  in  the  Philippines"  for 
men,  press,  government  officials  and  every  stripe  of  public 
elements  in  America  to  admit  the  possibility  of  the  affirmation 
and  even  an  investigation  of  its  likelihood  to  be  ordered. 

"That  is  simply  absurd.  The  mere  investigation  is  an  offense. 
The  proof  must  come  solely  from,  and  must  be  demanded  solely 
of,  him  who  imputes  the  charge.  If  he  does  not  demonstrate 
it,  if  he  does  not  make  it  patent,  further  investigation  is  not 
needed.  All  that  there  was  to  investigate  is  investigated:  it  is 
that  he  has  lied." 

Nevertheless  aroused  public  sentiment  in  the  United 
States  has  forced  action  here.  Governor-General  Harri- 
son called  the  matter  to  the  attention  of  the  assembly 
in  his  first  speech,  and  that  body  is  now  '  investigating  it. 
Unfortunately  there  is  grave  reason  to  doubt  its  good 
faith. 

It  allowed  me  to  leave  Manila  wdthout  the  faintest 
suggestion  that  it  desired  to  hear  me,  and  then  had  the 
governor-general  cable  me  an  invitation  to  testify  and 
to  assist  in  the  investigation  when  I  was  halfway  home 
and  could  not  possibly  return. 

Assemblj-man  Sandoval,  defending  in  the  public  press 
a  friend  charged  with  buying  a  Tagbanua  slave  who  had 
been  thrice  sold,  says  that  the  several  purchasers  did  not 
buy  the  unfortunate  man  but  bought  his  debt.  A  debt 
is  not  ordinarily  purchased  for  itself  and  it  is  admitted 
that  in  this  instance  the  man  went  with  it. 

The  Filipino  politicians  have  hardly  approached  this 
matter  in  a  judicial  spirit,  and  the  timid  and  the  politic, 
who  refused  to  give  me  the  information  they  might  have 
furnished,  had  some  reason  for  their  fears. 

The  removal  of  Judge  Ostrand  and  Director  of  Educa- 
tion Crone,  who  gave  valuable  testimony,  was  loudly  de- 
manded on  the  ground  that  they  were  "traducers  of  the 
Filipino  people." 

» November  1,  1913. 


a 


XI  a 


—    03 


a 
o 
ja 

03 

a 

03 


■a 


J3 


SLAVERY  AND  PEONAGE  729 

The  people  were  urged  to  "get  together"  and  disprove 
my  statements. 

I  have  been  denounced  as  an  enemy  of  "the  Filipino 
people." 

It  has  been  claimed  :  — 

That  my  charges  were  false,  and  without  foundation. 

That,  if  they  were  true,  I  myself  was  to  blame  for  the 
continued  existence  of  slavery. 

That  I  pubUshed  my  report  when  I  did  in  order  to  hold 
my  position. 

That  I  pubhshed  it  when  I  did  in  anger  because  I  had 
lost  my  position. 

That  I  had  been  removed  because  I  pubUshed  it. 

In  just  one  instance,  so  far  as  I  know,  has  a  Filipino 
considered  the  possibiUty  that  the  motive  which  actuated 
me  was  a  desire  to  help  many  thousands  of  unfortunate 
human  beings. 

Good  old  Arcadio  del  Rosario,  at  one  time  insurgent 
governor  of  Benguet,  who  has  a  kindly  feeUng  for  the 
wild-men  and  was  glad  to  note  certain  immediate  results 
which  followed  the  pubUcation  of  my  report,  has  said : 
"Would  that  Sr.  Osmefia'  might  have  had  the  glory 
of  doing  what  Sr.  Worcester  has  done." 

What  is  needed  to  end  slavery  and  peonage  is  con- 
gressional legislation  enforced  by  Americans. 

Without  hesitation  I  assert  that  their  existence  in  the 
Phihppine  Islands  is  the  greatest  single  problem  which 
there  confronts  the  government  of  the  United  States,  in 
its  effort  to  bviild  up  a  respectable  and  responsible  elec- 
torate and  establish  representative  government. 

Is  it  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the  hand  which  to-day 
crushes  down  the  Fihpino  servant,  the  FiUpino  labourer, 
and  the  wild-man  of  the  hills,  will  to-morrow  raise  them 
up  and  point  them  on  the  way  to  freedom  ? 

'  Speaker  of  the  Assembly. 


CHAPTER  XXVI 

Murder  as  a  Governmental  Agenct 

In  discussing  the  prevalence  of  slavery  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands,  Sr.  Manuel  Quezon  has  stated  that  it  has 
never  existed  there  as  an  institution.  This  is  true,  to 
the  extent  at  least  that  it  has  never  been  recognized  as 
a  legal  institution,  nor  directed  nor  authorized  by  order 
of  any  competent  governmental  authority.  The  same 
statements  cannot  be  truthfully  made  with  reference  to 
murder,  as  I  shall  conclusively  show  by  the  records  of 
the  Insurgent  government. 

I  wish  at  the  outset  to  draw  a  sharp  line  between  acts 
of  barbarity  or  ferocity,  coixmiitted  without  authority  by 
ignorant  and  irresponsible  Insurgent  officers  or  soldiers 
during  the  heat  of  battle  or  as  the  result  of  passions 
aroused  by  armed  strife,  and  those  which  I  now  discuss. 
The  former  must  be  regarded  as  breaches  of  military 
discipline.  Aguinaldo  sought  to  protect  his  government 
from  their  consequences  by  issuing  endless  orders  in  Span- 
ish strictly  forbidding  them. 

His  troops  were  ordered  again  and  again  to  respect 
American  prisoners  and  treat  them  with  humanity. 

So  far  as  concerns  his  own  people,  however,  he  dis- 
played a  very  different  spirit  from  the  outset. 

As  we  have  already  noted  there  exists  among  the  In- 
surgent records  a  document  written  in  Tagalog  by  him, 
and  therefore  obviously  not  intended  for  the  informa- 
tion of  Americans,  which  contains  the  following :  — 

"  Any  person  who  fights  for  his  country  has  absolute  power 
to  kill  any  one  not  friendly  to  our  cause." ' 

1  P.  I.  R.,  206.  1. 
730 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       731 

Aguinaldo  armed  not  only  ignorant  and  irresponsible 
people,  but  thieves,  outlaws  and  miu-derers,  and  turned 
them  loose  on  the  common  people  with  blanket  authority  to 
kill  whomsoever  they  would,  and  they  promptly  proceeded 
to  exercise  it.  "Dukut"^  stretched  out  its  bloody  hand 
even  in  Manila,  mider  the  very  eye  of  American  officers, 
and  as  often  as  not  struck  down  wholly  innocent  victims. 

Aguinaldo  was  not  alone  in  his  views  on  the  subject  of 
murder.  Felipe  Agoncillo,  long  secretary  of  the  Hong- 
kong junta,  and  official  representative  of  the  Insurgent 
govermnent  in  Europe  and  the  United  States,  wrote 
him  on  August  1,  1898,  from  Hongkong,  suggesting  that 
he  kill  the  Spanish  prisoners  "if  the  country  requires" 
that  this  be  done,  and  adding,  "if  you  deem  it  wise  you 
should  secretly  issue  an  order  to  kill  the  friars  that  they 
may  capture."  - 

Obviously  Aguinaldo  did  not  deem  it  wise  to  order  the 
murder  of  the  Spanish  prisoners  as  a  whole,  nor  that  of 
the  friars  as  a  whole. 

The  following  letter,  marked  "confidential,"  addressed 
to  liis  cousin  Baldomero  Aguinaldo,  for  a  tune  the  Insur- 
gent secretary  of  war,  tells  a  significant  tale  of  the  course 
finally  decided  upon  :  — 

"Filipino  Republic, 
"  Office  of  the  Military  Governor, 
"  Malolos,  February  17,  1S99. 
"  Senor  Secretary  of  War  :  — 

"Referring  to  your  note  in  regard  to  an  unhealthy  town 
or  place  in  the  pro\ance  of  Nueva  Ecija  fit  for  the  concentra- 
tion there  of  the  friars ;  beside  the  town  of  Bongabong  there  is 

'  Dukut  means  secret  assassination. 

-  "I  was  informed  that  some  Spanish  prisoners  have  succeeded  in 
escaping.  It  is  necessary  to  redouble  vigilance  upon  them,  especially 
upon  the  officers  of  rank  and  upon  the  friars,  because  said  prisoners 
might  be  of  great  use  to  us  later  on.  They  should,  however,  be  well 
treated,  but  without  giving  them  liberty,  and  confined  within  prison 
walls.  If  the  country  requires  that  they  should  be  killed,  you  should 
do  so.  If  you  deem  it  wise,  you  should  secretly  issue  an  order  to  kill 
the  friars  that  they  may  capture.  They  should  be  frightened."  — 
P.  I.  R.,  471.  4. 


732  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

no  good  place  except  the  town  of  La  Paz  in  the  province  of 
Tarlac,  because,  according  to  my  observation,  even  the  per- 
sons born  there  are  attacked  by  malarial  fever  and  ague  and  if 
they  are  strangers  very  few  will  escape  death. 
"Your  always  faithful  subordinate, 

(Signed)    "  Isidoro   Torres. 
"  17th  February,  1899."  ' 

Evidently  General  Torres'  recommendation  was  favour- 
ably acted  upon,  for  among  the  papers  of  the  Insurgent 
government  is  a  memorandum,' apparently  in  Aguinaldo's 
handwriting,  stating  that  — ■ 

"there  were  297  Spanish  friars  held  prisoners  in  Luzon,  and 
that  on  February  17,  1899,  those  in  Nueva  Ecija,  Tarlac,  and 
Pampanga,  111  in  all,  had  been  ordered  by  him  to  be  concen- 
trated in  La  Paz"  ! 

In  many  mstances  other  prisoners  were  murdered  out- 
right. This  hard  fate  befell  three  Spaniards,  of  whom 
one  was  a  friar,  and  two  were  shipwrecked  Englishmen, 
who  were  butchered  in  Zambales  in  December,  1899,  upon 
the  approach  of  the  American  troops,  apparently  by  the 
order  of  the  governor,  Vicente  Camara.^ 

On  Febioiary  15,  1900,  an  expedition  under  the  inune- 
diate  command  of  Brigadier-General  J.  M.  Bell  sailed 
from  Manila  under  the  personal  supervision  of  Major- 
General  Bates.  This  was  composed  of  troops  detailed 
to  take  possession  of  North  and  South  Camarines  and 
Albay,  to  which  provinces  Insurgent  troops,  having  many 
Spanish  prisoners  in  their  possession,  had  been  forced 
to  retire  as  a  result  of  the  operations  in  Tayabas  Prov- 
ince. In  compliance  with  these  instructions  the  town  of 
Daet  was  occupied  after  some  resistance  and  the  Insur- 
gents in  that  quarter  were  driven  to  the  northeast,  tak- 
ing with  them  a  number  of  Spanish  prisoners.  A  large 
proportion  of  these  were  murdered  by  conmiand  of  the 
officer  in  charge  of  the  guerilla  band  guarding  them, 
probably  because  he  was  not  able  to  force  them  to  move 
as  rapidly  as  his  own  men. 

»  Taylor,  Ex.  833.     Spanish  A.  L.  S.  32-2.  ^  Taylor,  46  A  J. 

=  Ibid.,  15  HS. 


MUROER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       733 

On  November  15, 1900,  Simeon  Villa,  of  evil  fame,  issued 
a  circular  letter'  to  chiefs  of  guerillas  in  the  Cagayan  val- 
ley, recommending  that  they  all ' '  learn  the  verb  '  Dukutar '  ^ 
so  as  to  put  it  into  immediate  effect,"  and  adding  "it  is 
the  most  efficacious  specific  against  every  kind  of  evil-doer, 
and  most  salutary  for  our  country."  This,  too,  under  the 
"Filipino  RepubUc"  before  the  outbreak  of  war  with  the 
United  States,  and  at  a  time  when  we  are  assured  that 
"profoiuid  peace  and  tranquilhty  "  prevailed  in  this  region. 

This  villanous  order  was  approved  and  made  general 
in  its  application  by  Aguinaldo  himself,  on  November  15, 
1900.3 

Aguinaldo's  orders  were  not  always  couched  in  such 
general  tenns  as  the  one  above  quoted.  Among  the 
most  interesting  of  the  captured  Insurgent  documents 
is  the  following  :  — 

"Our  Honourable  President:  We,  the  signers,  who  sub- 
scribe the  declaration  appended ;  by  these  presents  protest 
against  the  American  proclamation ;  we  recognize  no  authority 
but  that  of  God  and  the  Revolutionary  Government,  and  we  offer 
our  Hves  and  property  for  the  independence  of  our  country. 

"Manila,  San  Miguel,  January  12,  1899. 

"  Feliciano  Cruz 
"Severino  Quitiongco." 
(25  signatures  follow.) 

(On  the  Ixick  is  written  in  the  handwriting  of  E.  Aguinaldo) : 

"  Leberino  Kitionko : 

"Feliciano  de  la  Cruz  :  Commissioned  to  kill  General  Otis."  * 

1  "  To  Chiefs  of  the  Phiuppine  Guerillas  : 

"  The  undersigned,  Chief  of  the  General  Staff  in  the  office  of  the 
Captain  General,  recommends  that  all  chiefs  of  guerillas,  provided 
that,  in  their  judgment,  there  is  no  obstacle  in  the  way,  should  kindly 
order  their  suljordinates,  down  to  the  lowest,  to  learn  the  verb  '  Duku- 
tar,' so  as  to  put  it  immediately  in  practice. 

"  It  is  the  most  efficacious  specific  against  every  kind  of  e\'il-doer, 
and  most  salutary  for  our  country.  "  Simeon  S.  Villa. 

"  Kagayan  Valley,  November  15,  1900.'' 

Extract  from  letter-sent  book  in  Spanish  of  E.  Aguinaldo,  captured 
with  him.  —  P.  I.  R.,  368-3. 

^  Dukulnr  means  to  assassinate.  '  P-  I.  R.,  1281  and  368.  3. 

'  P,  I.  R.,  1199-1, 


734  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

The  difference  in  the  spelhng  of  the  name  Severino 
Quitiongco  is  doubtless  due  to  the  fact  that  Aguinaldo 
wrote  it  down  as  it  sounded  to  him. 

When  the  Insurgent  government  began  to  be  pinched  for 
funds,  faihire  to  pay  taxes  became,  in  many  cases,  suffi- 
cient ground  for  murdering  the  delinquent. 

The  method  of  procedure  is  set  forth  in  the  testimony 
of  a  tax  collector,  published  in  General  Orders,  No.  259, 
1901,  Division  of  the  PhiUppines  :  — 

"I  carried  a  letter  of  authorization  to  act  as  special  agent, 
which  means  authority  to  commit  murder.  Each  time  a 
murder  was  ordered  a  letter  was  sent  to  one  of  four  men  (named 
above)  by  one  of  the  chiefs  (naming  them).  Afterward  the 
letter  was  taken  up  and  burned.  If  a  man  did  not  pay  his 
contributions  to  the  insurgent  collector  he  was  ordered  to  be 
killed." 

The  chief  cause  for  murder  was  friendliness  toward  the 
Americans.  As  time  passed  and  the  conunon  people 
had  an  opportunity  to  contrast  the  brutality  of  their 
own  soldiers  with  the  kindly  treatment  usually  accorded 
them  by  the  American  troops,  they  welcomed  the  latter. 
Weary  of  danger  to  life  and  property,  the  better  men  in 
the  towns  became  very  desirous  to  see  the  reestablish- 
ment  of  local  governments,  and  ready  to  assist  in  the 
work.  The  answer  of  the  Insurgent  leaders  took  the 
form  of  wholesale  orders  for  the  murder  or  assassination 
of  all  persons  friendly  to  the  Americans.  I  shall  cite 
enough  such  orders  to  show  that  this  policy  was  duly 
provided  for  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the 
Insurgent  territory. 

Many  of  the  Visayans  were  friendly  toward  the  Ameri- 
cans from  the  outset.  On  March  24,  1900,  "General 
in  Chief"  Maxilom,  of  Cebii,  issued  an  order  providing 
for  the  execution,  after  a  most  summary  trial,  of  the 
presidentes  of  all  towns  which  subscribed  to  and  recog- 
nized American  sovereignty.  This  rule  was  to  apply  to 
Filipino   citizens,   including  even   the   wealthy,   a  most 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY      735 

unusual  arrangement!  Failure  to  be  "subject  to  the 
will  of  the  Honourable  President  Senor  Emilio  Aguinaldo" 
spelled  death." 

Outside  the  Cebii  towns  occupied  by  the  Americans  the 
guerillas  commanded  by  Maxilom  were  able  to  collect 
tribute  by  the  employment  of  such  methods  as  were  pro- 
vided for  on  June  22,  1900,  by  Maxilom's  order  fixing 
the  duties  of  the  magdudukuts,  or  secret  avengers,  who 
were  empowered  to  ' '  execute  without  remorse  all  notorious 
traitors."  ^  This  was,  in  practice,  a  general  warrant  to 
commit  murder. 

Pursuant  to  these  instructions  Pablo  IMejia,  a  Filipino 
of  high  character  and  conspicuous  ability,  was  assassi- 
nated in  a  street  of  Cebu  in  August,  1899.  The  Visay- 
ans  had  reason  to  be  proud  of  him  and  to  execrate  his 
assassins. 

On  January  31,  1900,  Pio  Claveria,  delegate  to  the  Mili- 
tary Govermnent  of  Iloilo  province,  Panay  Island,  wrote 

1  "  1.  The  presidentes  of  all  towns  who  subscribe  to  and  recognize 
American  sovereignty,  shall  be  pursued  by  aU  the  re^'olutionists  with- 
out mercy  and  when  captured  shall  be  sent  to  these  Headquarters  for 
a  most  summary  trial  and  execution  as  traitors  to  the  country. 

"  2.  All  Filipino  citizens,  including  the  wealthy,  of  the  towns,  are 
subject  to  the  preceding  regulation. 

"  3.  It  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  revolutionary  armies  with  regard  to 
the  towns  which  shall  recognize  or  intend  to  recognize  such  sovereignty, 
to  destroy  the  town  or  towns  and  without  any  consideration  whatso- 
ever to  kill  all  males,  even  the  poorest,  and  set  fire  to  all  the  houses, 
without  respecting  any  property  excepting  that  of  foreigners.  And 
in  order  that  hereafter  such  misfortunes  may  not  occur,  as  chief  of 
this  province,  I  warn  all  the  presidentes  and  wealthy  people  of  each 
town  to  help  us  as  Filipinos  as  we  are  your  brothers  fighting  here  in 
the  field  to  give  liberty  to  our  mother  country  and  woe  to  the  traitor 
who  falls  into  the  hands  of  this  revolutionary  government,  which  will 
strictly  carry  out  all  the  prescriptions  above-mentioned. 

"  As  the  government  which  the  invaders  are  endeavoring  to  establish 
is  always  provisional,  if  all  the  inhabitants  of  this  province  are  true 
FDipinos,  they  can  easily  and  simply  answer  that  we  are  subject  to  the 
will  of  the  Honorable  President  Senor  Emilio  Aguinaldo,  whom  we 
follow  and  recognize  in  this  new  born  Republic  as  the  President  of  the 
Nation." 

=  Taylor,  80  HS. 


736  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

the  presidente  of  Tigbauan,  that  if  it  was  true  that  he  and 
various  other  residents  of  that  town  had  taken  an  oath 
recognizing  American  sovereignty  and  did  not  retract  it 
the  town  would  be  razed  to  the  ground,  and  they  would 
be  "deserving  of  the  terrible  penalties  prescribed  by  the 
laws  of  the  revolution  !  "  ' 

On  April  3,  1900,  General  Leandro  Fullon,  who  signed 
himself  "Political  and  Military  Governor"  of  Antique, 
and  was  one  of  Aguinaldo's  emissaries,  wrote  a  circular 
letter,  to  be  sent  "by  the  fastest  carriers  from  one  town 
to  the  other,"  imposing  sentence  of  death  and  confisca- 
tion of  property  on  people  who  had  taken  out  certificates 
of  citizenship  issued  by  the  Americans,  together  with 
annihilation  of  their  towns.^ 

1  "  January,    1900. 
"To  the  Local  Presidente,  Tigbauan  (Iloilo). 

"  It  is  with  profound  regret  that  1  have  to  state  to  you  that  in  accord- 
ance with  reliable  information  this  military  delegation  has  heard  that 
you  and  various  residents  of  that  town  have  as  electors  already  taken 
an  oath  recognizing  the  American  sovereignty.  If  this  news  is  true, 
you  still  have  time  to  retract  the  oath,  as  otherwise  we  will  raze  that 
town  to  the  gi-ound  without  any  hesitation  whatever,  and  you  and 
your  companions  who  have  taken  the  oath  shall  be  considered  as  pro- 
scribed, and  consequently  deserving  of  the  terrible  penalties  prescribed 
by  the  laws  of  the  revolution.  This  is  not  a  tlu-eat :  it  is  loyal  and 
sincere  advice  for  yoiu-  own  good  and  that  of  the  town  in  general. 

"  May  God  keep  you  many  years. 

"  Pig  Claveria, 
"  Delegate  of  the  Military  Government. 
"31st,  1900."  —P.  I.  R.,  1054-8. 

2  "April  3,  1900. 
"  To  the  local  chiefs  mentioned  in  the  margin. 

"  I  have  heard  with  great  sorrow  that  some  of  the  towns  of  the 
southern  district  of  this  province  have  taken  out  the  certificates  of 
citizenship  issued  by  the  North  American  enemy,  and  have  also  com- 
plied with  all  the  orders  issued  by  them ;  this  is  exactly  opposed  to 
the  conduct  of  the  northern  district  of  the  province  and  shows  little 
love  for  the  country  and  an  implied  assent  to  the  Government  estab- 
lished by  them,  for  which  reason  I  see  myself  obliged  to  impose  the 
severest  punishment  which  is  a  sentence  of  death  and  confiscation  of 
property  of  all  those  who  shall  submit  to  said  Government,  from  the 
Chief  and  his  local  Cabinet  to  the  lowest  citizen,  and  annihilating  their 
towns.  For  this  purpose  I  have  ordered  the  Commanders  of  Zones 
to  watch  in  their  respective  districts  the  towns  which  may  show  weak- 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       737 

On  July  11,  1900,  Fullon  issued  a  more  sweeping  order, 
containing  the  following  provisions  :  — 

"1.  Any  meeting  or  assembly  of  a  popular  character, 
held  at  the  instance  of  the  Officers  of  the  United  States,  for  the 
purpose  of  recognizing  the  lil)erty  and  independence  of  the 
towns  of  this  province,  is  absohitely  forbidden. 

"2.  The  person  arranging  such  meeting  shall  be  shot  at 
once  without  trial  or  court  martial,  unless  forced  to  do  so  by 
majeure. 

"3.  Any  Filipino  filling  any  office  in  the  name  of  the 
United  States  shall  be  considered  a  traitor  to  his  country,  and 
in  addition  to  the  penalties  imposed  by  the  Penal  Code  of 
Spain,  provisionally  in  force,  all  his  property  shall  be  confis- 
cated, and  if  this  should  not  be  possible,  the  authorities  of  the 
Philippine  Republic  shall  endeavour  to  .  .  ."  (remainder  of 
sentence  unintelligible).' 

In  Samar  General  Vicente  Lucban  ordered,  on  Feb- 
ruary 1,  1901,  that  persons  who  collected  food  for  the 
enemy  be  killed,  as  well  as  those  who  "finding  themselves 
in  our  camp  pass  to  the  enemy  without  previous  pennis- 
sion  from  this  government."  - 

In  Leyte,  Honesto  Ruiz  warned  all  his  "soldiers  and 
bolo-men  that  whenever  a  real  Americanista,  like  the 
police  and  volunteers,  is  caught  he  will  be  killed."  On 
August  11,  1900,  he  reported  to  General  Moxica  that  "the 
result  is  that  every  day  they  are  killing  traitors  to  our 
country."  ^ 

The  following  is  a  sample  order  for  the  assassination 
of  an  obnoxious  individual :  — 

ness  before  said  Government,  and  to  impose  the  punishment  which  I 
have  mentioned  above.  This  circular  is  to  be  published  three  consecu- 
tive nights  for  general  information  of  all,  a  report  that  this  has  been 
done  being  made  to  these  Headquarters.  Send  it  by  the  fastest 
cowiers  from  one  town  to  the  other,  the  last  one  returning  it  with  the 
endorsements  of  the  preceding  ones. 

"  Headquarters  of  Tierra  Alta,  April  3,  1900. 

"  Leandro  Fullon, 
"  General  and  P.  M.  Governor." 
—  P.  I.  R.,  1047.  2. 
>  P.  I.  R.,  1047.  2.  =  lUd.,  824.  1.  '  Ihid.,  1204.  3 


738  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

"  October  4,  1900. 
"  Confidential. 
"To  the  Local  Chiefs  of  Sogod,  Kabalisln,  Anajauan,  Hinun- 
dayan,  and  Hinunangan  (Leyte) : 
"  Immediately  upon  the  appearance  in  the  town  under  your 
jurisdiction  of  the  traitor  to  the  Mother  Country,  Severino 
Komandao,  you  will  secure  his  person  and  send  him  to  these 
headquarters  under  the  proper  guard ;  or  if  that  person  should 
come  into  the  town  followed  by  an  American  force,  j'ou  shall  try 
to  have  him  Idlled  by  treachery  (traidoramente),  by  'Dukut' 
(assassination),  for  this  is  what  a  Filipino  deserves  who  does 
not  know  how  to  respect  his  own  land  and  proceeds  to  injure 
the  beautiful  ideal  that  we  have  in  view. 

"  Return  the  present  communication,  treating  it  as  confiden- 
tial.    Health  and  fraternity. 
"  Maninging,  October  4,  1900. 

"M.  Pacheco, 

"  Military  Commander." 
"  The  Military  Commander  : 

"  The  undersigned,  Local  Chief,  notes  the  orders  contained 
in  the  present  circular  and  will  strictly  comply  therewith. 
"  KabaUdn,  October  6,  1900. 

"B.  Veloso, 
"  Local  Chief.'"- 

In  Negros,  the  Tagalogs  long  failed  to  effect  a  lodge- 
ment. Ultimately,  however,  they  managed  to  stir  up 
trouble,  and  to  secure  the  help  of  "Pope"  Isio,  a  noted 
outlaw.     On  May  19,  1900,  he  suggested  the  advisabihty  t 

of  punishing  "by  decapitation  all  those  who  go  with  the  ■' 

Americans"  and  ordered  that  "if  it  should  appear  that 
they  are  real  spies  of  the  enemy  they  must  be  beheaded  i 

immediately  without  any  pretext  whatsoever  against 
it."  To  be  considered  a  "real  spy,"  it  was  necessary 
only  to  be  seen  talking  to  Americans. 

The  letter  from  which  I  quote  w^as  addressed  to  Senor 
Rufo  Oyos,  General  of  Operations.^ 

1  P.  I.  R.,  981.  5. 

2  "You  and  Captain  Antonio  must  take  the  field  this  week  without 
any  pretext  whatsoever,  and  must  follow  out  my  instructions  very 
carefully.  We  have  had  patience  enough,  and  now  it  becomes  neces- 
sary for  us  to  assert  our  authority. 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       739 

Evidently  he  obeyed  orders,  for  he  was  still  alive  in 
November,  1901,  at  which  time  "Papa"  Isio  wrote  him 
again,  directing  that  there  be  an  uprising  of  all  the  towns 
on  December  20. 

Towns  which  did  not  rise  on  the  appointed  day  were  to 
be  "reduced  to  ashes  and  all  their  inhabitants  killed,  men, 
women,  children  and  old  people."  Any  presidente  who 
had  not  collected  the  taxes  of  his  town  before  the  arrival 
of  Isio  was  to  be  "hung  without  any  hesitation  what- 
ever." ' 

"It  is  advisable  to  punish  by  decapitation  all  those  who  go  with 
the  Americans ;  but  it  is  necessary  first  to  ascertain  the  existence  of 
the  crime,  and  if  it  should  appear  that  they  are  real  spies  of  the  enemy, 
they  must  he  beheaded  immediately  without  any  pretext  whatsoever 
against  it  (being  accepted). 

"You,  Captain  Antonio  and  Judge  Cornello  must  perfectly  under- 
stand what  this  order  says :  when  the  wealthy  are  Americanistas, 
you  must  seize  all  their  money,  clothing  and  other  property  belonging 
to  them,  immediately  making  an  inventory  of  the  property  seized, 
and  you  may  remain  in  the  place  where  the  seizure  is  made  as  long  as 
may  be  necessary  to  make  said  inventory,  even  though  a  great  amount 
is  spent  for  maintenance. 

"Know  furthermore  that  if  the  soldiers  take  any  of  the  property 
seized,  they  will  speedily  be  put  to  death  and  will  surely  go  to  heU ; 
therefore  when  it  becomes  necessary  to  enter  a  town  to  make  a  seizxu-e, 
you  must  direct  the  soldiers  not  to  touch  the  goods  seized,  even  the 
most  insignificant,  in  order  to  avoid  consequence  of  character. 

"I  have  heard,  Rufo,  that  Judge  Cornello  is  opposed  to  your  father- 
in-law,  and  I  want  you  to  know  that  Judge  Cornello  is  of  my  blood ; 
therefore,  tell  your  father-in-law  to  be  very  careful  because  he  will 
have  me  to  treat  with  shortly,  and  will  be  made  to  pay  for  those  threats 
which  he  is  making  against  the  people  without  good  cause. 

"You  will  pubhsh  this  order  in  the  town  haU,  in  order  that  the  evil- 
minded  may  see  it. 

"You,  Captain  Antonio  and  Judge  Cornello,  who  are  the  three 
comrades  who  are  to  take  the  field,  wiU  acquire  some  happiness  if  you 
comply  with  this  order. 

"  Health  and  Fraternity. 

"  DiONisio  Papa. 
"Calibon,  May  19,  1900."  —P.  I.  R.,  970.  4. 

1  "  Make  it  evident  in  that  circular  that  the  towns  which  do  not  rise 
up  in  arms  on  the  day  fixed,  shall  be  reduced  to  ashes  and  aU  their 
inhabitants  killed,  men  and  women,  children  and  old  people. 

"The  circular  is  to  emanate  from  me,  and  you  will  sign  it  only  by 
my  order. 


740  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

Obviously  Isio's  order  was  not  without  effect,  for  we 
learn  that  sometime  during  August,  1900,  a  man  had 
just  left  the  camp  "with  the  head  of  the  infamous  Juan 
Carballo  to  hang  it  in  a  public  place  with  a  label  saying 
'Juan  Carballo,  a  man  pernicious  to  the  revolution.  May 
he  rest  in  peace.'"  ' 

Isio's  agents  collected  blackmail  according  to  a  regular 
tariff,  based  roughly  on  the  value  of  estates,  threatening 
that  those  who  did  not  pay  up  would  be  regarded  as  spies 
of  the  heretics.- 

And  now  let  us  briefly  review  conditions  in  Luzon. 
Here  many  of  the  common  people  were  at  first  hostile 
to  the  Americans,  but  flesh  and  blood  could  not  endure 
what  they  had  to  suffer  at  the  hands  of  vicious  Insurgent 
officers  and  ignorant  soldiers^  and  ultimately,  having 
learned  by  experience  that  Americans  were  not  the  incar- 
nate fiends  which  they  had  been  led  to  expect  to  find 
them,  they  began  to  turn  to  them  for  help.  And  the 
answer  of  the  Insurgent  leaders  was  everywhere  the 
same,  —  death.  On  March  20,  1900,  Tinio  ordered  the 
killing  of  all  officials  who  did  not  report  to  the  nearest 
guerilla  commander  the  movements  and  plans  of  the 
American  troops.* 

"  Communicate  also  to  the  presidents  of  Cagayan  and  other  towns 
that  they  collect  the  taxes  of  their  respective  towns,  as  soon  as  possible ; 
and  a  president  who  shall  not  have  collected  the  taxes  on  my  arrival 
in  the  respective  town,  shaU  be  hung  without  any  hesitation  what- 
soever. 

"  I  desire  that  the  Presidents  meet  there  soon  and  await  my  arrival." 

—  P.  I.  R.,  970.5. 

1  P.  I.  R.,  1102.  7.  2  Ibid.,  970.  11. 

'  "  March  20,  1900. 
"Manuel  Tinio  y  Bubdloc, 

"  Brigadier  General  and  Commander  in  Chief  of  operations  in  the 
region  of  Ilocos. 

"  Considering  that  a  sufficient  time  has  passed  and  various  means  of 
having  been  employed  as  benignant  as  humanity  counsels,  to  inculcate 
in  the  minds  of  many  misguided  Filipinos  the  idea  of  the  country  and 
to  check  in  the  beginning  those  unworthy  acts  which  many  of  them 
commit,  and  which  not  only  redound  to  the  prejudice  of  the  troops 
but  also  to  the  cause  they  defend,  and  having  observed  that  such  ac- 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       741 

It  has  been  claimed  that  there  was  no  opposition  to 
the  Katipunan  Society,  and  that  the  FiHpinos  everywhere 
joined  it  gladly.  This  was  not  the  case.  At  different 
times  there  were  a  number  of  similar  organizations  opposed 
to  it,  and  most  important  of  these  was  the  "Guards  of 
Honour."  '  Its  members  were  ruthlessly  murdered.  On 
April  18,  1900,  a  guerilla  chief  m  Union  Province  found  it 
necessary  to  order  that  all  towns  in  which  members  of 
the  "Guards  of  Honour"  lived  should  be  burned  with  the 
property  of  the  members  of  that  association ;  that  their 
fathers,  mothers,  wives  and  sons  should  be  beheaded, 
while  the  men  themselves  should  receive  that  punishment 
or  be  shot.  All  grown  men  in  every  town,  and  the 
Sandatahan,  were  to  proceed  immediately  to  aid  in  the 
attack  upon  the  Americans  and  Guards  of  Honour  under 
pain  of  being  shot  or  beheaded.^ 

tion  does  not  produce  any  favourable  result  on  this  date,  in  accordance 
with  the  powers  vested  in  me,  I  have  deemed  proper  to  issue  the  fol- 
lowing :  — 

"  PROCLAMATION 

"  First  and  last  article.  The  following  shall  be  tried  at  a  most  sum- 
mary trial,  and  be  sentenced  to  death  : 

"  1.  AH  local  presidentes  and  other  civil  authorities,  of  the  towns  as 
well  as  of  the  barrios,  raneherias  and  sitios  of  their  respective  districts, 
who  as  soon  as  they  find  out  any  plan,  direction  of  the  movement  or 
number  of  the  enemy  shall  not  give  notice  thereof  to  the  nearest  camp. 

"  2.  Those  who  give  information  to  the  enemy  of  the  location  of  the 
camp,  stopping  places,  movements  and  direction  of  the  revolutionists, 
whatever  be  the  age  or  sex  of  the  former. 

"  3.  Those  who  voluntarily  offer  to  serve  the  enemy  as  guides,  ex- 
cepting if  it  be  with  the  purpose  of  misleading  them  from  the  right 
road,  and 

"  4.  Those  who,  of  their  own  free  will  or  othensase,  capture  revo- 
lutionary soldiers  who  are  alone,  or  who  should  intimidate  them  into 
surrendering  to  the  enemy. 

"  Issued  at  General  Headquarters  on  March  20,"  1900. 

(Signed)     "  Manuel  Tinio." 

1  Guardias  de  Honor.  ~~  ^-  ^-  ^•'  353.  8. 

*  "  So  then  dear  brothers,  be  like  those  of  Bacnotan  who  have  not 
allowed  their  honour  to  be  sullied,  for  when  they  saw  the  Guards  of 
Honour  enter  their  town  they  drove  them  off  at  once  with  blows  [of 
bolos  ?  —  Tr.]  and  cudgels  and  to  the  end  that  you  may  not  have  cause 

VOL.   II  —  B 


742  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

In  July,  1900,  General  J.  Alejandrino  ordered  :  — 

"  1st.  That  the  Commanders  of  Columns  proclaim  as 
traitors  all  those  in  their  respective  Zones  who  in  obedience 
to  personal  interests  or  from  weakness  under  pressure  of  the 
enemy,  accept  civil  positions  and  they  shall  be  treated  as  such 
when  they  fall  into  our  hands. 

"2nd.  The  commanding  officers  of  columns  will  concen- 
trate their  forces  so  as  to  fall  upon  the  to\vns  where  exist  indi- 
viduals who  favour  the  formation  of  such  unpopular  and 
despotic  Governments  and  will  use  every  means  to  arrest 
the  said  traitors."  ' 

Nowhere  is  the  policy  which  was  being  carried  out  set 
forth  with  more  brutal  frankness  than  in  the  following 
letter :  — 

"  August  3,  1900. 
"This   letter  is  folded  in   envelope   shape  and  addressed: 
Sr.  Teodoro  Sandico,  Colonel,  1st  Military  Chief  of  Staff  in 
Santo  Domingo. 

"My  Respected  Chief  and  Dear  Brother:  I  have  re- 
ceived your  respected  order,  regarding  the  organization  of  the 

to  repent  of  what  without  doubt  I  shall  be  obliged  to  do,  comply  with 
this  order,  listen  to  the  following : 

"First.  Whenever  the  Presidente  of  the  town,  Cabezas  and  Cabezil- 
las  of  barrios  shall  have  knowledge  of  the  presence  in  their  barrios  of 
Guards  of  Honour,  be  they  many  or  few,  and  do  not  cause  their  disap- 
pearance or  death,  they  will  be  immediately  shot  or  beheaded. 

"Second.  Every  barrio  or  residence  of  the  Guards  of  Honour  where 
they  are  going  about  persuading  the  inhabitants  to  follow  them  in 
their  noxious  work  —  that  we  may  be  slaves  forever  — ■  will  be  burned 
and  all  their  property  together  with  their  houses ;  and  their  sons,  their 
fathers,  mothers  and  their  wives  will  be  shot  or  beheaded  to  pay  for 
their  treason. 

"  Third  and  last.  All  the  grown  men  in  the  barrios,  territorial  mili- 
tiamen or  those  called  'sandatahan'  (bolomen),  corporals,  sergeants 
and  privates,  and  everybody  who  is  a  Filipino  will  go  immediately 
to  help  in  the  fight  against  the  Guards  of  Honour  and  our  enemy,  the 
Americans  ;  and  those  who  pay  no  heed  to  this  or  hide  themselves  wiU 
incur  the  penalty  of  being  shot  or  beheaded. 

"This  proclamation  ^-111  be  read  in  the  barrios  and  will  be  passed 
from  hand  to  hand  so  that  it  may  be  copied  to  the  end  tnat  nobody 
may  have  an  excuse  when  the  time  comes  to  put  into  execution  what 
has  been  set  forth."  —  P.  I.  R.,  168.  9. 

1  Taylor,  Exhibit  1083. 


a 

K 

a 

« 
o 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       743 

Committee  in  the  towns  of  Zaragosa,  Aliaga,  and  Licab ;  (Nueva 
Ecija)  from  the  movements  and  actions  of  these  towns,  I 
don't  believe  it  possible  to  organize  immediately.  Before  we 
can,  it  will  be  necessary  that  four  or  five  lives  be  taken  in  each 
town.  I  beheve  that  what  ought  to  be  done  to  those  towns  is 
to  make  a  new  conquest  of  them,  especially  the  town  of  San 
Juan  de  Guimba ;  it  is  difficult  there  to  set  straight  the  Tagd,- 
logs  and  Ilocanos  of  importance,  as  they  are  badly  inclined 
and  they  care  to  do  nothing  but  pervert  our  soldiers. 

"  This  is  what  I  am  able  to  inform  you,  in  fulfilment  of  the 
respected  order  of  the  Chief. 

"God  guard  you  many  years. 

"San  Cristobal,  August  3,  1900. 

(Signed)     "C.  Gonzales.'" 

The  organization  of  municipal  governments  by  the 
Philippine  Conmiission,  in  towns  north  of  Manila,  espe- 
cially aroused  the  ire  of  Insurgent  leaders,  one  of  whom 
issued  an  order  declaring  traitors  all  persons  who  accepted 
municipal  office  under  the  Americans.^ 

'  P.  I.  R.,  509.  2. 

2  "September  11,  1900. 

"To  the  local  Presidents  of  Malolos,  Bulacan,  Guigninto,  Bigaa, 
Booaue,  Marilao,  Meyauayan,  Polo,  Obando,  Santa  Maria,  San  Jose, 
Angat,  Norzagaray,  Bustos,  San  Rafael,  Baliuag,  Pulilan,  Quingua, 
Santa  Isabel,  Barasoain,  Paombong,  Hagonoy,  Calumpit,  and  the 
military  commanders  Pablo  Tecson,  Bonifacio  Morales,  Maximo  An- 
geles and  Colonel  Simon  Tecson  Libuano,  Colonel  Rosendo  Simon, 
and  also  Major  Dongon. 

"  CiRCtlLAK 

"As  the  American  Civil  Commission  has  taken  charge  of  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  archipelago  from  the  first  of  the  present  month  and 
from  that  date  will  proceed  to  establish  municipal  government  in  the 
pueblos  to  take  the  place  of  the  municipal  councils  which  at  present 
rule  them  ;  in  order  to  duly  execute  the  orders  of  the  Commanding 
General  of  the  Centre  of  Luzon,  I  give  you  the  following  instruc- 
tions :  — 

"1st.  You  will  arrest  and  send  to  these  headquarters  with  the 
proper  precautions  to  prevent  escape,  all  inhabitants  of  these  pueblos 
who  accept  offices  in  the  municipal  governments  about  to  be  estab- 
lished by  the  Americans,  as  they  have  been  declared  traitors  to  the 
country  by  the  order  I  have  referred  to  as  issued  by  these  head- 
quarters. 

"2d.  You  will  employ  the  same  method  of  procedure  with  those 
who  favoiu-  the  establishment  of  municipal  government  by  the  Ameri- 


744  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

In  October,  1900,  we  find  General  Vito  Belarmino  order- 
ing that  Filipinos  in  Ambos  Camarines  who  accept  office 
under  Americans  "be  treated  as  traitors,"  and  that  "com- 
manders of  columns  and  detachments  will  cause  their 
forces  to  fall  on  those  pueblos  hi  which  there  are  individ- 
uals who  are  infavom-of  the  organization  of  such  unpopular 
and  therefore  despotic  governments."  ^  One  Tuason, 
an  American  adherent,  is  notified  that  he  and  two  other 
persons,  who  are  named,  will  be  shot  and  their  bodies 
hung  on  the  cathedral  tower  as  a  lesson  to  the  inhabit- 
ants.^ 

In  La  Laguna  province  Cailles,  who  was  now  in  com- 
mand there,  found  hunself  compelled  not  only  to  fight 
the  Americans  in  the  field,  but  to  combat  their  growing 
popularity  in  the  towns,  and  he  promptly  inaugurated 
a  reign  of  terror,  ordering  the  death  of  any  person  whom 
he  considered  an  undesirable.  His  victims  were  shot, 
bayoneted  or  boloed.  If  they  took  refuge  within  the 
American  lines,  they  were  followed  and  assassinated. 
In  his  book  of  letters  sent, '  there  appear  the  names  of 
thirty-one  men  whom  he  ordered  killed  between  August 

cans.     You  will  not  show  tliem  the  slightest  consideration,  even  if 
they  are  your  brothers.     You  are  responsible  under  the  severest  pen- 
alties for  the  performance  of  this.     God  keep  you  many  years. 
"Malolos,  September  11,  1900. 

"I.  Torres, 

General." 
—  P.  I.  R.,  Books  C-3. 

1  P.  I.  R.,  341.  9. 

2  "  Two  weeks  ago  a  court-martial  was  held  at  these  headquarters 
presided  over  by  Colonel  Arejola,  on  you,  Tuason,  and  other  civil 
authorities  of  this  capital,  the  decision  being  that  you  will  be  shot 
when  we  get  there,  which  will  be  very  soon. 

"You  as  well  as  Tuason  and  Santachia,  after  having  been  shot, 
■ndll  be  hung  on  the  cathedral  tower  to  be  seen  by  the  inhabitants  in 
order  that  you  may  serve  as  a  lesson  ...  I  tell  you  this  only  as  a 
companion  and  nothing  more.  Your  obedient  servant,  who  kisses 
your  hand. 

"El  Montero." 
—  P.  I.  R.,  2007.  1. 
'  P.  I.  R.,  716.  2. 


MtJRDER   AS  A   GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY  745 

20,  1900,  and  April,  1901.  Some  of  these  men  were 
described  as  highwa^Tnen  or  assassins,  and  probably 
deserved  their  fate,  but  others  were  classed  as  "spies" 
or  "traitors,"  and  certainly  did  not,  miless  in  this  country 
where  it  is  claimed  that  Aguinaldo  had  his  people  a  unit 
at  his  back  it  was  an  offence  worthy  of  death  to  prefer 
peace  and  order  under  American  rule  to  conditions  such 
as  Insurgent  rule  fostered. 

Cailles  did  not  hesitate  to  report  the  results  of  his 
orders  for  the  assassination  of  indi\aduals,  giving  full  and 
grewsome  details.  The  following  is  a  sample  circular 
letter  on  this  subject,  sent  out  by  him  :  — 

"To  the  local  Chiefs  and  Commanders  of  Columns,  of  the 
province :  — ■ 

"On  this  date  I  have  received  a  communication  from  the 
Presidente  of  Santa  Cruz  which  is  as  follows :  — 

"Sr.  General:  ...  I  am  pleased,  much  pleased  my 
General,  to  inform  you  ■nith  much  satisfaction  of  the  end  in 
this  world  of  the  villain,  of  the  great  traitor,  Salvador  Reyes, 
in  the  following  manner  :  — 

"This  morning  at  8  o'clock,  according  to  the  reports  of 
Srs.  Ldzaro  Alfonzo  and  Modesto  de  los  Reyes,  who  would 
gladly  give  their  lives  for  our  honour  and  glory,  your  coachman 
told  them  that  the  traitor  was  proceeding  to  the  northern 
part  of  the  town.  They  followed  him  and  upon  coming  to  the 
front  of  the  house  and  shop  of  Cabezang  Jacinto  Talcon,  the 
aforementioned  Sr.  INIodesto  attacked  him  ^\-ith  a  bolo  like  a 
tiger,  -with  all  the  strength  of  his  body  and  soul,  hitting  by 
chance  his  left  jaw,  when  the  other,  that  is  to  say,  Sr.  Ldzaro 
Alfonso,  followed  the  first,  catching  the  traitor  by  the  throat 
with  his  right  hand  and  with  the  other  fired  three  pistol  shots 
at  him,  one  of  which  missed  and  the  other  two  took  effect  in 
the  traitor's  shoulder,  from  the  effects  of  which  he  fell  hke  a 
stone  upon  his  face. 

"Lastly,  Sr.  Modesto  stabbed  him  mth'a  bolo,  and  upon 
seeing  that  he  was  dead,  took  away  his  revolver,  and  carrjdng 
the  traitor  bj'  his  belt  to  Calle  de  Maria  Christina,  threw  the 
body  down.  This  was  done  in  plain  daylight  and  in  plain 
view  of  everybody.  .  .  ."  ^ 

» P.  I.  R.,  716.  5. 


746  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

"On  January  6,  1901,  'the  lieutenant-general  of  the  Philip- 
pine Islands'  ordered  that  all  persons  who  disobeyed  the  orders 
of  the  Katipunau  were  to  be  tried  and  sentenced.  A  member 
of  the  organization  who  found  that  any  person  was  contem- 
plating taking  action  opposed  to  the  purposes  of  that  venerable 
society'  was  authorized  to  kidnap  him,  and  when  the  Katipiinan 
laid  hold  upon  a  man  he  was  henceforth  seen  no  more  among 
the  living."  ' 

The  organization  of  the  Federal  Party  caused  an  out- 
burst of  fury  among  the  Insurgent  leaders  beside  which 
that  aroiised  by  the  organization  of  municipal  govern- 
ments was  mild. 

Throughout  the  islands  the  murdering  of  officers,  mem- 
bers and  agents  of  this  party  was  ordered,  and  even 
those  who  sjonpatliized  with  its  ends  were  to  be  shot. 

The  following  is  a  sample  of  the  orders  sentencing  to 
death  the  adherents  of  this  truly  patriotic  organization  :  — 

"March  22,  1901. 
"Senor  Emilio  Zuebano  t  Kajigal, 

"  Lieutenant    Colonel    and     Military    Governor    of    the 
Province  of  Tayabas. 

*  *  *  *  if  tt  It 

"2nd.  In  \'iew  of  the  preceding  section,  the  Local 
Presidentes  and  Commanders  of  the  columns  of  this  province, 
ynM  carefully  watch  their  respective  jurisdictions  in  order  that 
not  one  agent  of  the  enemj-  nor  of  the  Federal  Party,  may  be 
secretlj^  able  to  obtain  any  signatures  of  the  residents,  they 
shall  seize  any  one  who  may  do  it  and  send  him  to  me  with  all 
the  possible  safeguards  for  the  execution  of  what  is  ordered  in 
the  foregoing  section. 

"3rd.  All  persons  who  may  show  themselves  to  be 
inclined  to  the  Federal  Party,  will  also  be  captured  and  shot 
on  being  arrested  prior  to  the  proceedings  and  legal  formalities, 
because  being  inclined  towards  this  party,  is  the  same  as  declar- 
ing oneself  a  traitor  to  the  country. 

"4th.  The  commander  of  a  column  or  local  presidente 
who  shall  tolerate  the  existence  of  the  Committees  of  the 
Federal  Party  in  his  jurisdiction,  being  able  to  avoid  it,  will  be 
tried  and  in  case  he  is  found  guilty,  ^ill  be  discharged  from 
his  duty  and  will  also  be  shot,  as  a  traitor  to  his  country. 

» Taj'lor,  35  HS. 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       747 

"5th.  The  presidentes  of  the  popular  committees,  will 
furnish  detailed  information  to  the  local  presidentes  and  com- 
manders of  columns  of  persons  ^\-ithin  the  towTis  occupied  by 
the  enemies  who  are  engaged  in  the  propagation  of  the  Federal 
Party  or  in  getting  adhesions  in  any  way,  either  directly  or 
indirectly,  to  the  said  party,  and  the  presidente  of  the  popular 
committee  who  may  fail  to  accomplish  so  sacred  a  duty,  will 
also  be  punished  with  the  penalty  of  death. 

"6th.  When  any  of  the  representatives  of  the  federal 
party,  or  any  of  its  adherents  cannot  be  captured  on  account 
of  remaining  constantly  wdth  the  enemy  or  being  protected  by 
him,  the  local  presidentes  and  commanders  of  the  columns  ■will 
procure  by  all  means  the  execution  of  the  said  representative 
or  adherent  within  the  line  of  the  enemy  through  persons  of 
known  decision  and  of  patriotism  worthy  of  all  commendation. 

"7th.  All  the  citizens  living  in  the  province  of  Tayabas 
who  may  be  representatives  or  adherents  to  the  Federal  Party, 
aside  from  the  criminal  liability  which  he  incurs  personally, 
will  be  deprived  of  the  benefits  of  his  propertj^,  which  will  be 
seized  by  the  Government,  who  ^\ill  take  charge  of  the  profits 
of  the  same. 

"8th  &  last.  The  Local  Presidente  of  the  pueblo  in  which 
exists  any  Committee  of  the  Federal  Party  and  the  Com- 
mander of  the  column  to  whose  protection  the  pueblo  is 
entrusted  on  pain  of  incurring  the  pmiishment  detailed  in 
section  third  of  the  present  proclamation,  will  proceed  to  the 
total  destruction  of  the  pueblo  in  which  there  is  a  federalist 
committee,  if,  after  having  been  ordered  to  disband  it,  at  the 
expiration  of  seven  daj's  the  same  continues  in  its  traitorous 
and   criminal   functions. 

"Issued  at  the   Mihtary  Government,  March  22nd,  1901. 

"Eaiilio  Zurbano, 
"Lieutenant  Colonel,  Military  Governor."  ^ 

On  March  3,  1899,  Antonio  Luna,  general  in  chief  of 
operations  about  Manila,  directed  that  all  persons  who  either 
directly  or  indirectly  refused  to  aid  the  execution  of  his 
military  plans  were  to  be  immediately  shot  without  trial. 
Nothing  could  have  been  more  sweeping  than  was  his 
order,  and  the  commanders  of  detachments  of  insurgents 
found  in  it  an  authoritative  statement  that  the  lives  and 

1  P.  I.  R.,  650.  8. 


748  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

property  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Phihppines  were  theirs 
to  do  with  as  they  chose.' 

Mabini  made  this  vicious  and  cruel  order  the  subject 
of  bitter  protest,  writing  to  Aguinaldo,  on  March  6,  1899, 
a  letter  in  which  he  says  that  Luna  has  grossly  exceeded 
his  powers,  and  making  the  very  pertinent  inquiry 
"if  an  educated  man  ^  can  hardly  imderstand  his  duties, 
how  will  the  uneducated  one  understand  his?"  He  sug- 
gests that  it  would  be  better  to  remove  Luna.^  It  does 
not  appear  that  this  order  was  ever  modified. 

»  "PROCLAMATIONS 

"March  3,  1899. 

"For  general  information,  since  it  concerns  everybody,  we  publish 
the  two  important  proclamations  lately  issued  by  the  Chief  of  Military 
Operations  of  Manila. 

"Antonio  Luna  y  Novicio,  General  of  Division  of  the  Army  of  the 
Philippine  RepubUc  and  General-in-Chief  of  Military  Operations  about 
Manila. 

"In  order  to  prevent  any  act  opposed  to  the  mOitary  plans  of  these 
headquarters  and  consequently  to  the  ideals  of  the  Filipino  Republic, 
I  order  and  command  (only  one  article).  From  this  day  any  person 
or  individual  whatever  who  either  directly  or  indirectly  refuses  to  give 
aid  to  these  Headquarters  in  the  prosecution  of  any  mihtary  plans,  or 
who  in  any  manner  whatever  interferes  with  the  execution  of  orders 
dictated  for  that  purpose  by  the  General  in  Chief,  commanding  oper- 
ations upon  Manila  will  be  immediately  shot  without  trial.  Communi- 
cate and  publish  this  order. 

"  Given  at  the  General  Headquarters  of  Polo  on  the  3rd  of  March, 
1899. 

"Antonio  Luna, 
"  General-in-Chief  of  Operations." 
—  P.  I.  R.,  214-2. 

2  That  is,  Luna. 

3  "March  6,  1899. 

"  Senor  Presidbnte  :  Many  complaints  have  been  received  here  on 
account  of  the  abuses  committed  by  General  Luna.  It  is  said  that  he 
has  lately  published  a  decree  in  which  he  warned  the  people  that  those 
who  disobey  his  orders  shall  be  shot  to  death  without  summary  trial, 
and  he  made  his  decree  cover  the  whole  province  of  Pampanga. 

"To  be  shot  to  death  without  siimmary  trial  is  a  punishment  which 
can  be  inflicted  on  soldiers ;  but  a  chief  cannot  enforce  it  in  a  civilized 
community,  except  among  savages.  Besides,  he  has  only  jurisdic- 
tion over  Polo,  where  the  General  Headquarters  is,  and  over  the  towns 
of  the  zones  of  Manila. 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       749 

I  might  furnish  many  similar  data,  but  enough  of 
orders.  Any  one  who  is  not  convinced  by  these  extracts 
from  the  official  Insurgent  records  that  murder  was  a 
duly  authorized  govermnental  agency  under  the  Philip- 
pine "Republic"  is  not  amenable  to  reason  or  influenced 
by  incontrovertible  facts. 

But  were  these  brutal  instructions  carried  out  ?  They 
were,  indeed,  with  a  ferocity  and  a  cold-blooded  barbarity 
which  make  one  shudder.  Fortunate  indeed  was  the 
man  who  was  really  shot,  like  the  presidente  of  Nag- 
carlan,'  and  it  made  no  difference  if  innocent  bystanders 
were  wounded  or  killed  as  well. 

One  of  the  common  methods  of  procedure  with  victuns 

"  I  am  very  much  surprised  that  these  things  are  not  well  under- 
stood by  General  Luna.  He  has  no  exoeutive  power  over  Bulacan 
and  Pampanga ;  he  must  have  issued  his  orders  through  the  military 
chiefs  thereof. 

"During  such  time  as  he  is  the  commander-in-chief  of  operations  of 
Manila  he  is  not  the  director  of  war,  and  even  if  he  is,  he  has  no  power 
other  than  to  conduct  his  office  and  to  take  the  place  of  the  secretary 
in  his  absence. 

"If  an  educated  man  can  hardly  understand  his  duties,  how  will 
the  uneducated  one  understand  his  ? 

"Please  make  him  acquainted  with  all  of  this  in  order  to  prevent 
any  encroachment. 

"  I  am  at  yoiu-  orders.  (Signed)     "  Ap.  Mabini. 

"P.S.  —  It  would  be  better,  I  think,  to  remove  him  from  his  post. 

"A.  M." 
—  P.  I.  R.,  512a-2. 
1  "AprH  6,  1901. 
"Cailles  Brigade.     Flying  column  of  Rizal  and  Nagcarlan. 

"In  conjunction  with  Captain  Maeario  Dorado,  I  believed  it  my 
duty  to  attack  the  town  of  Nagcarlan,  for  the  principal  purpose  of 
killing  the  American  local  presidente,  as  was  done  during  the  procession 
last  Holy  Thursday.  The  Presidente  was  killed  and  one  of  his  sons, 
and  two  residents  were  woimded,  probably  by  stray  bullets,  while 
taking  part  in  the  procession. 

"Which  I  have  the  honor  to  communicate  to  you  for  your  informa- 
tion and  consequent  effects. 

"God  preserve  you  many  years. 

"Nagcarlan,  April  6,  1901."  ,„,     ., ,      .        .        v 

(Illegible  signature.) 

"  To  the  General  in  Chief  and  Superior  Politico-Military 

Commander  of  This  Province."  —  P.  1.  R.,  1142.  8. 


750  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND  PRESENT 

of  "dukut"  was  to  bury  them  alive.  A  number  of 
individuals  suffered  this  fate  at  Taytay,  near  Manila. 
They  were  taken  out  at  night,  made  to  kneel  beside  graves 
already  dug,  hit  over  the  head  with  an  iron  bar  and 
knocked  into  their  last  restmg  places  and  the  earth  was 
shovelled  in  on  to  them.  They  were  confessed  by  a  native 
priest,  and  people  of  the  town  were  required  to  stand  by 
and  see  them  meet  their  end. 

An  American  lawyer  who  afterward  defended  some  of 
their  murderers  when  the  latter  were  apprehended  and 
brought  to  trial,  told  me  that  among  other  grewsome 
details  furnished  by  his  cUents,  who  shamelessly  ad- 
mitted to  him  their  guilt,  were  the  following  :  — 

A  victim  who  watched  the  miu-der  of  others,  while 
awaiting  his  turn,  did  not  want  to  be  struck  on  the  head 
and  begged  that  as  a  special  favor  the  blow  from  the  iron 
bar  be  omitted  in  his  case.  His  request  was  granted, 
whereupon  he  climbed  into  his  grave,  lay  down,  covered 
his  face  with  his  handkerchief,  and  directed  his  murderers 
to  proceed.  I  could  cite  numerous  specific  cases  in  which 
persons  were  buried  alive,  and  will  do  so  if  my  word  is 
called  in  question. ^     If  not,  enough  of  this  ! 

'  The  Insurgent  leaders  did  not  hesitate  officially  to  report  the  com- 
mission of  this  ghastly  crime.     The  following  is  such  a  report :  — 

"June  24,  1900. 

In  Margin,  stamp  :  "Headquarters  First  Column,  Laguna.  No. 
144. 

"I  have  the  honor  to  transmit  to  you  the  enclosed  letter  from  a 
resident  of  the  town  of  Pila  who  had  just  returned  from  Manila,  in 
which  he  gives  me  news  of  our  present  political  situation,  and  as  such 
news  are  satisfactory  to  our  cause  I  send  you  said  letter  for  your  in- 
formation. 

"It  is  known  from  very  trustworthy  information  that  General  del 
Pilar  is  under  arrest  in  ManDa  and  he  has  been  substituted  in  the 
command  of  his  forces  by  Colonel  Macanea,  who  was  his  second  in 
command,  and  is  at  the  present  time  repressing  with  a  firm  hand  the 
bandits  who  swarm  about  the  outsku-ts  of  the  zone  under  his  command, 
as  one  of  the  celebrated  bandits  named  Major  Eusebio  de  Rateros, 
who  had  previously  been  in  Pagsanjan  was  buried  ali^'e  in  the  ceme- 
tery of  Taguig  by  Captain  Simplicio  Tolentino  who  is  at  the  present 
time  a  member  of  that  brigade. 


3 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY      751 

Burning  alive  was  occasionally  resorted  to.*  More 
frequently,  the  victims  had  their  eyes  put  out,  their 
tongues  cut  out,  and  were  then  turned  loose  to  shift  for 
themselves.  Justice  Johnson,^  of  the  Philippine  Supreme 
Court,  has  described  to  me  a  case  in  which  four  police- 
men of  a  town  which  had  received  him  in  a  friendly 
manner,  were  served  in  this  way,  and  the  procedure  was 
a  comparatively  common  one. 

Taylor  gives  the  following  account  of  certain  incidents 
which  occurred  in  Ilocos  Sur :  — 

"On  page  154  is  a  record  of  part  of  the  murders  of  a  body  of 
men  in  the  to^vn  of  Caoayan,  Ilocos  Sur  Province,  who,  in  July, 
1900,  calling  themselves  '  Sandatahan,'  appointed  a  chief 
executioner,  assistant  executioners  and  a  requisite  number 
of  grave-diggers,  and  then,  with  set  purpose,  proceeded  to 
assassinate  all  persons  who  manifested  reluctance  to  join 
them  or  to  contribute  to  their  support  or  to  the  support 
of  the  insurgents  in  the  hills  whom  their  leader  claimed 
they  were  serving.  They  operated  secretly  at  night,  the 
leaders  usually  selecting  their  victims  one  at  a  time;  and 
when  they  were  secured  they  were  conducted  to  a 
lonely  beach  covered  with  tall  grass  where  the  grave-digger 
had  already  dug  the  requisite  number  of  graves  and  where 
the  executioners  were  already  assembled.  There  in  the  pres- 
ence of    the  assembled  band,  men  and  women,  bound    and 

"Tho  news  is  also  confirmed  of  the  execution  of  Major  Espada 
ordered  by  General  del  Pilar.  I  send  you  this  news  for  your  informa- 
tion. 

"God  preserve  you  many  years. 

"Headquarters,  June  24,  1900.  —P.  I.  R.,  605.  4. 

"JtiLio  Herrera, 
"  Lieutenant   Colonel,    Commanding   4th   Column. 
"  To  the  General  and  Politico-Military  Commander  and  of 

Operations  of  This  Province,    General  Camp."  —  P.  I.  R.,  605.  4. 

i"A  commissioner  of  the  Katipunan  society  at  Ibung,  Nueva 
Vizcaya  Province,  compelled  the  inhabitants  to  take  the  oath  of  alle- 
giance to  that  organization,  and  issued  orders  that  aU  who  should  re- 
fuse to  follow  the  dictates  of  the  same  should  suffer  death ;  and,  in 
pursuance  of  such  orders,  was  proved  to  have  had,  in  February,  1901, 
two  men  beaten  to  death,  one  man  buried  alive,  and  two  women  burnt 
alive. "  —  Taylor,  38  HS. 

2  At  the  time  of  this  event  he  was  a  judge  of  first  instance. 


752  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

helpless,  were  placed  upon  the  brinks  of  their  opened  graves, 
their  bodies  were  run  through  with  swords  and  bolos  and  then 
buried.  The  band  then  dispersed,  each  man  going  to  his 
own  home.  These  operations  were  continued  with  industrious 
persistency  through  two  months  or  more  until  the  lengthening 
row  of  graves  reached,  in  the  language  of  one  of  the  witnesses, 
'about  thirty,  more  or  less.' " ' 

The  Insurgent  leaders  themselves  reported  in  a  most 
businesslike  manner  their  orders  for  assassination  and 
the  results  of  their  activities  in  this  direction. 

The  following  are  sample  communications  of  this  sort ; 

"Headquarters  Camp  No.   6. 
"TiERRA  Libre  (Free  Soil),  Saluyan  (Laguna  Province) 

"  November  18th,  1900. 
"  General  Juan  Cailles, 

"  Military  Governor  of  La  Laguna  : 

******* 

"In  Nagcarlang  it  appears  that  there  will  be  soon  a  spy, 
one  Juan,  a  native  of  Binang,  for  he  has  already  commenced 
to  disobey  the  committee,  and  so  I  with  much  prudence  have 
ordered  his  eternal  rest.  The  inhabitants  have  left  the  town 
and  no  one  will  serve  either  as  barber  or  laundry-man  to  the 
Americans. 

******* 

(Signed)  "  Julio  Infante."  * 

"Proclamation  of  Lieutenant  Colonel  Emilio  Zurbano, 

"Military  Governor  ofTayabas,  to  his  Fellow-citizens. 

"Headquarters  and  Military  Government, 

"Tayabas,  April  23,  1901. 

"Fellow-citizens:    The    holiness,    purity    and    elevation 

of  purpose  of  us  who  fight  for  our  independence  has  caused  the 

execution  of  five  of  our  fellow-citizens  on  the  18th  instant  at 

five  o'clock  in  the  afternoon.     They  were  shot  on  the  plaza 

of  the  to\vn  of  Sampaloc.  .  .  . 

"Vivencio  Villarosa,  for  assassination  of  eleven  foreigners 
and  for  disloyalty ;  Pedro  Cordero,  for  disloyalty  and  spying ; 
Remigfo  Aviosa,  for  improper  exercise  of  authority,  for  many 
assaults  and  robbery  in  a  band ;  Segundo  Granada,  for  many 
assaults  and  stealing  many  animals,  and  Rufino  Sabala  for 

1  Taylor,  35-36  HS.  '  P.  I.  R.,  653.  10. 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       753 

being  addicted  to  and  a  disseminator  of  the  doctrines  of  the 
Federal  Party  have  fallen  on  the  plaza  of  Sampaloc  at  the 
very  moment  when  the  twilight  of  the  happy  triumph  of  our 
ideal  began  to  advance  over  the  horizon  of  our  country  until 
now  hidden  in  clouds  of  blood.  May  they  rest  in  peace. 
******* 

(Signed)    "  Emilio  Zurbano."  ' 

After  reporting  to  his  subordinates  that  the  local  chief 
of  Bay  had,  under  his  orders,  arrested  Honorato  Quisum- 
bing,  an  Americanista  who  had  never  served  as  a  spy, 
and  that  his  captor  had  killed  hun  when  he  called  to 
American  troops  who  were  near  to  help  him,  Cailles  adds  : 
"His  companion  was  likewise  duly  executed  as  a  spy  and 
guide  for  the  enemy.  Let  us  offer  up  a  prayer  for  their 
eternal  rest."  ^ 

Blount  has  made  the  following  statement :  — 

"I  have  heard,  so  far  as  I  now  recollect,  of  comparatively 
few  barbarities  perpetrated  by  Filipmos  on  captured  American 
soldiers.  Barbarities  on  their  side  seemed  to  have  been  re- 
served for  those  of  their  own  race  whom  they  found  disloyal 
to  the  cause  of  their  country."  ' 

One  may  well  doubt  whether  he  himself  wrote  the  book 
which  goes  under  his  name,  for  in  it  he  is  made  constantly 
to  contradict  himself.  Relative  to  this  matter  he  has  also 
said :  — 

"He*  can  never  forget  the  magnificent  dash  back  into  the 
wide,  ugly,  swollen  stream,  made  by  Captain  Edward  L.  King 
of  General  Lawton's  staff,  as  he  spurred  his  horse  m,  followed 
by  several  troopers  who  had  responded  to  his  call  for  mounted 
volunteers  to  accompany  him  in  an  effort  to  save  the  lives  of 
the  men  who  went  down.  Their  generous  work  proved  futile. 
But  it  was  inspired  partly  by  common  dread  of  what  they 
knew  would  happen  to  any  half-drowned  soldier  who  might 
be  washed  ashore  far  away  from  the  column  and  captured. 
If  an  army  was  ever  'in  enemy's  country,'  it  was  then  and 
there."  ^ 

•  P.  I.  R.,  332.  9.  '  Ibid.,  Books  A-1.  '  Blount,  p.  203. 

*  Ibid.  '  Ibid.,  p.  244. 


754  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  not  only  did  the  Insurgents  re- 
peatedly torture  and  murder  American  prisoners,  but 
they  poisoned  soldiers.  Lucban  and  others  directed  that 
this  should  be  done,  described  the  procedure  to  be  fol- 
lowed, and  furnished  the  poison.^ 

Du'ections  for  poisoning  soldiers  were  included  in  a 
letter  written  on  August  21,  1900,  to  the  Brigadier  Gen- 
eral Superior  Military  Commander  of  the  Province  of 
Leyte  as  follows  :  — 

"It  would  also  be  well,  in  my  humble  opmion,  for  you  to 
find  out  from  the  old  men  and  quack  doctors  the  kind  of  poison 
that  can  be  mixed  in  alcoholic  drinks  and  m  cocoanut  wine 
(tuba),  as  our  enemies  now  drink  these  liquors;  and  after 
this  poison  has  been  known  and  tried,  let  it  be  used  in  such  a 
way  as  to  undermine  the  constitution  of  the  man,  until  some 
day  death  occurs ;  for  which  purpose  you  ought  to  have  per- 
sons, wherever  there  are  Americans,  to  poison  them.  These 
things  are  now  bemg  done  m  Luzon,  Cebu  and  Panay. 

"There  is  a  tree  here  in  the  province  whose  leaves  inflame 
the  body  of  a  man  considerably,  once  applied ;  for  I  have 
seen  about  Manila  the  leaves  converted  into  powder,  rolled 
in  pellets  of  paper  and  shot  in  the  faces  of  Americans.  This 
causes  the  parts  to  swell  and  become  completely  useless ; 
and  I  believe  it  would  be  well  to  do  this  within  the  towns,  and 

'"June  5,  1900. 
"  Sr.  Local.  Presidente  of  Katibug  : 

"  I  send  you  a  little  of  the  poison  known  as  'dita'  that  you  may  put 
it  on  the  points  of  the  'balatik'  and  'siu-a'  (spears  and  traps)  ad- 
monishing you  to  take  care  that  none  of  our  people  are  wounded  with 
the  said  poison,  and  if  by  misfortune  any  one  is  wounded,  immediately 
apply  the  stem  of  the  'IJadian'  mixed  with  that  of  the  'lingaton'  in 
the  wound,  as  this  is  the  most  efficacious  means  of  neutralizing  and 
removing  the  effect  of  said  poison.  Be  active  and  place  many  of  the 
spears,  etc.,  in  aU  the  roads  and  trails  where  the  enemy  must  pass, 
and  as  soon  as  you  know  of  his  next  expedition,  inform  me  immedi- 
ately by  despatch,  both  by  day  and  night. 

"  It  is  very  necessary  that  the  people  detailed  to  place  the  poison  on 
the  points  carry  always  the  'badian'  and  'lingaton'  so  that  in  case  of 
mishap  some  one  may  apply  the  remedy  to  neutralize  the  destruc- 
tive ingredients  of  the  poison  at  once. 

"  Headquarters  of  Matuguinao,  5th  of  June,  1900. 

(Signed)  "  Lukban,  General. 
(Seal)     "  Military  Headquarters  of  Samab."  —  P.  I.  R.,  502.  7. 


MURDER   AS   A   GOVERNMENTAL   AGENCY  755 

especially  to  the  drunkards  asleep  along  the  roads  and  to  the 
fellows  making  love."  ' 

Various  other  orders  for  the  poisoning  of  soldiers  or 
the  use  of  poisoned  arrows  or  spears  were  issued.^  Fur- 
thermore, they  were  faithfully  carried  out,^  and  the  results 
were  duly  reported. 

'P.  I.  R..  2035.  3. 

2  The  following  issued  by  Col.  R.  F.  Santos  in  Albay  Province  is 
a  sample :  — 

"October  14,  1900. 

"In  view  of  the  present  exceptional  state  of  affairs  in  our  beloved 
mother  country,  the  Philippines,  considering  the  straits  we  are  in, 
and  in  compliance  with  the  order  of  the  General  of  Division  and  Chief 
of  Operations  for  his  campaign  plans,  I  trust  that  upon  receipt  of  the 
present  communication  you  will  kindly  order  the  captains  of  terri- 
torial militia,  of  that  barrio,  Apud,  Pantao  and  Macabugos,  to  have  all 
the  soldiers  of  their  respective  companies  provide  themselves  ■nith  at 
least  fifty  arrows  apiece  and  a  sufficient  quantity  of  the  well-known 
poison  called  dila  to  apply  to  the  points  of  the  arrows,  and  to  have 
their  bolos  well  sharpened.  I  must  remind  you  that  as  repeated 
practice  is  essential  in  order  to  secure  the  best  results  in  the  use  of  these 
weapons,  you  will  endeavour  to  have  at  least  twice  a  week,  according 
to  the  convenience  of  the  residents,  said  exercises  take  place  in  secluded 
spots,  far  from  all  danger  of  being  surprised  by  the  enemy. 

"For  the  purpose  indicated  above  3'ou  \\dll  likewise  order  that 
all  the  residents  of  your  respective  barrios  have  ready  in  a  safe  place 
a  supply  of  the  fruit  commonly  called  Ydioc,  putting  it  in  water  to 
decay,  and  to  also  have  in  readiness  a  squirt  gun,  that  is  to  say,  a 
'Sumpit,'  in  order  to  use  it  in  case  of  any  invasion  or  attack  of  the 
enemy."  —  P.  I.  R.,  Books  B,  No.  113. 

'  The  following  is  a  sample  report :  — 

"February  4,  1900. 

"  LlEDTEN.\NT-CoLONEL  C.  TiNIO  : 

"My  Dear  and  Esteemed  Uncle  : 

*  *  ***** 

"I  am  now  carrying  out  a  scheme  here  in  this  town  for  the  purpose 
of  killing  some  American  sentries,  whose  bodies  will  be  buried  in  the 
woods  near  the  town,  where  they  cannot  be  traced  and  found  by  their 
comrades,  in  order  to  avoid  any  investigation  by  them.  They  wiU 
believe  that  these  soldiers  have  deserted.  I  have  just  sent  to  Gerona 
for  a  supply  of  wine,  which,  mixed  with  a  strong,  sickening  stuff,  will 
be  sold  to  them ;  once  they  drink  of  it,  the  effect  will  soon  teU  on  them, 
and  then  we  will  seize  their  rifles. 

' '  I  feel  that  I  should  advase  you  of  this  matter,  in  order  that  you 
may  know  the  reason  if,  perchance,  it  should  happen  that  we  lose 
the  confidence  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  on  account  of  this  scheme. 


756  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

The  murder  of  sentries  and  of  soldiers  who  straggled 
was  often  ordered,  practised  and  reported.^ 

As  damnable  as  any  of  these  horrible  documents  was 
the  order  of  General  Antonio  Luna  for  the  massacre  of  all 
Americans,  foreigners  and  "disloyal"  Filipinos  in  Manila. 

Blount  has  alleged  that  Taylor  "obtained  no  evidence 
convincing  to  hun,"  relative  to  the  authorship  of  this 
order  ^  and  that  "a  like  investigation  by  General  Mac- 
Arthur  in  1901  had  a  like  result."     Whether  he  is  ignorant 

However,  we  will  be  satisfied  if  we  can  seize  some  rifles"  without  resorting 
to  violent  mean^  or  to  a  scandal. 

"This  is  the  purpose  of  your  devoted  nephew,  who  always  prays 
God  for  your  health  and  life,  and  who  sends  you  his  kindest  regards. 
"San  Juan  (Tarlac  Province ?)j  February  4,  1900. 

(Signed)   "  Leoncio  Alarilla, 
"  Captain  of  Guerillas." 
—  P.  I.  R.,  480.  5. 
'  The  following  is  a  sample  report.     It  will  be  noted  that  its  author 
was  a  civilian,  not  a  soldier :  — 

"January  19,   1900. 

"Sr.  Lieut.  Col.  A.  Tecson  : 

"With  due  respect  I  address  you  to  inform  you  that  yesterday  at 
10  a.m.,  I  was  in  the  barrio  of  Bagonbaulat  and  I  saw  one  of  the  enemy's 
soldiers  who  was  lagging  behind  his  companions,  and  what  I  did  was 
to  order  the  man  in  charge  of  that  place  and  three  men  to  be  called 
whom  I  ordered  to  capture  the  said  soldier,  and  when  a  prisoner  I 
ordered  him  to  be  led  to  the  woods  and  there  they  killed  him  and 
buried  the  body ;  the  rifle  he  carried  and  ninety  cartridges  I  left  with 
the  people  and  continued  my  march  to  San  Isidro  ;  on  my  return  when 
I  was  to  get  the  rifle  mentioned  I  could  not  find  it  and  they  told  me 
they  had  sent  it  to  Major  Manolo.  I  inform  you  of  this  in  compli- 
ance with  the  order. 

"God  guard  you  many  years. 
"Entablado,  19th  January,  1900. 

(Signed)  "  Roman  I.  Torres, 
"  Commissioner." 
—  P.  I.  R.,  573.2. 
2  "At  page  1890  of  the  same  volume,  Captain  J.  R.  M.  Taylor,  14th 
U.  S.  Infantry,  a  gallant  soldier  and  an  accomplished  scholar,  who  was 
in  charge  in  1901  of  the  captured  insurgent  records  at  Manila,  states 
that  he  was  'informed'  that  the  document  was  originally  'signed  by 
Sandico,  then  Secretary  of  the  Interior'  of  the  revolutionary  govern- 
ment.    Captain  Taylor  made  an  attempt  to  run  the  matter  down,  but 
obtained  no  evidence  convincing  to  him.     A  like  investigation  by  Gen- 
eral MacArthur  in  1901  had  a  like  result."  —  Blount,  p.  '200. 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       757 

of  the  facts  as  to  the  authentication  of  the  authorship  of 
this  very  important  document,  or  chooses  to  ignore  them, 
I  do  not  know.  Taylor  in  the  end  conclusively  settled 
the  matter,  and  so  reported.     Luna's  order,'  which  was 

'  "Luna's  Order: 

"  'Malolos,  February  7,  1899. 
"  'To  The  Field  Officers  of  the  Territorial  Militia : 

'By  virtue  of  the  barbarous  attack  made  upon  our  army  on  the 
fourth  day  of  February  without  this  being  preceded  by  any  strained 
relations  whatever  between  the  two  armies,  it  is  necessary  for  the 
Filipinos  to  show  that  they  know  how  to  avenge  themselves  of  treachery 
and  deceit  of  those  who,  working  upon  our  friendship,  now  seek  to 
enslave  us. 

"  '  In  order  to  carry  out  the  complete  destruction  of  that  accursed 
army  of  drunkards  and  thieves,  it  is  indispensable  that  we  all  work  in 
unison,  and  that  orders  issued  from  this  war  office  be  faithfully  carried 
out. 

"  'As  soon  as  you  receive  this  circular,  measures  wiU  be  taken  for 
strict  compliance  with  the  following  orders  : 

'(1)  Such  measures  will  be  taken  that  at  8  o'clock  at  night  the 
members  of  the  territorial  militia  under  orders  will  be  ready  to  go  into 
the  street  with  their  arms  and  ammunition  to  occupy  San  Pedro  street 
and  such  cross  streets  as  open  into  it. 

"  '  (2)  The  defenders  of  the  Philippines  under  your  orders  wiU 
attack  the  Zorilla  barracks  and  the  Bilibid  guard,  and  liberate  all  the 
prisoners,  arming  them  in  the  most  practical  manner  in  order  that 
they  may  aid  their  brethren  and  work  out  our  revenge ;  to  this  end 
the  following  address  shall  be  made  to  them : 

'Brethren:  The  Americans  have  insulted  us  and  we  must  re- 
venge ourselves  upon  them  by  annihilating  them. 

'This  is  the  only  means  for  obtaining  justice,  for  the  many  out- 
rages and  infamies  of  which  we  have  been  the  object.  AH  the  Filipinos 
in  Manila  will  second  us.  May  the  blood  of  the  traitors  run  in  tor- 
rents !     Long  live  the  independence  of  the  Philippines  ! 

"  '(3)  The  servants  of  the  houses  occupied  by  the  Americans  and 
Spaniards  shall  burn  the  buildings  in  which  their  masters  live  in  such 
a  manner  that  the  conflagration  shall  be  simultaneous  in  all  part  of 
the  city. 

"  'The  signals  for  carrying  this  into  effect  —  shall  be  to  send  up  two 
red  paper  balloons  and  the  firing  of  rockets  with  lights  and  firecrackers. 

"  '(4)  The  lives  of  the  Filipinos  only  shall  be  respected,  and  they 
shall  not  be  molested,  with  the  exception  of  those  who  have  been 
pointed  out  as  traitors. 

'All  others  of  whatsoever  race  they  may  be  shall  be  given  no 
quarter  and  shall  be  exterminated,  thus  proving  to  foreign  countries 
that  America  is  not  capable  of  maintaining  order  or  defending  any  of 
the  interests  which  she  has  imdertaken  to  defend. 


758  THE  PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

issued  on  February  7,  1899,  provided  for  the  massacre 
of  all  Americans  and  foreigners  in  Manila.  The  lives  of 
Filipinos  only  were  to  be  respected.  All  others,  of  what- 
soever race,  were  to  be  given  no  quarter,  but  were  to  be 
exterminated,  "thus  proving  to  foreign  countries  that 
America  is  not  capable  of  maintaining  order  or  defending 
any  of  the  interests  which  she  has  undertaken  to  defend." 

This  effort  to  massacre  all  white  persons  in  the  city 
fell  through,  partly  because  the  plan  leaked  out,  and 
partly  because  Cavite  Insurgent  soldiers  did  not  obey 
orders. 

I  consider  it  important  that  the  authenticity  of  this 
much-discussed  order  should  be  placed  beyond  reasonable 
doubt,  and  so  give  Taylor's  findings  in  full.     He  says  :  — 

"A  synopsis  of  this  order  was  telegraphed  to  Washington 
by  General  Otis  on  February  21st,  1899,  as  having  been  'issued 
by  an  important  officer  of  the  insurgent  government  at  Malolos, 

"  '  (5)  The  sharpshooters  of  Tondo  and  Santa  Ana  shall  be  the  first 
to  open  fire  and  those  on  the  outside  of  the  Manila  lines  shall  second 
their  attack,  and  thus  the  American  forces  will  find  themselves  between 
two  fires.  The  militia  of  Trozo,  Binondo,  Kyapo  (Quiapo),  and 
Sampalok  ahaM  follow  up  the  attack.  All  must  go  into  the  streets 
and  perform  their  duties. 

"  'The  militiamen  of  Paco,  Ermita,  Malate,  Santa  Cruz,  and  San 
Miguel  shall  attack  when  firing  has  become  general  everj'where,  which 
will  be  approximately  about  12  o'clock  at  night ;  but  if  they  see  that 
their  comrades  are  in  danger  before  that  time  they  shall  give  them  the 
proper  assistance  and  go  into  the  streets  whenever  it  becomes  nec- 
essary. 

"  'The  Spanish  mUitia  enlisted  as  volunteers  in  our  army  shall  go 
out  at  3  o'clock  in  the  morning  and  attack  Fort  Santiago. 

"  'Brethren,  the  country  is  in  danger  and  we  must  rise  to  save  it. 
Europe  sees  that  we  are  feeble,  but  we  will  demonstrate  that  we  know 
how  to  do  as  should  be  done,  shedding  our  blood  for  the  salvation  of 
our  outraged  country.  Death  to  the  tjTant  I  War  without  quarter 
to  the  false  Americans  who  wish  to  enslave  us  1  Independence  or 
death ! 

"  'A.  Luna. 
"  '  Malolos,  February  7,  1899. 

"  '  Colonel  Jose  :  By  order  of  General  Luna,  have  several  copies 
of  this  made,  in  order  that  these  instructions  may  be  communicated 
to  all.'  "  —  SenateDocument331,part2,p.  1912,  Fifty-seventh  Congress, 
First  Session. 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY      759 

February  15th,  1899,  for  execution  during  the  evening  and  night 
in  this  city'  of  Manila.  Page  157,  Senate  Document  208, 
Fifty-sixth"  Congress,  First  Session.  On  March  2,  1901,  a 
Senate  resolution  called  for  all  information  in  the  possession 
of  the  Secretary  of  War  'relating  to,  or  tending  to  show,  the 
authenticity  and  genuineness  of  the  alleged  order  for  the  mas- 
sacre of  tho' foreign  residents  of  Manila,  P.  I.,  on  the  evening  and 
night  of  February  15,  1899 ; '  and,  further,  whether  the  original 
of  that  order  was  or  ever  had  been  in  the  possession  of  the 
War  Department,  and  whether  it  had  ever  been  seen  by  such 
a  person.  This  order  required  a  search  in  Manila,  which  was 
made.  As  a  result  of  this  it  was  ascertained  that  the  sjTiopsis 
which  was  telegraphed  by  General  Otis  was  brought  to  Maj. 
F.  C.  Bourns,^  an  officer  of  the  provost  marshal  general's  office, 
by  a  rather  prominent  Filipino  '^  who  had  given  a  good  deal 
of  information  which  on  the  whole  had  proved  to  be  correct. 
He  stated  that  the  paper  which  he  handed  him  was  a  copy  of 
the  original  which  had  just  been  sent  to  officers  of  the  bolo 
organization,  the  sandatahan,  of  Manila,  but  that  he  had  not 
time  to  copy  the  whole  of  it ;  yet  as  far  as  it  went  the  paper 
was  an  exact  copy  of  the  original  order,  which  was  signed  by 
Sandico.  Major  Bourns  said  that  at  the  time  the  paper  was 
received;  there  was  no  reason  to  doubt  'the  man's  statement 
that  it  was  an  exact  copy  of  the  original  order,  for  we  knew 
that  some  such  order  was  imder  consideration,  that  this  bolo 
organization  existed,  and  it  was  under  the  orders  of  Sandico, 
who,  in  turn,  was  entirely  imder  the  influence  of  Luna.  Since 
my  return  to  the  Philippines,  however,  several  little  things 
have  occurred  which  have  caused  me  to  question  whether  or 
not  the  paper  was  an  exact  copy  of  the  original  order.  That 
in  the  main  it  was  correct,  I  clo  not  doubt;  but  I  am  just  a 
little  inclined  to  think  the  man  may  have  "stretched"  things 
a  little.' 

"The  search  was  continued,  and  finally  one  of  the  original 
orders,  a  translation  of  which  immediately  precedes  this  note, 
was  produced  by  Dr.  Manuel  Xeres  y  Burgos  who  was  then  a 
surgeon  employed  in  the  Bilibid  prison  in  Manila  and  who  had 
been  an  officer  in  the  territorial  militia  of  that  city.  Doctor 
Burgos  wrote  in  July,  1901,  to  Colonel  Crowder,  military 
secretary  to  the  Military  governor  of  the  Philippines,  that  if 
he  gave  him  all  the  details  in  regard  to  the  means  he  had  em- 
ployed in  obtaining  the  document,  it  would  require  many  sheets 
of  paper,  and  the  story  would  seem  like  a  novel  to  those  who 

'  Major  F.  S.  Bourns.  '  Dr.  Manuel  Xerez  Burgos. 


760  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

only  superficially  knew  the  customs  of  the  Philippines.  He 
said  that  '  a  few  days  after  the  beginning  of  hostilities  we  were 
given  to  read  an  order  of  a  mysterious  character ;  we  were  not 
allowed  to  take  a  copy  thereof  or  to  keep  it  in  our  possession, 
probably  from  fear  of  some  treachery.  However  the  bearer 
told  me  that  several  copies  had  been  made  which  were  to  be 
sent  to  all  the  districts  in  which  the  "  Filipino  militia  "  had  been 
distributed.  The  chief  of  the  latter  were  the  men  called  upon 
to  execute  said  order.  You  know  that, -thank  God,  it  was  not 
executed,  not  only  through  lack  of  arms,  but  also  because 
most  of  the  chiefs  who  were  in  Manila  felt  a  repugnance  to 
execute  such  a  barbarous  and  foolish  order,  which,  had  it  been 
attempted,  would  have  lieen  the  cause  of  the  extermination 
of  all  the  Filipinos  who  were  within  the  American  lines  as  a 
just  reprisal  for  such  an  atrocious  order. 

"  '  Luckily,  not  only  the  savage  measure  prescribed  was  never 
carried  into  execution,  l>ut  it  was  impossible  to  attack  the 
American  army,  the  men  who  had  been  detailed  to  do  it  in 
Manila  having  only  a  few  hundred  bolos  as  arms,  and  the 
chiefs  of  the  mihtia  midcrstood  that  with  such  arms  they  could 
not  think  of  resisting  the  rifles  and  cannon  of  the  Americans. 

"  '  Up  to  the  middle  of  April,  1899,  several  Filipinos  who  came 
from  the  lines  declared  that  General  Luna  had  sentenced  us 
to  death  for  having  disobeyed  that  terrible  order.  We  were 
14  who  were  considered  as  traitors  to  our  country,  and  we  were 
precisely  those  who  had  worked  for  the  release  of  the  prisoners 
in  whom  we  had  the  greatest  confidence,  answering  for  them 
to  the  authorities  and  exposing  ourselves  to  get  into  trouble 
if  they  had  broken  their  word. 

" '  We  had  decided  to  collect  all  papers  which  referred  to 
certain  facts,  in  order  to  show  some  day  who  were  those  who  had 
lent  real  services  to  the  country,  and  we  resolved  to  try  and  find 
the  document  which  was  the  principal  cause  of  the  danger 
which  had  threatened  us  at  that  time. 

" '  We  would  have  had  the  paper  in  our  possession  since 
August  last  if  it  had  not  been  for  the  terror  inspired  by  the 
secret  police  with  its  unjustified  arrests,  and  our  emissaries 
fled  from  Manila  and  did  not  come  back  until  after  the  end  of 
the  persecution. 

"  '  On  the  25th  of  February,  1901,  our  friend  Benito  Albey, 
who  had  been  lieutenant  of  the  militia  and  had  distinguished 
himself  in  the  war  against  Spain,  began,  on  our  advice,  a  new 
investigation,  which  was  crowned  with  success. 

" '  The  document  was  found   among  the   baggage  left   by 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       761 

Colonel  Leyba  to  Teodoro  de  los  Santos  at  Malolos,  and  which 
the  latter  had  remitted  to  a  certain  Tolo  Quesada  at  Alava, 
Pangasindn. 

"  '  I  am  sincerely  happy  that  said  document,  which  is  the 
clear  proof  of  General  Luna's  iniquitous  methods,  should  have 
been  found  so  that  it  may  serve  as  a  voucher  to  the  thorough- 
ness of  General  Otis'  investigations ;  although  I  would  have 
liked  to  keep  it  among  my  papers,  I  have  more  satisfaction  to 
be  useful  to  the  American  General,  who  has  obtained  the 
sympathy  of  the  Filipinos  by  his  kind  treatment. 

"  '  And  I  hope,  General  Crowder,  that  you  will  say  as  much  to 
General  Otis,  as  I  wish  him  to  know  that  there  are  Filipinos 
who  have  kept  a  grateful  recollection  of  him,  and  that  all 
Filipinos  are  not  ungrateful. 

" '  Very  respectfully, 

"  '  Manuel  Xeres  Burgos. 
" '  General  Crowder.' 

"On  June  30,  1901,  the  original  of  this  order,  signed  by 
Luna  and  produced  by  Burgos,  was  shown  to  Aguinaldo,  who, 
after  examining  it,  stated  that  the  signature  wasthat  of  General 
Antonio  Luna,  with  which  he  was  well  acquainted.  He  fur- 
thermore stated  that  he  had  no  personal  knowledge  of  such  an 
order,  and  had  hitherto  been  unaware  of  its  existence.  He 
was  then  asked  whether  General  Luna's  authority,  as  Director 
of  War,  was  of  sufficient  scope  to  authorize  him  to  issue  such  an 
order  ^\'ithout  ex-press  authority  from  the  insurgent  government. 
He  declined  to  answer  this  question. 

"A  photographic  reproduction  of  the  original  of  the  order 
of  Luna,  dated  February  7,  1899,  a  prmted  copy  in  Spanish, 
the  translation  which  preceded  this  note,  and  the  correspond- 
ence upon  which  the  foregoing  statement  is  based,  is  given 
beginning  on  page  1903,  Senate  Document  No.  331,  part  2, 
Fifty-seventh  Congress,  First  Session,  'Hearings  before  the 
Committee  on  the  Philippmes  of  the  United  States  Senate.' 

"There  does  not  seem  to  me  to  be  the  slightest  reason  for 
doubting  the  authenticity  of  this  order.  It  was  an  atrocious 
one,  but  that  argument  is  not  sufficient  to  prove  that  the  order 
delivered  up  by  Dr.  Burgos  was  a  forgery  in  whole  or  in  part. 

"The  facts  of  the  case  seem  to  me  to  ,be  the  following: 
In  January,  1899,  Doctor  Burgos  was  employed  in  Bilibid 
prison  by  the  Americans,  and  as  an  officer  of  Sandatahan  was 
deep  in  the  plotting  for  a  general  massacre  of  the  foreigners  in 
Manila.  Sometime  that  month  he  ^^Tote  to  Aguinaldo  that  the 
uprising  in  Manila  should  begm  in  Bilibid  prison,  and  that  the 


762  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Sandatahan  should  be  posted  on  San  Pedro  street  and  the  ad- 
jacent thoroughfares  in  preparation  for  an  attack  upon  the 
Zorilla  theatre,  where  the  Pennsylvania  regiment  was  quartered 
across  the  way  from  the  prison  (Exhibit  349).  His  sugges- 
tion was  adopted  as  part  of  the  plan  for  the  uprising.  Burgos, 
like  the  majority  of  the  Filipinos  in  Manila,  believed  that 
Aguinaldo  would  win,  and  was  doing  what  he  could  to  aid  his 
cause,  but  ■without  giving  up  his  position  under  the  American 
government.  The  plan  embodied  in  Luna's  order  was  to  be 
carried  out  as  part  of  the  attack  upon  Manila ;  but  that  attack 
was  delivered  prematurely,  and  it  was  found  impossible  to 
carry  out  the  uprising  in  Manila  which  was  to  have  preceded 
the  attack  upon  the  American  lines.  After  February  5,  1899, 
the  majority  of  the  Filipinos  in  Manila  ceased  to  believe  that 
Aguinaldo  was  going  to  beat  the  Americans,  and  Burgos,  who 
was  known  to  have  taken  part  in  the  movement  in  Manila 
headed  by  Sandico,  found  it  expedient  to  ward  off  any  investi- 
gation of  his  conduct  by  giving  information.  He  wanted  to 
stay  out  of  prison,  and  he  wanted  to  remain  surgeon  of  Bilibid 
prison.  He  was  well  aware  that  Sandico  was  known  by  the 
Americans  to  have  organized  bodies  of  sandatahan  in  Manila, 
and  he  therefore  delivered  to  the  provost  marshal  general  a 
partial  copy  of  Lmia's  order  which,  if  it  was  not  then  in  his 
possession,  he  had  seen ;  and  he  saw  no  reason  for  telling  more 
than  seemed  expedient  for  the  attainment  of  his  immediate 
purpose,  he  said  that  it  had  been  issued  by  Sandico,  who  he 
well  knew  the  Americans  would  believe  was  the  man  most 
likely  to  have  issued  it.  He  naturally  desired  to  avoid  having 
to  make  too  many  explanations.  In  1901,  Luna  being  dead, 
and  Burgos  being  safe  from  his  vengeance,  he  found  no  great 
difficulty  in  delivering  up  the  original  document,  which  was 
probably,  as  he  said,  in  the  papers  of  Colonel  Leyba,  or  Leiva, 
a  native  of  Manila  whose  family  lived  there  and  whose  house 
had  probably  been  a  centre  of  insurgent  intrigue.  Li  1899  or 
1900  Colonel  Leyba,  a  trusted  and  confidential  aid  of  Agui- 
naldo, had  been  murdered  by  'The  Guards  of  Honour'  in 
Pangasindn  Province,  and  Burgos  seems  to  have  had  access  to 
his  papers.  This,  at  least  to  me,  seems  a  plausible  explanation 
of  the  incomplete  form  in  which  this  first  order  appeared,  and 
why  it  appeared  at  all.  It  is  true  that  I  have  found  no  record 
of  it  among  the  record-books  kept  at  Malolos;  but  this  order 
was  not  of  a  character  to  be  written  out  in  full  in  any  letter- 
sent  book ;  and,  furthermore,  the  record-books  of  the  govern- 
ment at  ]\Ialolos  show  that  almost  no  records  were  kept  there 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       763 

for  a  week  after  the  outbreak  of  hostilities.  The  clerks  and 
officials  were  probably  busy  in  preparing  to  defend  the  place 
against  an  advance  of  the  Americans,  whom  they  had  hitherto 
looked  upon  with  contempt. 

"John  R.  Taylor."  ^ 

In  reality  there  was  nothing  novel  about  the  issuing  of 
such  an  order  in  the  Phihppines. 

Alfonso  Ocampo,  who  was  to  have  led  the  attack  in  an 
attempt  to  massacre  all  Spaniards  in  Cavite  at  the  out- 
break of  the  revolt  of  1896,  testified  as  follows  concerning 
the  proposed  movement :  — 

"It  was  to  be  carried  out  in  conjunction  with  the  towns  of 
Imus  and  others  of  the  province ;  the  people  were  to  enter  by 
the  Porta  Vaga  (the  main  gate  of  Cavite)  and  uniting  into 
groups,  were  to  assault,  kill  and  rob  all  the  Spaniards.  The 
deponent  was  in  charge  of  this  affair.  The  jailer  of  the  prison 
was  to  distribute  daggers  among  the  prisoners  and  then  re- 
lease them.  When  the  plot  was  discovered,  some  of  these 
arms  had  been  distributed.  The  object  of  the  rebellion  was  to 
assassinate  all  the  Spaniards,  then  to  rape  the  women,  and 
cut  their  throats,  as  weO  as  those  of  their  children,  even  the 
smallest."  - 

On  June  26,  1896,  there  was  issued  an  order  for  an  up- 
rising in  Manila,  which  contained  the  following  provi- 
sions, among  others :  — 

"Fourth.  While  the  attack  is  being  made  on  the  Captain- 
General  and  other  Spanish  authorities,  the  men  who  are  loyal 
will  attack  the  convents  and  behead  their  infamous  inhabitants. 
As  for  the  riches  contained  in  said  convents,  they  will  be  taken 
over  by  the  commissioners  appointed  by  tliis  G.  R.  Log.  for 
the  purpose,  and,  none  of  our  brothers  will  be  permitted  to 
take  possession  of  that  which  justly  belongs  to  the  treasury  of 
the  G.  N.  F.  [Grand  Philippine  Nation  ?-Tr.]. 

"Fifth.  Those  who  violate  the  provisions  of  the  preceding 
paragraph  ^vill  be  considered  malefactors,  and  -will  be  sub- 
jected to  exemplary  punishment  by  this  G.  R.  Log.  [Grand 
Regional  Lodge?]. 

1  This  is  the  "note  by  compiler  on  exhibit  816,"  which  is  Lima's 
order. 

2  Taylor,  96  FZ. 


764  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

"Sixth.  On  the  following  day  the  brothers  designated  will 
bury  the  bodies  of  all  the  hateful  oppressors,  in  the  field  of 
Bgumbayan,  as  well  as  those  of  their  wives  and  children.  Later 
a  monument  commemorating  the  independence  of  the  G.  N.  F. 
(Grand  Philippine  Nation  ?)  will  be  erected  on  that  site. 

"Seventh.  The  bodies  of  the  friars  will  not  be  buried, 
but  will  be  burned  in  just  payment  for  the  crimes  which  during 
their  lives  they  committed  against  the  noble  Filipinos,  for 
three  centuries  of  hateful  domination."  ^ 

As  much  is  said,  in  the  very  numerous  orders  for  assas- 
sinations, of  trials  by  courts  of  most  summary  procedure, 
especial  importance  attaches  to  Taylor's  statement  that 
there  is  an  almost  complete  absence  of  records  of  trials 
or  legal  proceedings  among  the  two  hundred  and  fifty 
thousand  documents  on  which  his  work  was  based.  He 
says  that  "there  are  probably  less  than  twenty-five 
records  of  trials  among  these  papers,  and  not  above  one 
or  two  records  of  military  courts  of  summary  procedure. 
Law  was  the  will  of  the  official  who  would  force  obe- 
dience to  his  desire.     If  he  wanted  to  kill  he  killed."  - 

General  MacArthur  is  credited  by  Blount  with  the 
following  statement :  — 

"The  cohesion  of  Filipino  society  in  behalf  of  insurgent 
interests  is  most  emphatically  illustrated  by  the  fact  that 
assassination,  which  was  extensively  employed,  was  generally 
accepted  as  a  legitimate  expression  of  insurgent  governmental 
authority.  The  individuals  marked  for  death  would  not  appeal  to 
American  protection,  although  condemned  exclusively  on  account  of 
supposed  pro- Americanism."  ^ 

As  a  matter  of  fact,  plenty  of  people  appealed  to  the 
Americans  for  protection  and  got  it.  I  have  seen  docu- 
ment after  document  each  recommending  some  individual 
to  American  officers  everywhere  as  worthy  of  protection, 
and  as  needing  it  on  account  of  services  rendered  to 
Americans.     Relative  to  this  matter,  Taylor  says  :  — 

1  Tavlor,  99  PZ. 

2  Ibid.,  44  HS. 

5  Blount,  p.  313. 


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MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       765 

"Among  the  papers  of  the  insurgents  there  are  a  few  letters 
to  American  officers  asking  for  protection  against  the  insurgents. 
They  represent  a  protest  against  conditions  which  were  rapidly 
becoming  unbearable ;  but  most  of  them  must  have  been  sent 
without  copies,  for  in  case  they  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  guer- 
illas they  would  have  served  as  death  warrants  for  the  men  who 
signed  them.  From  early  in  1900,  they  were  much  more 
frequent  all  over  the  archipelago  than  the  number  which  have 
survived,  either  in  the  official  records  of  the  American  army  in 
the  Philippines,  or  among  the  papers  of  the  insurgents,  would 
lead  the  investigator  to  beheve.  Those  which  were  sent  to 
the  commanders  of  American  detachments  were  not  kept  as 
a  rule,  for  a  small  detachment  has  few  records.  As  early  as 
March,  1900,  the  head  of  the  town  of  Passi,  Panay,  asked 
American  protection  against  robbers  and  insurgents."  '■ 

General  MacArthur  had  a  fixed  idea  that  all  FiUpinos 
were  against  us,  but  he  was  wrong.^ 

In  very  many  cases  our  efforts  to  furnish  protection 
were  necessarily  futile.  It  is  easy  enough  to  protect  a 
town  from  an  open  attack.  It  is  often  excessively  diffi- 
cult to  protect  an  individual  against  an  assassin  who 
proffers  him  one  hand  in  assumed  friendship  and  stabs 
him  with  the  other. 

We  shall  never  know  how  many  men  were  murdered 
in  accordance  with  the  orders  which  I  have  cited,  and  other 
similar  ones. 

On  February  10,  1900,  General  P.  Garcia  wrote  to 
General  Isidoro  Torres  advising  him  to  inform  the  inhab- 
itants of  Bulacan,  among  whom  it  was  understood  that 
the  Americans  were  about  to  establish  municipal  govern- 
ments, "of  what  occurred  in  the  Island  of  Negros  where 
two  hundred  men  have  been  shot  and  forty  more  have 

1  Taylor,  70  HS. 

2  "In  December,  1900,  the  people  of  the  town  of  Santa  Cniz,  Ilocos 
Sur,  seized  the  guerilla  commander  of  the  town  because  he  had  raped 
some  women,  and  then  burnt  their  acts  of  adhesion  to  the  insurgent 
government.  They  declared  themselves  adherents  of  the  Americans, 
proceeded  to  give  them  all  possible  aid  and  assistance,  and  captured 
and  delivered  to  them  all  the  guerillas  who  dared  enter  the  place 
(P.  1.  R.,  Books  C-13)."  —  Taylor,  4.5  HS. 


766  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

been  cast  into  the  water  for  having  accepted  the  American 
sovereignty,  and  because  they  were  suspected  of  not 
being  adherents  of  the  cause  of  the  independence  of  our 
country."  ' 

In  reviewing  the  sentence  of  the  Taytay  murderers, 
General  Adna  R.  Chaffee,  who,  as  the  ranking  mihtary 
officer  in  the  Philippines,  was  closely  in  touch  with  the 
situation,  made  the  following  statement :  — 

"The  number  of  peaceful  men  who  have  been  murdered  in 
these  islands  at  the  instigation  of  the  chiefs,  while  impracti- 
cable of  exact  determination,  is  yet  kno^Ti  to  be  so  great  that 
to  recount  them  would  constitute  one  of  the  most  horrible 
chapters  in  human  history.  With  respect  to  these  chiefs,  the 
commanding  general  has,  therefore,  no  other  recourse  than  to 
invoke  the  unrelenting  execution  of  the  law  upon  them  and  to 
appeal  to  the  inteUigent  and  educated  among  the  Filipino 
people  to  aid  him  by  renewed  efforts  to  end  a  reign  of  terror  of 
which  their  own  people  are  the  helpless  victims."  ^ 

Taylor  has  made  the  following  summary  of  the  facts  :  — 

"The  justice  of  the  United  States  was  slow  in  its  course; 
witnesses  had  to  be  examined,  and  before  a  notorious  criminal 
could  be  punished  it  had  to  be  proved  that  he  had  committed 
some  particular  crime.  Unless  the  crime  was  proved  to  the 
satisfaction  of  a  military  commission  by  witnesses,  the  greater 
part  of  whose  testimony  had  to  be  translated  into  English 
from  some  native  language  by  an  interpreter,  who  was  almost 
never  an  American,  the  man  whom  a  whole  village  knew  to 
be  an  assassin  would  escape  punishment  and  would  return  to 
avenge  himself  upon  those  who  had  denounced  him.  The 
justice  of  Aguinaldo  was  a  different  matter.  The  Americans 
might  hang  for  minder,  but  he  would  bury  ahve  for  serving 
them.  The  Americans  might  send  a  man  to  prison  for  burning 
a  town,  only  to  release  him  when  an  error  was  found  in  the 
proceedings.  There  were  no  errors  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
guerillas.  There  was  usually  no  sununoning  of  witnesses, 
no  slow  taking  of  testimony  and  no  careful  search  for  laches 
which  would  invalidate  the  finding  of  the  court  and  inure 
to  the  benefit  of  the  accused.  It  was  sufficient  for  some  native 
to  be  denounced  as  in  the  employment  of  the  Americans,  or 

'  P.  I.  R.,  Books  A-9,  No.  39.  «  Taylor,  37  HS. 


MURDER  AS  A  GOVERNMENTAL  AGENCY       767 

as  an  agent,  or  as  a  civil  officer  under  the  United  States,  for  a 
summons  to  be  issued  for  his  appearance  before  a  court  of 
summary  procedure,  which  was  a  court  in  name  only ;  or  for 
a  mandate  to  be  sent  ordering  that  '  the  serviceable  method  of 
dukut  was  to  be  employed  in  his  case.'  That  meant  that  he 
was  kidnapped  and  murdered,  usually  after  a  priest  had  re- 
ceived his  confession ;  or  that  he  was  sent  back  to  the  town 
hamstruug,  and  with  his  tongue  out,  as  a  warning  to  the  people 
that  the  justice  of  Aguinaldo  was  sharp  and  that  his  arm  was 
long."  1 

The  blood  of  these  men  cries  out  against  those  who 
would  deceive  the  American  people  into  believing  that 
the  Filipinos  were  ever  united  in  loyalty  toward  the 
Filipino  Republic  or  the  leaders  who  made  murder  a 
governmental  agency  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Most  of  the  men  who  wi-ote  the  orders  and  perpetrated 
the  acts  which  I  have  cited  are  alive  and  active  to-day. 
Were  independence  granted,  they  would  rule  again  the 
country  that  they  ruled  before.  Is  there  any  reason  for 
believing  that  their  warped  intelligences  have  straight- 
ened, or  their  hard  hearts  softened  ?  Would  the  United 
States  care  to  assume  responsibihty  for  any  government 
which  they  could  set  up  or  would  maintain  ? 

1  Taylor,  28-29  HS. 


CHAPTER  XXVII 
The  Philippine  Legislatuke 

From  September  1,  1900,  to  October  16,  1907,  the  Phil- 
ippine Commission  was  the  sole  legislative  body.  The 
Act  of  Congress  of  July  1,  1902,  temporarily  providing 
for  the  administration  of  the  affairs  of  civil  government 
in  the  Philippine  Islands,  had  provided  for  the  taking  of 
a  census  after  the  insurrection  should  have  ceased  and  a 
condition  of  general  and  complete  peace  should  have  been 
certified  to  by  the  commission.  It  had  provided  further 
that  two  years  after  the  publication  of  the  census,  if  such 
condition  of  peace  had  continued  in  the  territory  not 
inhabited  by  Moros  or  other  non-Christian  tribes,  and  was 
certified  to  the  President  by  the  commission,  the  President 
should  direct  the  commission  to  call,  and  the  commission 
should  call,  a  general  election  for  the  choice  of  delegates 
to  a  popular  assembly  to  be  known  as  the  Philippine 
Assembly,  and  that  after  said  assembly  should  convene 
and  organize  all  the  legislative  power  theretofore  con- 
ferred on  the  commission  in  all  that  part  of  the  islands  not 
inhabited  by  Moros  or  other  non-Christian  tribes  should 
be  vested  in  a  legislature  consisting  of  two  houses,  the 
Philippine  Commission  and  the  Phihppine  Assembly. 

The  first  of  the  certificates  required  of  the  commission 
was  issued  on  September  8,  1902.  President  Roosevelt 
on  September  23,  1902,  issued  an  order  for  the  taking  of 
the  census. 

On  March  28,  1905,  Governor-General  Wright  pro- 
claimed the  publication  of  the  census.  On  March  28, 
1907,  the  commission  issued  the  second  of  the  certificates 
required  of  it.^ 

'  The  essential  part  of  the  resolution  reads  as  follows  :  — 
"Whereas  since  the  completion  and  publication  of  said  census  there 

768 


THE  PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  769 

The  following  day  a  cablegram  was  received  from  the 
President  directing  the  commission  to  call  a  general  elec- 
tion for  the  choice  of  delegates,  and  on  March  30,  1907, 
the  commission  adopted  the  necessary  resolution  caUing 
such  election  to  be  held  on  July  30, 1907,  in  accordance  with 
an  election  law  previously  passed  on  January  9  of  the  same 
year.  This  law  provided  for  eighty-one  delegates  pro- 
portioned among  thirty-five  provinces  according  to  popu- 
lation, except  that  each  province  entitled  to  representation 
was  allotted  at  least  one  delegate,  no  matter  how  few 
people  it  might  have.  Cebu,  the  most  populous  of  all, 
was  given  seven.  The  Mountain  Province,  the  Moro 
Province,  Nueva  Vizcaya  and  Agusan  were  left  without 
representation  because  of  the  predominance  of  Moros  or 
other  non-Christians  among  their  people.      On  April  1, 

have  been  no  serious  disturbances  of  the  public  order  save  and  except 
those  caused  by  the  noted  outlaws  and  bandit  chieftains  Felizardo 
and  Montaldn,  and  their  followers  in  the  Provinces  of  Cavite  and  Batan- 
gas,  and  those  caused  in  the  Provinces  of  Samar  and  Leyte  by  the 
non-Christian  and  fanatical  pulajanes  resident  in  the  mountain  dis- 
tricts of  the  said  provinces  and  the  barrios  contiguous  thereto ;   and 

"Whereas  the  overwhelming  majority  of  the  people  of  the  said 
Provinces  of  Cavite,  Batangas,  Samar,  and  Leyte  have  not  taken  part 
in  said  disturbances  and  have  not  aided  nor  abetted  the  lawless  acts 
of  said  bandits  and  pulajanes ;  and 

"  Whereas  the  great  mass  and  body  of  the  Filipino  people  have, 
during  said  period  of  two  years,  continued  to  be  law-abiding,  peaceful, 
and  loyal  to  the  United  States,  and  have  continued  to  recognize  and 
do  now  recognize  the  authority  and  sovereignty  of  the  United  States 
in  the  territory  of  said  Philippine  Islands  :   Now,  therefore,  be  it 

"Resolved  by  the  Philippine  Commission  in  formal  session  duly 
assembled.  That  it,  said  Philippine  Commission,  do  certify,  and  it 
does  hereby  certify,  to. the  President  of  the  United  States  that  for  a 
period  of  two  years  after  the  completion  and  publication  of  the  cen- 
sus a  condition  of  general  and  complete  peace,  with  recognition  of 
the  authority  of  the  United  States,  has  continued  to  exist  and  now 
exists  in  the  territory  of  said  Philippine  Islands  not  inhabited  by 
Moros  or  other  non-Christian  tribes ;    and  be  it  further 

"  Resolved  by  said  Philippine  Commission,  That  the  President  of 
the  United  States  be  requested,  and  is  hereby  requested,  to  direct 
said  Philippine  Commission  to  call  a  general  election  for  the  choice 
of  delegates  to  a  popular  assembly  of  the  people  of  said  territory  in  the 
Philippine  Islands,  which  assemljly  shall  be  known  as  the  Philippine 
Assembly."  —  Journal  of  the  Commission,  Vol.  I,  pp.  8-9. 


770  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

1907,  the  governor-general  issued  a  proclamation  embody- 
ing the  resolution  of  the  commission. 

The  election  was  duly  held,  and  on  October  16, 1907,  the 
first  session  of  the  Phihppine  Legislature  was  opened, 
under  authority  of  the  President,  by  Mr.  Taft,  then 
secretary  of  war,  who  had  returned  to  the  Islands  for 
this  and  other  purposes. 

The  action  of  the  commission  in  issuing  its  second 
certificate  has  been  criticised  on  account  of  conditions 
which  arose  subsequent  to  the  publication  of  the  census, 
in  Cavite,  La  Laguna  and  Samar.  These  conditions  were 
referred  to  in  the  commission  resolution.  There  was  no 
desire  to  conceal  or  misrepresent  them.  As  we  have 
already  seen,  the  trouble  in  Samar  was  stirred  up  by 
abuses  among  the  hill  people.  It  has  been  claimed  that 
they  were  not  members  of  any  non-Christian  tribe. 
There  are  a  limited  number  of  genuine  wild  people  in 
Samar,  but  the  great  majority  of  the  so-called  jmldjanes 
were  in  reaUty  remontados  '  or  the  descendants  of  re- 
montados. 

In  La  Laguna  and  Cavite  disorder  caused  by  wandering 
ladrone  bands  at  one  time  had  become  so  serious  that  it 
was  deemed  advisable  temporarily  to  suspend  the  writ  of 
habeaus  corpus  and  to  authorize  the  reconcentration  of 
the  law-abiding  inhabitants  of  certain  regions  to  the  end 
that  they  might  be  adequately  protected  and  to  make  it 
easier  to  distinguish  between  good  citizens,  and  thieves 
and  murderers. 

Whether  these  occurrences  were  or  were  not  to  be  con- 
sidered as  of  such  a  nature  as  to  render  it  impossible  to 
certify  that  a  condition  of  "general  and  complete  peace, 
with  recognition  of  the  authority  of  the  United  States" 
had  continued  to  exist  in  the  Philippine  territory  not 
occupied  by  IVIoros  or  other  non-Christians,  was  a  matter 

'  A  designation  applied  by  the  Spaniards  to  people  who  had  taken 
to  the  hills  to  avoid  paying  taxes  or  to  escape  abuses,  or  punishment  for 
crimes. 


THE  PHILIPPINE  LEGISLATURE  771 

of  judgment,  and  the  commission  exercised  the  best 
judgment  it  possessed. 

Dm-ing  the  Spanish  days  ladronism  had  always  been 
rampant,  affecting  every  province  in  the  islands  and  being 
especially  bad  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Manila.  When 
we  issued  our  certificate  we  had  httle  hope  of  promptly 
ridding  the  archipelago  of  ladrones,  as  has  since  been  done. 
On  the  contrary  we  expected  that  a  certain  amount  of 
ladronism  would  continue  for  many  years.  We  did  not 
think  that  it  should  be  considered  pubhc  disorder  within 
the  meaning  of  the  act  of  Congress.  Furthermore,  we 
were  all  anxious  to  encourage  the  Filipinos  and  to  give 
them  a  chance  to  show  what  they  could  do.  I  for  one 
hoped  that  by  this  act  of  liberality  we  might  win  the  good- 
will, and  secure  the  real  cooperation,  of  many  of  the 
Filipino  politicians.  It  is  always  easy  to  look  back  and 
see  one's  mistakes.  I  now  know  that  nothing  could 
have  been  more  futile  than  the  hope  of  gaining  the  good- 
will of  the  men  with  whom  we  were  deahng  by  any 
concessions  whatsoever,  yet  the  attempt  was  worth  mak- 
ing. It  is  the  wild  men  in  the  hills  and  the  good  old 
taos '  in  the  lowland  plains  who  appreciate  and  are 
grateful  for  fair  treatment  when  they  reahze  that  they 
are  receiving  it. 

The  politicians  of  the  present  day  are  a  hungry  lot. 
The  more  they  are  fed,  the  more  their  appetites  grow,  and 
the  wider  their  voracious  maws  open.  Most  of  them  are 
without  gratitude  or  appreciation,  and  regard  concessions 
as  evidences  of  weakness  on  the  part  of  those  who  grant 
them.  Philippine  officials  and  lawmakers  might  as  well 
make  up  their  minds  to  do  what  is  right  because  it  is  right, 
and  let  it  go  at  that.  By  the  same  token  they  should 
refrain  from  doing  what  is  questionable  in  the  hope  that  the 
good-will  resulting  will  more  than  counterbalance  the  pos- 
sible evil  effect  of  doubtful  measures. 

•  A  TagSlog  designation  applied  to  the  common  people,  and  espe- 
cially to  field  labourers. 


772  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

It  cannot  be  denied  that  the  issuance  by  the  comnoission 
of  its  certificate  of  March  30,  1907,  was  a  somewhat  doubt- 
ful measure,  involving  a  rather  strained  construction  of 
the  words  ' '  general  and  complete  peace,  with  recognition 
of  the  authority  of  the  United  States"  in  the  Act  of  Con- 
gress of  July  1,  1902.  I  am  now  firmly  of  the  opinion 
that  in  thus  giving  the  Filipinos  the  benefit  of  the  doubt 
we  erred,  with  the  result  that  the  Philippine  Assembly 
came  at  least  ten  years  too  soon.  Its  creation  in  1907 
has  resulted  in  imposing  a  heavy  financial  burden  on  the 
country  for  wliich  there  has  been  no  adequate  com- 
pensating return. 

In  the  Plulippine  Legislature  neither  house  enjoys  any 
special  privileges,  and  either  may  originate  any  bill  which 
the  legislature  is  authorized  to  pass.  The  assembly 
has  been  characterized  as  "a  harmless  little  debating 
society"  and  the  government  of  the  Philippines  has  been 
called  "a  toy  government"  because  it  was  claimed  that 
no  real  powers  were  given  to  the  lower  house.  The 
commission  has  exclusive  power  to  legislate  for  certain 
non-Christian  territory.  In  all  other  legislative  matters 
the  assembly  and  the  commission  have  equal  power. 
The  passage  of  legislation  requires  affirmative  action  by 
both  houses,  a  condition  which  is  certainly  sufficiently 
common  in  legislative  bodies  composed  of  two  houses,  and 
one  that  does  not  ordinarily  evoke  criticism. 

Of  late  the  assembly  has  claimed  for  itself  the  exclusive 
right  to  initiate  appropriation  bills,  but  there  is  not  a  ves- 
tige of  legal  authority  for  such  a  claim,  and  even  the  so- 
called  "Jones  Bill"  does  not  confer  such  right  on  the  lower 
house.  It  shares,  with  the  upper  house,  one  power  of 
deadly  effectiveness.  It  can  prevent  legislation  on  any 
subject  whatsoever.  It  has  not  hesitated  to  employ  this 
power,  when  occasion  arose,  to  obstruct  the  passage  of 
many  important  and  desirable  measures,  either  in  the  hope 
of  being  able  in  the  end  to  make  a  trade  and  thus  securing 
the  passage  of  acts  of  more  than  doubtful  utility,  or  be- 


A  Bit  of  the  Pagsanjan  GoRiiE. 


THE  PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  773 

cause  of  a  purpose  to  prevent   the  enactment  of  laws 
dealing  with  the  matters  in  question. 

The  most  striking  instance  of  the  blocking  of  important 
legislation  by  the  assembly  is  afforded  by  its  action  in 
tabling  four  anti-slavery  acts  passed  by  the  commission  at 
successive  legislative  sessions.  Tliis  matter  has  already 
been  fully  discussed. ^ 

The  history  of  the  Cadastral  Survey  Act  affords  an 
example  of  the  holding  up  bj'^  the  assembly  of  a  measure 
of  undoubted  and  undenied  utiUty  in  order  to  attempt 
to  force  the  passage  of  positively  vicious  acts. 

The  case  of  the  would-be  landowner  who  has  occupied 
land  for  years  under  such  conditions  that  he  could  have 
completed  an  unperfected  title  to  it,  and  who  finally 
desires  for  one  reason  or  another  to  do  so,  has  been  a 
rather  hard  one,  as  the  cost  of  the  necessary  survey  is 
chargeable  to  him  and  when  a  survey  party  has  to  be  sent 
a  long  distance  to  measure  a  Httle  tract  of  land  the  ratio 
of  such  cost  to  the  value  of  the  land  is  often  very  high. 
Cost  of  surveys  can  be  materially  reduced  if  all  the  pri- 
vately owned  land  parcels  in  a  given  area  are  surveyed 
consecutively,  and  tliis  procedure  has  the  further  great 
advantage  of  effectively  deUmitating  the  pubHc  domain 
in  the  area  in  question. 

In  the  interest  of  small  property  owTiers,  advantage 
has  been  taken  of  provisions  of  the  Public  Land  Act 
which  make  it  possible  to  compel  the  survey  of  private 
lands  under  certain  conditions  in  cases  of  doubt  as  to 
ownership.  As  soon  as  the  people  concerned  could  be 
made  to  understand  our  object  in  doing  tliis  they  be- 
came enthusiastic  about  it,  but  the  legal  procedure 
authorized  was  by  no  means  adequate  er  satisfactory, 
and  there  was  gi-eat  need  of  the  passage  of  a  carefully 
drafted  Cadastral  Survey  Act  providing  the  necessary 
legal  machinery  for  accomplisliing  the  desired  end  with 
the  least  possible  delay  and  at  the  lowest  possible  ex- 

'  See  p.  699  et  seq. 

VOL.  II T 


774  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

pense,  and  providing  further  for  the  distribution  of  such 
expense  between  the  insular,  provincial  and  municipal 
governments  and  the  property  owners.  All  are  inter- 
ested parties,  the  insular  government  because  it  learns 
what  land  in  a  given  region  belongs  to  the  pubUc  domain  ; 
the  provincial  and  mumcipal  governments  because  the 
collection  of  taxes  is  faciUtated,  and  accurate  maps  of 
towns  and  barrios  are  made. 

Such  an  act  w-as  passed  by  the  commission.  It  was 
clearly  and  indisputably  designed  expressly  for  the  benefit 
of  poor  Filipinos.  No  legitimate  objection  could  be  made 
to  it.  The  treatment  accorded  it  by  the  Phihppine 
Assembly  conclusively  demonstrates  the  irresponsibility 
of  that  body,  and  its  unfitness  to  deal  with  great  questions 
which  vitally  affect  the  common  people.  Realizing  that 
the  commission,  and  especially  the  governor-general, 
were  earnestly  desirous  of  securing  its  passage,  the 
assembly  refused  to  pass  it.  It  was  duly  reintroduced 
at  the  next  session  of  the  legislature. 

I  was  a  member  of  the  commission  conference  com- 
mittee appointed  to  meet  a  similar  committee  from  the 
assembly  and  discuss  it.  The  assembly  committee 
informed  us  at  the  outset  that  a  sine  qua  non  for  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  bill  was  that  we  should  agree  to  an  amend- 
ment which  would  admit,  without  examination,  to  the 
work  of  making  pubhc  land  surveys  Fihpino  so-called 
surveyors,  Imown  to  be  utterly  incompetent,  who  coiild 
not  make  correct  surveys  under  the  most  favourable  cir- 
cumstances. But  tins  was  not  all.  It  was  generally 
understood  that  an  additional  requu-ement  was  to  be 
an  amendment  to  the  Judiciary  Act  providing  for  a  num- 
ber of  new  judges.  The  commission  committee  believed 
that  they  were  unnecessary,  and  were  asked  for  with  a  view 
to  making  places  for  pohtical  appointees.  Needless  to 
say,  the  Cadastral  Survey  Act  failed  in  conference.  In  the 
session  of  1912-1913  it  finally  passed,  with  practically  all  of 
these  objectionable  featm-es  eUminated,  but  it  is  at  present 


THE  PHILIPPINE  LEGISLATURE  775 

much  less  useful  than  it  might  be  for  the  reason  that 
an  act  amending  the  Judiciary  Act  so  as  to  pro- 
vide more  judges  in  the  Court  of  Land  Registration, 
where  they  are  badly  needed,  instead  of  for  courts  of  first 
instance,  where  no  such  necessity  exists,  was  killed  in 
the  assembly. 

As  it  will  take  the  Court  of  Land  Registration  something 
Uke  three  years  to  finish  hearing  the  cases  alreadj^  in  hand, 
the  preparation  of  a  large  additional  number  for  it,  as  a 
result  of  the  apphcation  of  the  Cadastral  Act,  will  not 
materially  help  the  present  situation  unless  the  number  of 
its  judges  is  increased.  There  is  reason  to  fear  that  future 
attempts  to  bring  this  about  will  be  met  by  demands  that 
there  be  more  judges  of  first  instance,  and  that  they  be 
given  jurisdiction  in  land  cases,  which  should  be  decided 
by  specially  trained  and  quahfied  men. 

One  who  examined  only  the  laws  actually  passed  by  the 
legislature  might  gain  the  impression  that  the  assembly 
had  done  good  work.  It  should  be  remembered  that  312 
acts  passed  by  that  body  have  been  disapproved  by  the 
commission.  Had  they  become  laws  there  would  have 
been  a  very  different  story  to  tell.  One  hundred  and 
seven  acts  passed  by  the  commission  have  been  disap- 
proved by  the  assembly.  A  careful  study  of  these  two 
groups  of  acts  will  be  found  worth  while,  but  in  order 
to  make  the  picture  complete  it  should  be  supplemented  by 
detailed  consideration  of  the  amendments  to  assembly 
bills  made  by  the  commission  before  they  have  been 
passed,  which  have  sometimes  involved  the  striking  out 
of  everything  after  title,  and  the  insertion  of  practically 
new  provisions.  It  should  further  be  remembered  that 
many  really  good  measures,  which  have  apparently 
originated  as  assembly  bills,  have  been  drafted  bj-  mem- 
bers of  the  commission,  or  under  their  direction,  and  then 
first  presented  in  the  assembly  in  order  to  facilitate  their 
passage. 

Had  some  one  of  the  several  gentlemen  who  have  made 


776  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

brief  visits  to  the  Philippines  and  then  expressed  their 
views  as  to  tlie  fitness  of  the  Filipinos  for  early  indepen- 
dence devoted  himself  to  the  line  of  study  above  outlined, 
he  would  have  gained  valuable  information  on  their 
present  fitness  to  legislate,  and  we  should  perhaps  now  be 
profiting  by  the  practical  results  of  an  experiment  already 
made,  instead  of  embarking  on  a  new  and  dangerous 
one. 

I  cannot  here  do  more  than  briefly  call  attention  to  the 
nature  of  a  few  of  the  bills  killed  by  the  commission  and 
the  assembly  respectively.  For  convenience  of  reference, 
I  refer  to  these  bills  by  session  and  number. 

FIRST    LEGISLATURE 

Inaugural  Session 

Assembly  Bill  117  was  "An  Act  to  extend  the  period 
within  which  provincial  boards  organized  under  the  Pro- 
vincial Government  Act  may  remit  the  collection  of  the 
land  tax  in  their  respective  provinces." 

This  was  the  first  of  a  very  long  series  of  assembly 
measures  designed  to  abolish  or  reduce  existing  taxes,  or 
indefinitely  to  postpone  the  time  for  their  collection. 
Provincial  boards,  with  a  majority  of  their  members 
elective,  were  very  amenable  to  influence  in  the  matter 
of  "postponing"  the  collection  of  the  land  tax. 

The  per  capita  rate  of  taxation  is  lower  in  the  Philip- 
pines than  in  any  other  civilized  country.  Money  is 
badly  needed  for  education,  health  work  and  the  improve- 
ment of  means  of  communication,  and  all  of  these  meas- 
ures were  ill-advised. 

First  Session  and  Special  Session  of  1908 

Assembly  Bill  23  provided  for  the  appointment  of  jurors 
in  courts  of  first  instance  and  justice  of  the  peace 
courts.     Under  it  the  provincial  boards  were  to  select 


THE   PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  777 

the  eligibles  from  a  list  of  names  submitted  by  the  mu- 
nicipal councils  of  the  provincial  capitals.  This  would  in 
effect  have  put  the  administration  of  justice  in  the  hands 
of  the  pohtical  party  in  power. 

Assembly  Bill  104  was  entitled  "  An  Act  amending  Act 
numbered  fifteen  hundred  and  tliirty-seven  of  the  Philip- 
pine Commission  on  horse-races  in  the  Phihppine  Islands." 

Gambling  is  the  besetting  sin  of  the  Filipinos,  and  in 
the  city  of  Manila  gambling  in  connection  with  horse  rac- 
ing had  grown  to  be  such  a  scandal  that  the  commission  had 
been  compelled  to  take  action  limiting  the  days  on  which 
it  was  permitted  to  legal  holidays  and  one  Sunday  per 
month.  The  evil  had  reached  large  dimensions.  Several 
race-tracks  were  maintained  in  one  small  city,  and  the 
money  that  went  through  the  totalizer,  or  gambling 
machine,  had  reached  the  enormous  sum  of  S3, 500, 000 
per  year.  Even  poorly  paid  clerks  were  leaving  their  work 
to  bet  on  the  races,  and  then  stealing  in  order  to  recoup 
themselves  for  their  losses.  The  morals  of  the  community 
were  being  rapidly  undermined.  The  act  passed  by  the 
commission  interfered  with  the  business  of  conducting 
daily  crooked  races.  It  certainly  left  plenty  of  oppor- 
tunity to  indulge  in  horse-racing  as  a  legitimate  sport. 
The  amendment  proposed  by  the  assembly  permitted 
horse-racing  on  all  Sundays,  on  three  daj^s  prior  to  Lent 
and  on  all  legal  holidays  except  Memorial  Day,  Rizal 
Day  and  Thursday  and  Friday  of  Holy  Week.  If  passed 
it  would  have  protected  certain  vicious  interests  and 
opened  the  way  to  a  prompt  extension  of  the  gambling 
business. 

Assembly  Bill  134  reduced  the  tax  on  distilled  intoxi- 
cating liquors  one-fourth.  The  tax  was  already  low. 
The  rate  proposed  by  the  assembly  was  a  concession  to 
the  demand  of  powerful  interests  and  its  attitude  was 
worthy  of  severe  condenmation. 


778  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Assembly  Bill  136  abolished  provincial  boards  of  health, 
substituted  therefor  district  health  officers  and  took 
important  powers  away  from  the  director  of  health  and 
gave  them  to  provincial  boards.  Substantial  progress 
had  been  made  in  improving  provincial  sanitaiy  condi- 
tions through  provincial  boards  of  health,  under  the 
control  of  the  director  of  health.  As  was  to  be  antici- 
pated in  a  country  like  the  Philippines,  many  necessary 
health  measures  were  unpopular.  This  bill,  vitally 
affecting  one  of  the  most  imperative  needs  of  the  islands, 
would  if  concurred  in  by  the  commission  have  resulted 
in  widespread  disaster. 

Assembly  Bill  148  provided  for  the  teaching  of  the  local 
native  dialects  in  the  public  schools.  This  would  have 
had  the  effect  of  doing  away  with  the  teaching  of  English, 
or  preventing  its  inauguration,  in  many  places ;  would 
have  emphasized  and  perpetuated  the  different  native 
dialects ;  would  have  helped  to  keep  the  people  speaking 
these  several  dialects  apart,  and  would  thus  seriously 
have  hampered  progress  toward  national  unity.  One 
of  the  most  important  and  useful  things  that  the  American 
government  is  doing  is  to  generalize  the  knowledge  of  the 
English  language,  which  not  only  gives  the  several  peoples 
of  the  archipelago  a  common  means  of  communication, 
but  opens  up  new  fields  of  knowledge  to  them  and  makes 
it  easy  for  them  to  travel.  Even  during  the  days  of  the 
Filipino  "republic"  Mabini  advocated  making  English 
the  official  language.^ 

1  Mabini's  "True  Decalogue,"  published  as  a  part  of  his  constitu- 
tional programme  for  the  Philippine  Republic  (P.  I.  R.,  40.  10)  contains 
the  following  among  other  remarkable  provisions  :  — 

"Elementary  instructions  shall  comprise  reading,  speaking  and 
writing  correctly  the  official  language  which  is  Tagalog,  and  the  rudi- 
mentary principles  of  English  and  of  the  exact  physical  and  natural 
sciences,  together  with  a  slight  knowledge  of  the  duties  of  man  and 
citizenship."  —  Taylor,  19  MG. 

Also  the  following  :  — 

"Whenever  the  English  language  is  sufSeiently  diffused  through 
the  whole  Philippine  Archipelago  it  shall  be  declared  the  official  lan- 
guage." —  Taylor,  20  MG. 


THE   PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  779 

Assembly  Bill  197  abolished  the  Bureau  of  Civil  Service 
and  organized  in  its  stead  a  division  attached  to  the  Bureau 
of  Audits.  This  bill,  ostensibly  an  economy  measure, 
was  designed  to  minimize  the  usefulness  of  one  of  the  most 
important  bureaus  of  the  government.  In  the  early 
days  of  the  American  regime  Filipinos  who  had  served 
the  government  were  often  deeply  offended  that  appoint- 
ments were  not  given  to  members  of  their  families  or  to 
their  near  relatives,  absolutely  irrespective  of  their  fitness 
for  office.  Naturally  they  disapproved  of  the  civil 
service  law  when  they  found  that  it  prevented  such 
appointments. 

Second  Session 

Assembly  Bill  201  prohibited  the  employment  of  for- 
eigners as  engineers  or  as  assistant  engineers  on  vessels 
in  the  Philippine  Islands.  There  were  at  this  time  an 
extremely  limited  number  of  Filipinos  capable  of  filling 
such  positions,  which  were  largely  held  by  Spaniards  and 
other  Europeans  who  had  married  native  women  and  had 
lived  in  the  islands  for  years.  This  measure  would  have 
crippled  shipping  companies  and  would  have  been  a  grave 
injustice  to  the  men  above  referred  to. 

Assembly  Bill  278,  which  heavily  reduced  taxes  on  dis- 
tilled spirits  and  cigarettes,  was  another  attempt  to  make 
concessions  to  certain  large  tobacco  and  liquor  interests, 
which  could  perfectly  well  afford  to  pay  at  the  rates  then 
prescribed.  It  would  have  decreased  the  annual  insular 
revenues  about  $1,000,000  at  a  timewhen  itwas  anticipated 

Of  this  language  matter  Taylor  says :  — 

"Mabini's  plan  of  having  English  the  language  of  the  state  is  odd. 
He  wanted  independence  and  he  wanted  the  recognition  of  the  right 
and  of  the  ability  of  the  natives  to  govern  themselves ;  and  yet  he 
wanted  them  to  adopt  a  foreign  language.  By  the-time  this  pamphlet 
was  published,  or  shortly  afterwards,  Tagiilog  had  been  tried  and 
found  wanting.  The  people  of  the  non-Tagalog  provinces  did  not 
know  it  and  showed  no  desire  to  learn  it,  and  indeed  protested  against 
its  use.  Spanish,  and  all  things  Spanish,  Mabini  was  weary  of,  and 
would  sweep  them  all  away.  Yet,  when  ho  wrote  this  he  did  not  know 
English." 


780  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

that  free  trade  with  the  United  States,  resulting  from  the 
passage  of  the  Payne  Bill,  would  greatly  reduce  customs 
duties.  Such  a  loss  would  seriously  have  crippled  the 
administration  of  the  islands. 

Assembly  Bill  352  exempted  all  uncultivated  land, 
except  land  in  Manila,  from  the  payment  of  the  land  tax 
for  a  period  of  five  years.  The  excuse  given  for  its 
passage  was  the  alleged  lack  of  draft  animals.  Its  real 
purpose  was  to  exempt  valuable  property  from  taxation. 
It  would  have  encouraged  the  continued  holding  of  great 
tracts  of  uncultivated  land  and  was  in  the  interest  of  large 
landowners  whose  land  taxes  were  likely  to  be  burden- 
some if  they  did  not  come  to  a  reasonable  agreement  with 
their  tenants  and  bring  their  holdings  under  cultivation. 

Assembly  Bill  360,  "specifying  the  responsibility  in  a 
publication  and  amending  certain  sections  of  the  existing 
libel  law,"  would  have  rendered  that  law  abortive  by  mak- 
ing it  possible  for  a  newspaper  to  employ  as  a  "libel 
editor"  some  irresponsible  person  who  would  be  glad  to  go 
to  jail  upon  occasion  for  a  consideration. 

The  Phihppines  has  a  fairly  good  libel  law  and  it  was 
imperatively  needed,  for  in  oriental  countries  especially, 
the  tendency  of  a  public  press  which  has  been  subjected 
to  the  strictest  censorship  is  to  run  to  license  when  com- 
plete liberty  suddenly  comes. 

Assembly  Bill  370,  creating  the  new  province  of  Zam- 
boanga,  embodied  an  attempt  on  the  part  of  that  body  to 
legislate  for  territory  inhabited  by  Moros  and  other  non- 
Christian  tribes,  over  which  it  had  no  jurisdiction.  If 
passed,  it  would  have  led  to  bloodshed  between  Moros  and 
Filipinos. 

Assembly  Bill  433  was  an  act  prohibiting  the  use  of 
lumber  imported  from  foreign  countries  in  the  construc- 
tion of  pubhc  buildings.  It  was  not  then  possible  to  get 
enough  native  lumber  to  erect  the  public  buildings 
authorized  and  needed.  The  passage  of  this  act  under  the 
circumstances  showed  lack  of  business  sense. 


A  Giant  Tree  Fern. 


THE   PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  781 

Assembly  Bill  487  provided  for  compulsory  school 
attendance.  It  was  so  worded  as  to  make  it  largely  in- 
operative, and  if  operative  it  would  have  been  imprac- 
ticable, as  there  were  something  like  1,200,000  children  of 
school  age  in  the  islands  and  there  were  neither  teachers 
enough  to  instruct  them,  schoolhouses  enough  to  hold 
them,  nor  funds  available  with  which  to  pay  for  new  build- 
ings and  additional  teachers.  Its  passage  showed  lack  of 
business  sense. 

Assembly  Bill  547  amended  the  so-called  "bandoler- 
ismo  '  act."  Up  to  the  time  of  the  American  occupation 
brigandage  had  been  a  crying  evil  throughout  the  islands. 
The  amendment  proposed  would  not  only  have  greatly 
weakened  the  act  under  which  it  had  been  very  success- 
fully suppressed,  but  would  have  turned  loose  1156  crim- 
inals, many  of  whom  were  desperate  and  hardened, 
seriously  disturbing  the  tranquillity  of  the  country  and 
necessitating  the  early  hunting  down  of  many  of 
them. 

Assembly  Bill  567  was  "An  Act  empowering  the  Secre- 
tary of  Commerce  and  Police  to  make  contracts  with  silk 
producers,  insuring  them  the  purchase  of  their  silk  at  a 
price  not  to  exceed  $9  per  pound."  The  Bureau  of 
Science  had  conclusively  demonstrated  the  possibility 
of  estabhshing  a  silk  industry  in  the  Philippines.  This 
extraordinary  measure  would  have  made  it  possible  for 
an  executive  officer  to  provide  for  the  expenditure  of  all 
the  revenues  of  the  government  in  case  of  a  great  develop- 
ment of  the  silk  industry.  Its  passage  showed  lack  of 
business  sense. 

Assembly  Bill  558  was  "An  Act  to  provide  for  a  perma- 
nent annual  appropriation  of  $15,000  to  reward  the 
inventor  of  a  steam  plough  or  any  mechanical  engineer  who 
shall  perfect  a  ploughing  machine."  It  was  a  foolish  meas- 
ure, as  there  were  various  successful  steam  ploughs  and 
other  motor-drawn  ploughs  then  in  use,  and  there  was  no 

'  Brigandage. 


782  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

good  reason  for  offering  a  reward  for  the  invention  of  a 
thing  which  already  existed. 

Assembly  Bill  395  was  a  most  extraordinary  and  dan- 
gerous measure.  The  Spanish  law  fi.xed  the  age  of  consent 
of  women  at  twenty-three,  which  is  about  ten  years  after 
the  time  when  young  girls  in  the  Philippines  begin  to  turn 
their  thoughts  toward  marriage.  Whenever  a  man  had 
sexual  relations  with  a  woman  under  twenty-three  he  was 
liable  to  go  to  jail  for  rape  unless  pardoned  by  the  parents, 
grandparents  or  guardian.  This  provision  of  law  was 
continually  taken  advantage  of  in  blackmailing  persons. 
Suit  would  be  brought  and  the  necessary  proof  provided. 
Pardon  would  be  offered  for  a  consideration.  The  crime 
was  known  as  a  private  crime,  not  a  crime  against  the 
public.  The  commission  had  amended  the  Penal  Code, 
making  it  a  public  crime  so  that  once  complaint  was  made 
no  pardon  on  the  part  of  the  interested  persons  could  stop 
the  proceedings.  There  had  been  a  consequent  noticeable 
falling  off  in  the  number  of  cases  brought  for  the  purpose 
of  extorting  money.  Assembly  Bill  395  was  designed  to 
change  this  state  of  affairs  and  restore  the  old  conditions. 
It  was  a  vicious  measure. 


Special  Sessio7i  1910 

Assembly  Bill  396  authorized  the  use  of  certain  kinds  of 
sledges  on  improved  roads,  although  it  had  been  abun- 
dantly demonstrated  that  they  were  veritable  road 
destroyers.  The  commission  had  passed  a  law  prohibit- 
ing their  use  and  the  natives  had  been  compelled  to  sub- 
stitute for  them  carts  with  wide-tired  wheels  that  turned 
freely  on  their  axles,  and  improved  the  roads  instead  of 
ruining  them.  This  bill  was  an  effort  to  authorize  a 
return  to  the  road-wrecking  practices  which  had  pre- 
viously prevailed. 

Assembly  Bill  481,  "An  Act  prohibiting  the  admittance 
of  women  and  of  minors  under  eighteen  years  of  age  into 


THE  PHILIPPINE  LEGISLATURE  783 

cock-pits  established  in  the  Philippine  Islands,"  was  a 
measure  encouraging  vice,  masquerading  in  the  guise  of  a 
reform.  By  inference  it  permitted  the  entrance  of  women 
and  minors  more  than  18  years  of  age  to  cock-pits  for  the 
purpose  of  gambling,  and  it  provided  that  women  and 
minors  could  go  as  sightseers  ! 

Assembly  Bill  491  authorized  certain  classes  of  people 
to  have  firearms  irrespective  of  their  individual  char- 
acteristics. The  presence  of  firearms  in  the  hands  of 
irresponsible  people  had  been  a  source  of  great  trouble  and 
the  granting  of  gun  licenses  was  then  restricted  to  persons 
in  whom  the  government  had  entire  confidence.  This 
had  been  an  important  factor  in  suppressing  brigandage 
and  highway  robbery,  and  the  proposed  change  in  the  law 
was  highly  undesirable. 

Second  Session 

Assembly  Bill  141,  "An  Act  repealing  the  last  paragraph 
of  Act  Numbered  1979,"  took  away  from  the  governor- 
general  authority  to  approve  suspension  of  the  additional 
cedula  tax  for  road  purposes,  and  gave  it  to  provincial 
boards.  The  need  of  improved  highways  was  very  great 
as  the  inadequate  system  which  had  existed  under  the 
Spanish  regime  had  gone  to  pieces  during  the  war.  A 
comprehensive  plan  of  highways  for  the  islands  had  been 
worked  out  and  was  being  put  into  effect  as  rapidly  as 
possible.  This  act  would  have  allowed  provincial  boards 
to  determine  whether  funds  should  be  collected  for  road 
construction  and  maintenance,  thus  bringing  this  funda- 
mentally unportant  question  into  the  domain  of  local 
politics. 

Assembly  Bill  168  provided  that  "the  Spanish  language 
shall  continue  to  be  the  official  language  of  the  courts  until 
such  time  as  the  Philippine  Legislature  shall  provide 
otherwise." 

The  reasons  why  the  generalization  of  English  was 


784  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

desirable  in  the  Philippines  have  already  been  stated. 
Under  then-existing  provisions  of  law  it  was  to  become 
the  official  language  of  the  courts  in  1913.  Assembly 
Bill  168  would  have  had  the  effect  of  leaving  Spanish  the 
official  court  language  for  an  indefinite  time,  thus  dis- 
couraging the  use  of  English  and  discriminating  against 
young  lawyers  who  had  made  every  effort  to  obtain  a  good 
knowledge  of  it  because  of  its  supposed  certainty  of  use- 
fulness to  them. 

A  novel  and  objectionable  feature  of  Assembly  Bill  947, 
which  appropriated  $375,000  for  the  construction  of  roads 
and  bridges,  was  that  it  made  executive  action  of  the 
secretary  of  commerce  and  police  subject  to  the  approval 
of  a  committee  of  the  legislature. 

First  and  Special  Sessions  of  1913 

Assembly  Bill  91  was  "An  Act  prohibiting  the  exhibi- 
tion of  inhabitants  of  the  non-Christian  tribes,  and  estab- 
lishing penalties  for  its  violation." 

This  act  grew  out  of  the  desire  of  the  assembly  to  con- 
ceal the  fact  of  the  existence  of  wild  peoples  in  the  Philip- 
pines. It  prohibited  the  publication  of  indecent  photo- 
graphs of  non-Christians,  and  the  appearance  at  any  fair 
or  carnival  of  a  member  of  a  non-Christian  tribe  clothed 
in  such  a  manner  as  to  offend  against  public  morals.  The 
commission  committee  which  had  this  Act  under  advise- 
ment stated,  as  a  part  of  their  report  on  it,  that :  — 

"It  is  obvious  that  no  indecent  or  immoral  picture  should 
be  published,  irrespective  of  whether  the  person  or  persons 
depicted  are  Christian  or  non-Christian.  It  is  equally  evident 
that  no  person  should  be  allowed  to  appear  at  any  exposition, 
fair  or  carnival  in  a  costume  which  offends  against  morality, 
whatever  may  be  his  religious  beliefs  or  his  tribal  relationships. 
Your  committee  is  of  the  opinion  that  there  now  exists  on  the 
statute  books  adequate  legislation  properly  penalizing  the  one 
offense  and  the  other." 


THE   PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  785 

This  act  also  attempted  to  limit  the  right  of  non-Chris- 
tians to  enter  into  contracts. 

Assembly  Bill  130,  "An  Act  declaring  invalid  the  con- 
fession or  declaration  of  a  defendant  against  himself,  when 
made  under  certain  circmnstances,"  provided  that  courts 
should  not  give  anj'  value  to  a  confession  or  declaration, 
oral  or  written,  of  any  defendant  against  himself  made 
before  the  agents  of  the  constabulary',  municipal  police, 
judicial  or  executive  officers,  or  before  any  other  person 
not  vested  with  authority,  during  his  preventive  detention, 
or  while  in  their  custody,  imless  ratified  by  the  defendant 
himself  in  proper  style  before  a  competent  court. 

Only  persons  famiUar  with  the  extreme  timidity  of  many 
Filipino  witnesses,  and  with  the  frequency  with  which  they 
deny  in  court  true  statements  p^e^^ously  made  by  them, 
can  appreciate  the  dangerous  character  of  this  measure. 

Assembly  Bill  170,  "-An  Act  obliging  manufacturing, 
industrial,  agricultural,  and  commercial  enterprises  in  the 
Phihppine  Islands  to  pro\'ide  themselves  with  a  duly 
qualified  physician  and  a  medicine  chest  for  urgent  cases 
of  accident  and  disease  among  their  laborers,  and  for  other 
purposes,"  would  have  had  the  effect  of  forcing  the  em- 
ploj-ment  of  a  large  number  of  incompetent  Filipino 
phj'sicians  for  the  reason  that  no  one  else  would  have  been 
available  to  fill  many  of  the  positions  in  question. 

-Assembly  Bill  172,  "An  Act  protecting  the  plantation  of 
the  cocoanut  tree,"  prohibited  the  damaging,  destroying, 
uprooting  or  killing  of  any  cocoanut  plant  or  plants  without 
the  owner's  consent.  There  was  then  going  on  a  large 
amount  of  highway  construction  and  widening.  This 
bill  would  have  strengthened  the  position  of  certain  per- 
sons disposed  to  ask  exorbitant  prices  for  land  needed 
for  rights  of  way.  At  about  this  time  the  Manila  Rail- 
road Company  was  compelled  to  pay  a  large  sum  for 
orange  trees  on  a  piece  of  land  through  which  its  road  was 
to  pass.  On  investigation  the  orange  trees  proved  to  be 
cuttings   from    branches,    or   young   seedlings,   recently 


786  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

stuck  into   the   ground,  many  of  them   being   akeady 
dead. 

Assembly  Bill  250  would  if  passed  have  had  the  effect  of 
depriving  agents  of  the  Society  for  Prevention  of  Cruelty 
to  Animals  of  the  power  to  make  arrests,  and  of  compelling 
the  payment  of  all  fines  imposed  and  collected  through  the 
efforts  of  the  society  into  the  insular  treasury,  so  that 
the  society  would  have  been  dependent  upon  direct  appro- 
priations for  funds  with  which  to  prosecute  its  work.  For 
three  successive  years  there  had  been  no  appropriation  bill. 
The  Filipinos  have  little  sympathy  with  the  work  of  this 
society,  and  this  was  a  scheme  to  kill  it.  Under  the  exist- 
ing law  one-half  of  the  fines  in  question  go  to  it  for  use  in 
promoting  its  objects. 

Assembly  Bill  251,  "An  Act  to  create  riu-al  guards  in  all 
the  municipalities  organized  under  Act  No.  82,  and  for 
other  purposes,"  would  seriously  have  interfered  with  the 
maintenance  of  a  proper  state  of  pubUc  order.  The  duties 
which  it  proposed  to  vest  in  rural  guards  are  now  per- 
formed most  satisfactorily  by  the  PhiUppine  Constabu- 
lary. The  effect  of  the  bill  would  have  been  to  restrict 
the  administrative  authority  of  the  cUrector  of  con- 
stabulary over  the  movements  of  his  force,  and  to  interfere 
with  the  administrative  authority  of  mimicipal  presidents 
to  utilize  their  police  as  in  their  judgment  the  pubUc 
interests  require. 

Assembly  Bill  262  contained  the  following :  — 

"Prodded:  That  the  Director  of  Agriculture  or  his  agents 
shall  not  adopt  quarantine  measures  in  pro\4nces  organized 
under  Act  No.  83  -svithout  previous  agreement  with  the  Pro- 
vincial Boards  concerned." 

For  many  years  no  more  serious  problem  has  faced  the 
insular  government  than  that  of  stamping  out  the  con- 
tagious diseases  which  were  decimating  the  horses  and 
cattle  of  the  islands  and  threatening  to  render  agricul- 
ture almost  impossible.    The  director  of  agriculture  was 


THE   PHILIPPINE  LEGISLATURE  787 

necessarily  given  wdde  authority  in  the  matter  of  estab- 
lishing proper  quarantmes.  This  act  would  have  taken 
necessary  powers  from  him  and  vested  them  in  provincial 
boards.  Quarantinmg  was  very  unpopular  with  tlie  very 
people  who  were  benefited  most  by  it,  hence  the  passage  of 
this  act. 

Assembly  Bill  282  was  designed  to  do  away  with  the 
public  unprovement  tax  in  the  provinces  of  Palawan, 
Mmdoro  and  Batanes,  and  to  substitute  therefor  the  so- 
called  double  cedula  tax.  This  would  have  resulted  in 
decreasing  by  one-half  the  amount  of  money  available 
for  the  construction  of  public  works  in  those  provinces 
and  increasing  in  the  same  amount  that  available  for  pay- 
ing salaries  of  officials  and  employees. 

Assembly  Bill  312,  amending  "The  Philippine  Road 
Law"  "so  as  to  punish  the  violent  occupation  of  land 
on  both  sides  of  any  public  highway,  bridge,  wharf,  or 
trail  at  present  occupied  by  other  persons,  since  prior  to 
the  passage  of  such  Act,"  would  have  prevented  the 
recovery  by  the  government  of  highway  rights  of  way 
where  they  had  been  encroached  upon  by  abutting  owners 
during  the  long  period  of  neglect  of  road  maintenance 
attendant  upon  war. 

Assembly  Bill  319,  entitled  "An  Act  to  prohibit,  and 
punish  judges  for  the  issuance  of  orders  of  arrest  at  hours 
of  the  night  or  on  days  other  than  working  days,"  was  a 
most  extraordinary  measure,  the  object  and  effect  of  which 
are  apparent  from  merely  reading  its  title.  There  are  365 
nights  and  63  legal  hohdays  in  the  year,  so  that  the  time 
during  which  judges  could  issue  orders  of  arrest  without 
exposing  themselves  to  punishment  would  have  been 
somewhat  restricted. 

Assembly  Bill  324,  entitled  "An  Act  amending  certain 
articles  of  the  Penal  Code  of  the  Phihppine  Islands,"  had 
for  its  object  the  reduction  of  the  age  of  consent  of  women 
to  the  crimes  of  abduction  and  seduction. 

Assembly  Bill  348  pro\'ided  for  the  formation  of  a  "poor 


788  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

list,"  and  regulated  "gratuitous  medical  attendance  at 
public  dispensaries  and  hospitals  in  the  city  of  Manila  and 
the  municipahties,  or  pubhc  hospitals  in  the  provinces." 

One  of  the  great  things  which  the  American  govern- 
ment has  done  for  the  Phihppines  is  to  bring  medical  and 
surgical  service  of  a  high  order  within  the  reach  of  a  very 
large  number  of  poor  persons.  By  the  proposed  bill  free 
service  to  Filipinos  was  limited  to  those  who  declared  them- 
selves to  be  paupers.  Many  of  the  deserving  poor  would 
have  preferred  to  perish  miserably  rather  than  make  such 
a  declaration.  Most  of  the  self-respecting  poor  of  the 
islands  are  not  paupers.  Free  service  could  be  rendered 
to  foreigners  only  on  presentation  of  certificates  of  poverty 
from  their  consuls,  usually  residing  in  Manila,  which  would 
have  worked  great  hardship  on  such  persons  living  in  remote 
parts  of  the  islands  and  in  need  of  immediate  attention. 
Charitable  free  service  furnished  by  the  government  was 
objected  to  by  certain  Fihpino  physicians,  who  hoped  to  get 
paid  for  attending  the  persons  thus  relieved.  The  practi- 
cal result  of  the  bill  would  have  been  to  force  the  poor  to 
depend  on  these  people,  and  to  pay  their  charges,  which  are 
frequently  very  exorbitant. 

COMMISSION  BILLS    DISAPPROVED  BY  THE   ASSEMBLY 
SECOND   LEGISLATURE 

Conmaission  Bill  55,  amending  "The  Philippine  Admin- 
istrative Act  by  including  vessels  within  the  provisions  of 
Sections  322  and  323  of  said  Act,"  was  designed  to  make 
vessels  responsible  for  the  transportation  of  contraband 
cargo,  or  for  smuggling  merchandise,  in  the  same  degree 
that  attached  to  vehicles  for  land  transportation,  the 
attorney-general  having  held  that  the  word  "vehicle" 
used  in  the  existing  law  could  not  be  construed  to  include 
vessels.  This  measure  was  important  in  connection  with 
the  suppression  of  opium  smuggling. 

Commission  Bill  59  amended  an  act  providing  for  the 


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il 


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THE   PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  789 

punishment  of  perjury  "by  changing  the  punishment  for 
perjury  and  by  punishing  persons  who  endeavour  to  procure 
or  incite  other  persons  to  commit  perjury."  Its  object 
was  to  remedy  a  defect  in  existing  law  under  which  there 
is  no  punishment  provided  for  subornation  of  perjury 
in  official  investigations. 

Commission  Bill  60,  "An  Act  defining  habitual  crim- 
inals and  providing  additional  punishment  for  the  same," 
had  for  its  object  the  breaking  up  of  petty  thieving,  the 
records  of  the  Bureau  of  Prisons  showing  that  one  hundred 
twenty-nine  persons  had  been  convicted  twice,  twenty  a 
third  time  and  one  as  high  as  thirty-two  times.  It  would 
unquestionably  have  been  a  very  useful  measure. 

The  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  had  found  that 
certain  punishments  of  the  Spanish  Penal  Code,  partic- 
ularly with  reference  to  the  falsification  of  public  and  pri- 
vate documents,  were  cruel  and  unusual,  and  under  its 
decisions  a  number  of  criminals,  who  should  have  served 
moderate  sentences,  were  turned  loose  because  the  sen- 
tences actually  imposed  were  admittedly  too  severe. 
The  Penal  Code  fixed  the  penalties  in  such  cases  and  gave 
no  option  to  the  judge  to  impose  lesser  ones.  This 
decision  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  had 
the  practical  effect  of  making  it  impossible  to  penahze 
certain  crimes  at  all.  Commission  Bill  61  remedied  this 
situation  by  providing  moderate  penalties.  The  bill  was 
asked  for  by  the  secretary  of  finance  and  justice,  who  is 
a  Filipino,  and  by  the  president  of  the  code  committee, 
but  the  assembly  would  not  pass  it. 

THIRD    LEGISLATURE 

First  Session  and  Special  Session 

Commission  Bill  59  provided  "more  severe  punishment 
for  illegal  importers  and  dealers  in  opium." 

Great  difficulty  has  been  experienced  in  endeavouring 
to  check  the  use  of  opium  in  the  islands. 


790  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

Commission  Bill  70  provided  for  gradually  restricting 
cock-fighting  by  decreasing  from  year  to  year  the  number  of 
days  on  which  it  was  allowed.  It  imposed  annual  license 
fees  of  S5  on  each  fighting  cock  or  cock  in  training,  pro- 
hibited persons  under  18  years  of  age  and  women,  except 
tourists,  from  entering  cock-pits,  and  forbade  all  games 
of  chance  of  any  kind  on  the  premises  of  a  cock-pit. 

This  very  cursory  review  of  some  of  the  acts  which  have 
failed  of  passage  will  serve  to  show,  in  a  general  way,  the 
attitudes  of  the  two  houses  toward  a  number  of  important 
questions. 

Had  the  commission  not  prevented  the  passage  of  much 
dangerous  and  vicious  legislation  approved  by  the  as- 
sembly the  public  service  would  have  suffered  seriously, 
and  public  order  would  have  been  endangered. 

Heretofore  the  commission  has  prevented  the  enact- 
ment of  really  vicious  legislation.  By  giving  the  Filipinos 
a  majority  in  this  body  a  very  important  safeguard  has 
been  removed. 

Another  serious  result  will  follow.  It  was  undoubtedly 
the  will  of  Congress,  when  its  Act  of  July  1,  1902,  was 
passed,  that  Americans  should  control  legislation  for  the 
Moros  and  other  non-Christians ;  hence  the  power  to 
legislate  for  the  territory  which  they  inhabit  was  reserved 
by  Congress  for  the  commission.  Under  the  new  arrange- 
ment Filipinos  will  control  in  this  matter  also,  and  so  the 
will  of  Congress  will  be  defeated,  although  the  letter  of  the 
law  is  not  violated.  The  outlook  for  the  backward  peoples 
of  the  islands,  under  these  circumstances,  cannot  fail  to 
arouse  grave  apprehension  among  all  who  are  genuinely 
interested  in  them. 

The  elections  for  delegates  to  the  assembly  have  caused 
endless  trouble  in  many  of  the  provinces.  Neither  the 
people  at  large  nor  the  candidates  themselves  have  as  yet 
learned  cheerfully  to  accept  the  will  of  the  majority,  and 
the  number  of  protested  election  cases  is  out  of  all  propor- 
tion to  the  number  of  delegates. 


THE   PHILIPPINE   LEGISLATURE  791 

In  many  towns,  like  Cuyo,  these  elections  have  given 
rise  to  serious  feuds  which  have  brought  their  previously 
rapid  social  and  material  progress  to  a  standstill,  divided 
famiUes  against  each  other,  and  in  general  have  produced 
very  disastrous  results.  Many  of  the  best  people  of  Cuyo 
are  now  begging  to  have  the  right  to  elect  an  assemblyman 
taken  from  their  province,  on  the  ground  that  otherwise 
there  is  no  hope  for  the  restoration  of  normal  conditions. 

The  assembly  is  the  judge  of  the  qualifications  of  its 
members.  It  has  seen  fit  to  admit  a  number  of  very 
disreputable  characters.  In  my  opinion  neither  the  char- 
acter of  its  members  nor  that  of  the  legislation  passed 
by  it  has  justified  its  estabhshment,  much  less  the 
"  Filipinization  "  of  the  commission. 


CHAPTER  XXVIII 

The  Picturesque  Philippines 

Having  now  devoted  a  good  deal  of  time  to  the  con- 
sideration of  political  conditions  in  the  Philippines, 
let  us  turn  our  attention  to  the  islands  themselves  and 
consider  their  phj'sical  characteristics,  their  cUmate 
and  their  commercial  possibilities. 

There  has  been  much  discussion  as  to  the  number  of 
islands  in  the  archipelago.  The  United  States  Coast 
and  Geodetic  Survey  has  counted  them.  Big  and  little 
they  number  thirty-one  hundred  fortj^-one,  of  which  ten 
himdred  ninety-five  are  large  and  fertile  enough  to  be 
inhabited. 

The  total  land  area  is  a  hundred  fifteen  thousand 
twenty-six  square  miles.  The  Philippines  lie  between 
5°  and  22°  North  Latitude  and  117°  and  127°  East 
Longitude.  It  follows  that  the  lowlands  throughout 
the  archipelago  have  a  tropical  climate,  and  in  the 
past  those  two  words  have  been  very  generally  con- 
sidered to  spell  danger  for  people  of  the  white  race.  In 
this  connection  it  should  be  said,  first,  that  the  Philip- 
pines have  one  of  the  most  healthful  tropical  climates  in 
the  world,  and  second,  that  the  results  of  sanitary  work 
both  there  and  within  the  limits  of  the  Panama  Canal 
zone  have  largely  eliminated  the  tropical  climate  bugaboo. 
There  is  plenty  of  malaria  in  some  portions  of  the  archi- 
pelago, but  that  is  a  matter  of  mosquitoes,  not  of  climate, 
and  there  is  no  difficulty  in  freeing  any  given  region  from 
this  disease  if  drainage  is  practicable. 

The  two  great  drawbacks  to  life  in  the  tropics  are  ad- 
mittedly heat  and  humidity.     Curiously  enough  the  heat 

792 


THE   PICTURESQUE   PHILIPPINES  793 

in  most  parts  of  the  Philippines  is  never  extreme.  We 
do  not  have  in  Manila  anything  approaching  the  high 
temperatures  sometimes  experienced  in  New  York  or 
Boston.  Humidity  in  the  atmosphere  makes  heat  trying, 
and  is  responsible  for  what  we  call  "sultry"  days.  The 
dry-bulb  thermometer  shows  how  hot  one  is,  but  it  takes 
an  instrument  with  a  wet  bulb  to  show  how  hot  one  feels. 
Fortunately,  the  periods  of  greatest  heat  and  greatest 
humidity  do  not  coincide  in  the  islands.  April  and  May 
are  the  hottest  months,  while  August  and  September 
have  the  highest  humidity. 

It  must  be  remembered,  however,  that  very  extreme 
heat  for  a  few  days,  followed  by  cool  weather,  is  not  so 
debilitating  as  is  a  lower  temperature  which  is  neverthe- 
less continuously  high.  There  are  often  many  days  in  suc- 
cession during  May  when  the  thermometer  stands  in  the 
nineties,  but  there  is  usually  a  cool  northeasterly  breeze 
at  that  season,  and  throughout  the  Philippines,  except 
in  the  Cagayan  valley  and  in  one  or  two  other  inland 
regions  of  the  larger  islands,  hot  nights  are  almost  un- 
known. Indeed,  it  is  doubtless  due  to  the  fact  that  the 
land  area  is  broken  into  myriad  islands,  and  is  there- 
fore swept  by  the  cooling  sea  breezes,  that  it  has 
such  an  exceptionally  healthful  climate.  The  heat  is 
never  trying  when  the  monsoons  blow,  and  they  blow 
much  of  the  time. 

Speaking  of  the  islands  in  general  one  may  say  that 
they  have  a  wet  season  from  July  to  October  and  a  dry 
season  from  December  to  May,  the  weather  during  June 
and  November  being  variable.  On  the  Pacific  coast, 
however,  these  seasons  are  reversed,  and  in  the  southern 
Phihppines  they  are  not  well  defined,  the  rainfall  being 
quite  uniformly  distributed  throughout  the  year.  During 
the  months  of  November,  December,  Januarj^  and  Febru- 
ary weather  conditions  are  usually  ideal,  with  bright, 
clear  days  and  cool  and  decidedly  invigorating  nights. 
Comfort  throughout  the  year  is  largely  dependent  on  oc- 


794 


THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 


cupying  well-ventilated  houses  from  which  the  winds  are 
not  shut  off. 

The  following  table  shows  for  each  month  the  highest 
temperature,  the  lowest  temperature  and  the  average 
temperature  recorded  at  Manila  from  1885  until  1912  :  — 


Month 


Highest  °  F. 

Lowest  "  F. 

Average  "F. 

93.0 

59.0 

76.8 

96.1 

60.3 

77.5 

97.2 

61.2 

79.9 

99.9 

64.4 

82.8 

100.9 

08.7 

83.3 

99.7 

70.9 

82.2 

95.4 

70.0 

80.8 

95.4 

69.1 

80.8 

95.5 

69.6 

80.4 

95.2 

67.3 

80.2 

93.0 

62.2 

78.6 

92.3 

60.3 

77.4 

January . 
February 
March  . 
April .  . 
May  .  . 
June  .  . 
July  .     . 

AuglLSt     . 

September 
October  . 
November 
December 


The  highest  temperature  ever  recorded  at  Manila  is 
103.5°  Fahrenheit,  in  May,  1878  ;  the  next  highest,  101.9° 
in  May,  1912. 

It  should  be  remembered  that  there  are  no  abrupt 
changes  either  between  day  and  night  or  from  season  to 
season,  and  that  one  can  therefore  wear  light,  cool  cloth- 
ing throughout  the  year. 

Far  from  being  oppressive,  the  tropical  nights  are,  as 
a  rule,  dehghtful.  I  know  of  nothing  more  satisfying 
in  its  way  than  a  stroll  in  the  moonlight  on  a  hard  beach 
of  snow-white  coral  sand  bordered  by  graceful  cocoanut 
palms  on  the  one  hand  and  by  rolling  surf  on  the  other. 

The  vegetation  in  the  provinces  is  a  constant  delight. 
Unfortunately,  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  Manila  it  is 
less  attractive  than  in  most  other  parts  of  the  archipelago, 
but  by  crossing  the  bay  to  the  Lanao  forest  on  the  slopes 
of  Mariveles  Mountain,  or  by  taking  an  automobile  ride 
to  Atimonan,  one  may  see  it  in  all  its  magnificence.     No 


THE   PICTURESQUE   PHILIPPINES  795 

word  painter,  however  skilled,  can  convey  any  adequate 
idea  of  it. 

Everywhere,  both  on  land  and  at  sea,  one  sees  matchless 
greens  and  blues,  —  greens  in  the  vegetation  and  in  the 
water,  blues  in  the  water  and  in  the  sky.  The  cloud 
effects  are  often  marvellously  fine.  I  had  begun  to  think 
that  perhaps  my  prolonged  residence  in  the  PhiHppines 
had  made  me  forget  what  was  to  be  seen  in  other  countries, 
but  in  1913  I  took  the  distinguished  English  vulcanologist, 
Dr.  Tempest  Anderson,  on  a  trip  with  me,  and  his  enthu- 
siasm over  the  cloud  views  knew  no  bounds. 

Phihppine  simsets  are  unsurpassed  and  unsurpassable. 
I  have  repeatedly  noted  one  remarkable  effect  which  I 
have  never  seen  elsewhere,  namely  the  complete  reflection 
in  the  east  of  the  western  evening  sky.  On  the  occasion 
when  I  first  witnessed  one  of  these  extraordinary  sights 
I  could  hardly  beUeve  my  senses.  I  was  at  sea,  and  had 
taken  a  late  afternoon  siesta.  When  I  awoke  familiar 
landmarks  showed  me  that  I  was  looking  due  east,  and  yet 
I  saw  a  magnificent  sunset  with  v/onderful  beams  of  rays 
radiating  from  a  dark  cloud  behind  which  it  seemed  that 
the  sun  must  be  hidden.  A  glance  to  the  westward 
furnished  the  explanation  of  the  mj^stery,  for  the  view 
was  duplicated  there.  I  have  seen  similar  wonderful 
sights  several  times. 

A  typhoon,  or  tropical  cyclone,  is  often  dreadfully  de- 
structive but  is  a  most  imposing  thing  to  watch  from  a 
safe  viewpoint,  and  the  weather  service  in  the  Philippines 
is  so  excellent  that  if  one  observes  such  a  storm  from  an 
unsafe  viewpoint  it  is  usually  one's  own  fault.  The  rush 
of  the  mighty  waves  at  sea  and  their  thunder  on  the  shore, 
where  they  may  dash  up  the  cHffs  for  hundreds  of  feet,  are 
awe  inspiring.  The  resistless  sweep  of  the  wind,  which 
sometimes  attains  a  velocity  of  a  hundred  twenty  miles 
an  hour,  or  even  more,  makes  one  feel  one's  insignifi- 
cance. If  one  chances  to  be  in  the  region  over  which  the 
centre  of  the  storm  passes,  there  comes  a  sudden  lull  in  the 


796  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

terrific  gale,  followed  by  a  dead  calm.  Often  the  sun  shines 
for  a  brief  interval,  and  then,  without  warning,  the  wind 
renews  its  relentless  assault,  coming  from  a  direction  dia- 
metrically opposed  to  that  from  which  it  was  blowing 
before  the  lull.  The  rainfall  is  often  enormous.  At  such 
times  rivulets  are  converted  into  roaring  rivers,  valleys 
into  lakes. 

If  one  is  near  buildings  with  galvanized  roofs  which 
may  fly  through  the  air  in  pieces,  or  trees  which  may  blow 
down,  it  is  best  to  keep  under  cover,  but  after  the  storm 
there  are  always  to  be  seen  curious  and  interesting  freaks  of 
wind  and  water.  When  the  northern  district  of  Manila  is 
flooded,  as  not  infrequently  happens  during  severe  ty- 
phoons, the  people  turn  out  for  a  regular  water  fiesta  as 
soon  as  the  wind  moderates,  and  go  paddling  about  the 
streets  in  dugout  canoes,  wooden  tubs,  or  on  rafts  ex- 
temporized from  old  barrels,  pieces  of  bamboo,  or  the 
stems  of  bananas  which  have  been  blown  down. 

Due  warning  of  the  approach  of  a  typhoon  is  given  by 
the  Weather  Bureau  at  least  twenty-four  hours  in  advance, 
so  that  the  damage  done  may  be  reduced  to  a  minimum. 
Houses  of  light  materials  are  apt  to  suffer  severely,  but 
serious  damage  to  strongly  built  houses  is  comparatively 
rare,  as  they  are  constructed  with  a  view  to  meeting  just 
such  conditions. 

Waterspouts  are  among  the  most  imposing  and  pictu- 
resque of  nature's  phenomena  in  the  Philippines.  I  have 
repeatedly  had  the  good  fortune  to  watch  them  form,  and 
start  on  their  stately  march  across  the  sea,  but  to  my 
everlasting  regret  have  never  had  a  camera  available  on 
such  occasions.     They  sometimes  produce  a  rain  of  fishes. 

The  scenery  is  never  monotonous.  At  sea  one  views  a 
constantly  changing  panorama  of  islands,  many  of  which 
are  picturesque  in  the  extreme.  On  land  one  may  travel 
over  long  stretches  of  level,  fertile  plains,  but  there  are 
always  fine  mountains  in  the  background,  and  once  among 
them  what  pleasures  await  one  !     Some  are  grass-covered 


THE   PICTURESQUE   PHILIPPINES  797 

to  their  very  peaks ;  others  are  buried  from  base  to  sum- 
mit in  the  rankest  tropical  growth.  On  yet  others,  pine 
forests  begin  to  cover  the  slopes  at  four  thousand  feet, 
and  are  in  turn  replaced  by  oak  forests  at  five  or  six 
thousand  feet.  The  numerous  rushing  streams  and  water- 
falls are  a  joy  in  themselves.  In  one  short  day  one  may 
go  from  the  tropics  to  the  temperate  zone,  and  come  back 
again. 

Active  and  extinct  volcanoes  form  a  striking  feature  of 
many  Philippine  landscapes.  Of  the  former,  Mayon,  in 
the  province  of  Albay,  is  the  delight  of  the  vulcanologist 
and  of  the  layman  ahke  on  account  of  its  exquisite  form, 
which  is  that  of  the  theoretically  perfect  volcano.  It 
rises  to  a  height  of  seventy-nine  hundred  sixteen  feet 
from  an  almost  level  plain,  and  the  extreme  outer  pe- 
riphery of  its  base  measures  approximately  a  hundred 
twenty  miles.  An  excellent  automobile  road  extends 
completely  around  it,  well  within  the  peripheral  line  above 
mentioned,  and  the  trip,  which  has  no  equal  in  its  way, 
may  readily  be  made  in  haK  a  day. 

Mayon  is  a  storehouse  of  titanic  energy  which  has 
frequently  broken  forth  in  the  past  with  destructive  vio- 
lence. During  the  last  eruption,  which  occurred  in  1900, 
lava  flowed  into  the  sea  at  a  distance  of  some  fourteen 
kilometres '  from  the  crater.  During  previous  eruptions 
whole  towns  have  been  destroyed  by  lava  flows  or  by  falling 
volcanic  ejecta.  Mayon  is  quiet  at  present  and  has  been 
repeatedly  climbed  of  late.  The  trip  is  dangerous  be- 
cause of  the  steepness  of  the  slopes  and  the  unstable  na- 
ture of  the  material  composing  them.     It  takes  two  days. 

Taal  Volcano,  situated  on  an  island  in  Bombon  Lake, 
and  distant  but  thirty-nine  miles  from  Manila,  is  of  special 
interest  on  account  of  its  destructive  eruption  on  January 
30,  1911,  which  killed  some  fourteen  hundred  people 
within  the  space  of  a  few  moments.  It  is  very  easily 
climbed,  the  elevation  of  the  lowest  point  of  the  crater  rim 

'  8J  miles. 


798  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

above   the  lake   being   only   369   feet,    and   the  ascent 
gentle. 

Other  important  active  volcanoes  are  Apo,  in  Min- 
danao ;  Catarman,  on  the  island  of  Camiguin  ;  Canlaon, 
sometimes  also  called  Malaspina,  on  Negros ;  Caua,  in 
northeastern  Luzon ;  and  Claro  Babuyan,  on  the  island 
of  the  same  name.  A  considerable  number  of  the  volcanic 
peaks  of  the  Pliihppines,  including  the  one  last  named, 
have  never  been  ascended. 

It  goes  without  saying  that  in  a  country  where  there 
are  so  many  active,  dormant  and  extinct  volcanoes  hot 
and  mineral  springs  are  of  common  occurrence.  On  the 
slopes  of  Canlaon  there  are  three  of  the  former,  known 
respectively  as  "the  chicken  killer,"  "the  hog  killer" 
and  "the  carabao  Idller,"  on  account  of  the  supposed  de- 
structive powers  of  their  waters.  The  Tivi  Spring,  near 
the  base  of  Mayon  Volcano,  is  famous.  The  water  of 
Sibul  Spring,  in  Bulacan  Province,  has  medicinal  proper- 
ties of  undoubted  value,  as  do  the  waters  of  various  other 
mineral  springs,  including  those  at  Itogon  and  Daklan 
in  Benguet.  The  scenic  surroundings  of  some  of  them  are 
most  attractive,  and  doubtless  important  watering  places 
will  be  estabUshed  in  their  vicinity  in  the  course  of  time. 

Gigantic  limestone  cliffs  are  among  the  most  striking 
features  of  many  of  the  more  mountainous  regions,  and  in 
some  parts  of  the  islands,  especially  along  the  coast  of 
Palawan,  rise  directly  out  of  the  sea.  They  take  on  won- 
derfully beautiful,  and  sometimes  very  weird,  forms  and 
are  often  full  of  caves  in  which  may  be  found  the  famous 
edible  birds'  nests,  so  highly  prized  by  the  Chinese. 

A  range  of  Umestone  mountains  ends  at  St.  Paul's 
Bay  on  the  west  coast  of  Palawan.  The  bay  takes  its 
name  from  a  majestic  peak,  vnth  a  wonderful  limestone 
dome,  which  looks  like  a  cathedral.  Near  it  is  another 
remarkable  mountain  called  Liberty  Cap,  on  account  of 
its  peculiar  form.  Beneath  this  range  lies  the  scenic 
wonder  of  the  Philippines,  the  famous  Underground  River, 


THE  PICTURESQUE  PHILIPPINES  799 

up  which  a  ship's  launch  can  run  for  more  than  three 
miles  to  what  is  called  the  "stone  pile,"  caused  by  the 
falUng  of  a  great  section  of  the  roof.  One  may  climlD  this 
obstruction,  and  utihzing  native  boats  dragged  over  it 
by  my  party  in  August,  1912,  may  continue  for  a  distance 
of  half  a  mile,  to  a  point  where  the  roof  of  the  cave  drops 
to  the  level  of  the  surface  of  the  water,  and  further  prog- 
ress becomes  impossible. 

A  trip  up  this  river  is  an  experience  never  to  be  for- 
gotten. There  is  no  danger  of  getting  lost,  as  the  three 
short  side  passages  which  i-un  off  from  the  main  cavern  all 
end  bUndly.  The  channel  has  been  mapped  by  the  Coast 
and  Geodetic  Survey  and  is  plainly  marked  at  all  critical 
points. 

One's  launch  should  be  provided  ■nith  very  powerful 
acetylene  lights  so  arranged  as  to  give  a  general  illumi- 
nation. Stalactites  and  stalagmites  occur  in  every  con- 
ceivable form.  There  are  vaulted  chambers  which  are 
full  of  them,  and  there  are  long  straight  passages  which 
lack  them  and  have  roofs  and  walls  resembling  those  of  a 
New  York  subwaJ^  In  places  the  cavern  is  full  of  edible- 
nest-building  sWts  and  of  bats.  The  air  in  the  main 
passage  is  fresh.  During  the  rainj'-  season  water  runs 
from  the  roof  in  many  places,  and  one  must  expect  an  oc- 
casional shower  bath,  but  this  is  the  only  cUscomfort 
attendant  upon  the  trip. 

Unfortunately,  the  mouth  of  this  river  is  quite  fully 
exposed  to  the  heavy  seas  stirred  up  by  the  southwest 
monsoon,  which  heap  up  sand,  forming  a  bar  on  which 
the  surf  breaks  heavily ;  but  during  the  northeast  mon- 
soon the  ciuTent  often  opens  up  a  wide  and  deep  channel 
through  this  bar. 

There  are  several  other  underground  rivers  in  the  Phil- 
ippines. An  adventm-ous  soldier  embarked  in  a  banca 
on  one  in  Samar,  and  passed  completely  under  a  large 
mountain.  Judging  from  his  description  of  his  experiences, 
this  trip  would  be  remarkably  well  worth  taking. 


800  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

In  the  limestone  caves  we  may  some  day  find  remains 
which  will  throw  light  on  the  history  of  the  early  in- 
habitants of  the  Philippines,  as  many  of  them  have  been 
used  for  bm'ial  purposes  in  bygone  times. 

Pleasurable  river  navigation  is  by  no  means  confined 
to  underground  streams.  In  Mindanao  there  are  two 
rivers  which  offer  strong  attractions  to  tourists.  One 
may  ascend  the  Rio  Grande  de  Cotabato  through  fertile 
plains,  to  a  remarkable  series  of  lakes  swarming  with  great 
tame  crocodiles  and  with  a  wonderful  variety  of  water- 
fowl. On  this  trip  one  will  see  the  IMoros  at  home. 
The  Agusan  River,  which  rises  near  Davao  Gulf  and 
empties  on  the  north  coast  of  Mindanao,  is  the  largest 
navigable  stream  in  the  islands.  During  ordinary- 
weather  it  is  strictly  confined  between  well-marked  banks. 
The  dense  forests  which  cover  them  have  been  cleared 
in  a  few  places  to  make  room  for  IVIanobo  villages.  Ex- 
quisite orchids  and  beautiful  ferns  abound.  After  as- 
cending the  river  for  one  hundred  twenty  miles  one  comes 
to  a  remarkable  submerged  forest  in  a  region  which  sub- 
sided a  few  years  ago  during  a  great  seismic  disturbance. 
Formerly  it  was  very  unsafe  to  enter  it  without  taking 
an  experienced  guide,  as  the  original  river  bed  was  com- 
pletely destroyed  and  the  many  small  streams  flowing 
through  the  sunken  area  formed  a  very  compUcated 
maze.  Now,  however,  two  clearly  defined  canals  have 
been  opened  up,  both  terminating  in  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  the  town  of  Veruela,  and  a  trip  through  either 
of  them  will  not  soon  be  forgotten,  for  here  tropical  veg- 
etation is  seen  at  its  very  best. 

During  a  portion  of  the  year  one  may  ascend  the  Rio 
Grande  de  Cagayan,  the  great  river  of  northern  Luzon, 
in  a  good-sized  stern-wheel  steamer  for  a  distance  of  one 
hundred  twenty  miles,  passing  through  a  sparsely  settled 
but  potentially  very  rich  agricultural  district  which  now 
produces  the  best  tobacco  grown  in  the  islands. 

It  is  a  common  thing  for  temporary  residents  in  the 


THE   PICTURESQUE   PHILIPPINES  801 

PhiUppines  to  quote  the  foolish  saying  that  the  flowers 
are  without  odour  and  the  birds  without  song.  There  is 
no  more  delicious  fragrance  than  that  given  off  in  the 
evening  by  the  shmb  known  as  dama  de  noche}  The  per- 
fume made  from  ilang-ilang  flowers  goes  all  over  the  world. 
That  extracted  from  the  blossoms  of  the  champaca  brings 
fabulous  prices.  Jasmine  is  produced  in  abundance.  If 
one  wishes  a  hea%aer  odour,  tuberoses  furnish  it,  while 
many  species  of  trees  make  the  whole  forest  fragrant 

when  in  flower.  .  , -i       ,.u 

Some  of  the  bu-ds  are  sweet  singers,  while  others 
brighten  the  landscape  with  their  vivid  colours.  A  row 
of  snowy  egrets,  perched  on  the  back  of  a  carabao,  pre- 
sents a  striking  picture.  One  constantly  hears  by  day 
the  plaint  of  the  limocon,  a  wood  pigeon  which  exercises 
a  most  extraordinary  influence  over  the  Uves  of  mariy  of 
the  wild  people,  for  they  believe  that  the  direction  and  the 
nature  of  its  notes  augur  good  or  ill  for  the  enterprises 
which  they  have  in  hand.  The  crescendo  shriek  of  a 
great  black  cuckoo,  called  by  the  natives  hahow,  com- 
monly heard  at  night,  is  likely  to  cause  alarm  to  one  not 
cognizant  of  its  origin,  and  has  led  many  a  sentry  on  a 
wild  goose  chase  into  a  mangrove  swamp  m  the  belief 
that  he  was  hastening  to  the  rescue  of  some  human  being 
undergoing  dreadful  torment.  ,  ,     .  ^ 

One  of  the  most  interesting  of  the  feathered  demzens  of 
Philippine  fields  and  forests  is  the  inconspicuous  tailor  bird, 
which  carefully  unmnds  the  silk  from  cocoons,  and  using 
it  for  thread,  stitches  together  the  edges  of  h\ang  leaves 
and  then  builds  its  nest  in  the  green  pocket  thus  formed. 
The  insects  are  as  varied  and  interesting  as  are  the  birds. 
There  are  very  numerous  species  of  ants,  and  the  mani- 
festations of  their  extraordinary  inteUigence  are  well 
worth  careful  observation.  The  work  of  the  huge  flocks 
of  locusts  which  sometimes  devastate  the  fields  is  worth 
seeing,  although  the  sight  is  not  a  cheering  one.  There 
1  Lady  of  the  night. 


802  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

are  butterflies  and  moths  of  great  size  and  of  the  most 
brilliant  and  varied  hues.  Some  of  the  very  gaudily- 
coloured  species  disappear  as  if  by  magic  when  they  alight, 
because  the  under  surfaces  of  their  wings,  exposed  when 
they  close  them,  perfectly  resemble  dead  leaves.  Other 
protectively  coloured  insects  look  marvellously  hke  green 
leaves  or  dead  twigs. 

After  all  is  said  and  done,  the  most  interesting  study 
of  mankind  is  man,  and  man  in  most  varied  form  is  to  be 
found  in  the  Philippines,  beginning  with  Manila  itself, 
where  the  mixture  of  Chinese,  Japanese,  Spanish,  English, 
German  and  American  blood  with  that  of  the  original 
Malay  invaders  has  produced  a  wonderfully  varied  series 
of  types. 

Many  of  the  women  are  bravely  decked  out  in  the  gay- 
est of  colours,  which  harmonize  well  with  their  raven  black 
hair  and  brown  or  yellow  skins. 

Manila  is  a  very  interesting  city.  North  of  the  Pasig 
River  are  several  native  residence  districts  which  have 
changed  comparatively  little  in  a  century.  Old  Manila, 
lying  just  south  of  the  river,  is  one  of  the  best  remaining 
examples  of  a  walled  town,  and  it  has  many  buildings 
which  have  withstood  tjrphoons  and  earthquakes  for  cen- 
turies. Its  churches  are  of  especial  interest.  The  acous- 
tic properties  of  the  cathedral  are  excellent,  and  if  an 
opportunity  to  hear  fine  music  there  presents  itself  it 
should  not  be  missed. 

At  the  University  of  Santo  Tomds  and  at  the  Jesuit 
convento  there  are  good  museums.  The  insular  govern- 
ment has  a  museum  on  Calle  Anloague,  where  may  be  seen 
very  interesting  ethnological  collections  and  an  important 
and  striking  exhibit  of  the  products  of  the  Philippine 
forests. 

In  the  botanical  and  zoological  collections  of  the  Bureau 
of  Science  specialists  will  find  a  wealth  of  material. 

The  Philippine  General  Hospital  richly  repays  a  visit. 
It  is  the  largest  and  most  complete  institution  of  its  kind 


THE  PICTURESQUE  PHILIPPINES  803 

in  the  Far  East,  and  within  its  walls  American  and  Fili- 
pino physicians,  surgeons  and  nurses  work  side  by  side  for 
the  rehef  of  suffering  humanity. 

I  have  only  hinted  at  a  few  of  the  interesting  sights 
which  may  be  seen  without  leaving  the  city  limits.  The 
open  country  and  the  provincial  towns  are  made  readily 
accessible  by  splendid  automobile  roads.  To  the  north 
one  finds  great  mango  trees  with  their  solid  hemispheres 
of  beautiful  foliage,  and  endless  rice-fields  in  the  culti- 
vation of  which  the  people  still  employ  the  methods  of 
bygone  centuries.  The  good  sanitary  condition  in  many 
of  the  towns  shows  that  American  and  Filipino  health 
officers  have  not  been  idle. 

To  the  south  the  automobile  road  runs  straight  away  to 
Atimonan  on  the  Pacific  coast,  distant  one  hundred  twelve 
miles.  It  passes  near  Bandjao,  one  of  the  most  beautiful 
extinct  volcanoes  of  the  Philippines ;  is  bordered  for 
long  distances  by  cocoanut  gi'oves,  and  extends  for  many 
miles  through  a  most  beautiful  forest. 

No  visit  to  the  Philippines  is  complete  without  a  trip 
to  Baguio,  the  sunnner  capital.  It  is  reached  by  train  and 
automobile  in  less  than  a  day.  Here  one  is  just  at  the 
edge  of  the  wild  man's  country  and  may  go  to  villages  of 
the  Benguet  Igorots  in  an  automobile. 

Starting  at  Baguio,  one  may  take  one  of  the  most  won- 
derful horseback  journeys  in  the  world  over  the  "Moun- 
tain Trail"  to  Cervantes  in  the  neighbouring  sub-province 
of  Lepanto  and  thence  to  Bontoc,  the  capital  of  the 
Mountain  Province.  Here  dwell  the  Bontoc  Igorots,  who 
were  famous  head-hunters  until  brought  under  American 
control.  Four  or  five  days  more  will  suffice  to  make  a  trip 
north  to  Lubuagan,  the  capital  of  the  sub-province  of  Ka- 
linga,  inhabited  by  another  most  picturesque  tribe  of 
head-hunters.  They  are  physically  a  wonderfully  devel- 
oped people,  and  their  personal  cleanliness,  brightly 
coloured  clothes,  and  striking  feather  ornaments  make 
them  especially  attractive. 


804  THE  PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

On  the  way  one  is  sure  to  see  women  clad  in  skirts 
extemporized  from  banana  leaves,  camote  tops,  or  ferns,  of 
a  type  popularly  but  wrongly  supposed  not  to  have  been 
in  style  since  the  days  of  mother  Eve. 

From  Bontoc  one  rides  to  the  eastward  over  the  Mount 
Polls  range  and  descends  along  the  wonderful  terraced 
mountain  sides  of  the  Ifugaos,  finding  everywhere  abun- 
dant evidences  of  the  extraordinary  industry  displayed 
by  the  people  of  this  head-hunting  tribe.  At  Quiangan 
the  traveller  will  be  amazed  to  see  beautiful  buildings  of 
cut  stone,  and  when  informed  that  they  have  been  erected 
by  Ifugao  schoolboys  under  an  American  foreman  will 
doubt  the  possibility  of  such  a  thing  unless  he  is  fortunate 
enough  to  see  the  boys  at  work. 

From  this  point  one  may  return  to  Baguio  by  way  of 
Sapao,  and  the  Agno  River  valley,  or  may  continue  his 
journey  to  the  eastward,  coming  out  on  the  fertile  plains 
of  Nueva  Vizcaya.  Before  the  return  to  the  lowlands  of 
Fangasindn  from  this  province  one  may  make  a  short  side 
trip  of  half  a  day  into  the  country  of  the  Ilongots,  but  I 
do  not  recommend  such  an  expedition  to  persons  not  fa- 
miliar with  the  ways  of  savages  who  are  sometimes  inclined 
to  be  a  bit  treacherous.  The  Ilongots  have  harmed  only 
one  white  man,  but  they  still  occasionally  murder  each 
other,  and  it  is  hard  always  to  know  what  they  will  do  next. 

There  are  comfortable  rest  houses  at  frequent  inter- 
vals along  the  excellent  horse  trails  over  which  one 
rides  in  making  this  trip,  so  that  all  one  really  requires 
is  a  good  horse  and  saddle  and  necessary  clothing.  Bag- 
gage is  transported  by  Igorot  carriers  or  pack  ponies. 
It  is  always  well  to  take  one's  own  blankets.  Good  thick 
ones  will  be  needed,  for  the  Mountain  Trail  reaches  an 
elevation  of  seventy-five  hundred  feet,  and  at  this  height 
the  nights  are  cold. 

Until  within  a  short  time  it  has  been  impossible  for 
tourists  to  travel  with  comfort  in  the  Philippines.  There 
was  no  good  hotel  even  at  Manila.     This  latter  difficulty 


THE    PICTURESQUE   PHILIPPINES  805 

has  now  fortunately  been  remedied.  The  old  carriage 
and  cart  roads  were  impassable  during  much  of  the  year. 
Their  place  has  been  taken,  in  many  provinces,  by  heavily 
surfaced  automobile  roads  serviceable  at  all  times. 
Accommodations  on  the  inter-island  boats  were  atro- 
cious. They  are  still  far  from  first-class,  but  are  rapidly 
improving,  and  on  a  number  of  the  steamers  are  now  very 
fair.  There  is  good  prospect  that  a  number  of  new  and 
up-to-date  steamers  will  be  put  on  inter-island  routes  in 
the  near  future. 

Meanwhile  it  can  safely  be  said  that  the  world  does  not 
afford  more  attractive  ground  for  yachting  than  that  to 
be  found  in  the  Philippines.  The  scenery  among  the 
Calairdanes  Islands  and  in  Bacuit  Bay  and  Malampaya 
Sound  is  beautiful  beyond  description.  That  of  the 
famous  Inland  Sea  of  Japan  does  not  compare  with  it. 
Safe,  quiet  anchorages  are  to  be  found  at  frequent  inter- 
vals, and  the  weather  during  the  winter  months  usually 
leaves  nothing  to  be  desired. 


VOL.  II  —  X 


CHAPTER  XXIX 

Rod,  Shotgun  and  Rifle 

The  Philippines  offer  strong  attractions  to  the  devotees 
of  the  shotgun  and  the  rifle,  and  they  are  a  fisherman's 
paradise. 

Having  in  my  earlier  days  spent  some  four  years  in 
collecting  natural  history  specimens  in  the  islands  I  did 
not  need  to  be  enlightened  as  to  the  pleasure  which 
might  be  had  in  hunting  ducks,  snipe,  shore  birds,  jungle 
fowl,  and  wild  pigeons ;  nor  as  to  those  afforded  to  the 
hunter  of  large  game  by  bringing  down  wild  carabaos, 
hogs,  and  deer,  bagging  an  occasional  man-eating  crocodile, 
or  trying  to  outwit  the  wily  tamarau  of  Mindoro,  which 
is  one  of  the  most  difficult  of  all  forest-inhabiting  rumi- 
nants to  track  down  and  kill,  and  has  an  uncomfortable 
habit  of  hunting  the  hunter  when  molested  ;  but  now,  in 
view  of  my  neglected  early  opportunities,  I  must  confess 
with  shame  and  confusion  of  face  that  it  remained  for 
Governor-General  Forbes  to  show  me,  after  I  had  re- 
sided in  the  islands  for  sixteen  years  that  I  had  been 
missing  a  sport  fit  for  kings  by  not  sooner  taking  up 
fishing  in  the  sea. 

To  one  who  has  been  even  temporarily  attached  to  a 
hundred-pound  barracuda  through  the  medium  of  a  spUt 
bamboo  rod,  a  tarpon  reel,  three  hundred  yards  of  line, 
and  a  good  strong  spoon  hook,  or  has  fought  a  sixty- 
pound  tanguingui,  or  even  a  thirty-pound  pampano,  to 
a  finish,  it  seems  strange  that  any  one  should  ever  have 
characterized  fishing  as  a  "gentle  art." 

If  good  old  Sir  Izaak  Walton  had  struggled  with  a  big 
tuna   until   his   fingers   and   thumbs  were   blistered   or 

806 


ROD,   SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  807 

skinned,  and  every  muscle  in  his  body  was  tired  and  sore, 
only  to  see  a  huge  shark  bite  his  finny  prey  off  back  of 
the  gills  when  it  was  almost  ready  to  gaff,  it  is  possible 
that  his  language  in  discussing  fishing  would  have  been 
less  mild,  and  his  general  attitude  toward  the  subject 
less  gently  philosophic. 

Verily,  Sir  Izaak  missed  much  by  not  having  been  born 
after  modern  fishing  tackle  had  been  invented  and  em- 
ployed in  taking  the  denizens  of  deep  tropical  seas.  Let 
no  one  be  unduly  dismayed  over  the  diminution  of  big 
game  fish  in  the  vicinity  of  Catalina  Island,  or  ofT  the 
Florida  coast,  for  among  the  myriad  islands  of  the  Phihp- 
pine  Archipelago  one  may  fish  to  one's  heart's  content, 
visiting  grounds  already  well  known,  or  seeking  new  ones 
for  himself,  in  the  assurance  that  the  supply  of  marine 
game  fishes  will  not  be  perceptibly  diminished  for  many 
a  long  year  to  come. 

Soon  after  his  arrival,  Governor-General  Forbes  began 
to  inquire  about  the  opportunities  for  sea  fishing.  He 
received  little  reliable  information  and  less  encourage- 
ment, but  undeterred,  proceeded  to  find  out  for  himself 
when  and  where  to  fish  and  what  tackle  to  use  in  order 
to  obtain  the  best  results.  At  the  outset  his  efforts  netted 
him  few  fish  or  none,  but  he  kept  at  it  as  opportunity 
offered,  and,  thanks  to  his  perseverance,  the  sport  is  now 
firmly  established  on  a  sound  basis. 

One  must  have  rod,  reel,  line  and  gaff  suitable  for  tar- 
pon fishing,  and  an  abundant  supply  of  good  spoon  hooks, 
wire  leaders  and  swivels.  Live  bait  and  cut  bait  are  as 
useful  here  as  elsewhere,  but  game  fish  are  so  abundant, 
and  spoon  hooks  have  proved  so  successful  in  taking 
them,  that  comparatively  little  use  has  as  yet  been  made 
of  other  lures.  One  should  fish  from  a  power  boat  which 
can  be  slowed  down  to  four  miles  an  hour  without  stopping, 
and  will  safely  ride  a  moderately  heavy  sea. 

When  thus  equipped,  if  the  fisherman  hies  him  to  the 
edge  of  a  coral  reef  where  the  bottom  slopes  steeply  down- 


808  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

ward,  runs  the  boat  so  that  he  sees  green  water  on  one 
side  and  black  water  on  the  other,  and  pays  out  fifty  to 
a  hundred  yards  of  line,  he  will  not  have  long  to  wait  be- 
fore his  reel  sings  the  merry  tune  so  dear  to  the  heart  of 
his  kind,  and  he  finds  himself  vainly  striving,  with  both 
thumbs  on  the  brake,  to  lower  the  pitch  of  that  insistent 
high  note  by  slowing  down  the  speed  of  the  barracuda 
which  has  grabbed  the  spoon,  hooked  itself  securely,  and 
started  for  the  coast  of  China  with  the  obvious  intention 
of  getting  there  before  dark. 

A  big  barracuda  may  take  fifty  yards  of  line  in  his  first 
rush  and  he  may  take  two  hundred ,  but  one  can  be  certain  that 
when  he  is  finally  stopped  he  will  jump  clear  of  the  water, 
and  then  will  jump  again  just  to  show  that  he  means  it. 
After  that,  as  he  is  reeled  in,  he  will  jump  some  more  to 
keep  up  the  interest.  Ultimately,  having  acquired  the  habit 
of  coming  toward  the  boat,  he  will  continue  to  practise 
it  until  he  sees  that  craft,  whereupon  he  is  likely  to  start 
off  at  a  rate  which  makes  his  first  rush  seem  slow  and 
deliberate.  Now  and  then  he  will  run  down  on  the  line 
for  variety's  sake,  and  then  is  the  time  for  the  boatmen 
to  get  into  action,  for  if  he  gets  slack  line  nothing  remains 
but  to  bid  him  good-by  as  cheerfully  as  possible. 

The  largest  specimen  yet  taken  in  the  Philippines  and 
actually  weighed  was  a  hundred  ten  pound  monster 
caught  on  a  trolling  line  trailed  behind  the  coast  guard 
cutter  Polillo,  on  which  I  was  making  an  inspection  trip 
along  the  west  coast  of  southern  Palawan. 

The  largest  specimen  yet  taken  with  rod  and  reel 
weighed  fifty-two  and  eight-tenths  pounds.  It  was 
brought  to  gaff  in  Biobican  Bay  by  Governor  Leo  J.  Grove 
of  Nueva  Vizcaya. 

Very  numerous  individuals  weighing  between  twenty 
and  forty-five  pounds  have  been  captured,  and  the  only 
reason  why  numbers  of  much  larger  specimens  have  not 
been  taken  is  that  tackle  was  not  strong  enough,  or  the 
skill  of  the  fishermen  was  not  sufficiently  great.     Big 


EOD,   SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  809 

barracudas  have  teeth  that  would  do  credit  to  small  sharks, 
and  have  sawed  through  or  broken  many  a  wh-e  leader. 

In  the  Philippines,  as  in  other  civiUzed  countries, 
there  are  not  lacking  narrators  of  good  "fish  stories." 
From  Fihpino  residents  of  San  Juan,  Siquijor,  I  recently 
heard  a  tale  of  a  barracuda  which  towed  a  native  dugout 
boat  all  day,  jumping  frequently,  and  was  finally  cut 
loose  after  dark  by  its  disgusted  would-be  captors  who 
found  themselves  unable  to  tire  it  out ! 

Of  tanguingui,  or  sail  fish,  there  are  at  least  two 
species.  The  smaller  commonly  attains  a  weight  of  twenty 
to  forty  pounds.  In  the  open  sea  off  the  coast  of  Leyte  I 
took  a  specimen  which  measured  sixty-four  inches  in  length 
and  weighed  sixty-five  pounds.  It  proved  to  be  of  a 
species  new  to  science.  This  magnificent  fish,  when  fresh 
from  the  sea,  was  a  sight  calculated  to  cheer  a  graven 
image. 

Tanguingui  fight  much  as  do  barracuda,  except  that 
they  seldom  jump  out  of  the  water  after  being  hooked 
unless  pursued  by  sharks.  This  seems  strange,  as  under 
normal  conditions  they  leap  for  the  pure  joy  of  the  thing, 
attaining  heights  which  I  hesitate  to  specify  lest  I  be  held 
to  have  qualified  for  the  Ananias  club.  I  know  of  nothing 
more  startling  in  its  way  than  the  shock  one  gets  when 
his  eye  has  missed  the  upward  leap  of  a  big  tanguingui 
but  catches  the  fish  as  it  is  dropping  back  toward  the  sea, 
apparently  from  the  clouds. 

While  barracuda  and  tanguingui  may  be  taken  through- 
out the  year,  there  seems  to  be  a  time  when  the  fish  of  the 
latter  species  "run."  At  all  events  they  are  found  in 
great  numbers  during  April  and  May  in  the  vicinity  of 
Fortune  Island,  a  short  distance  south  of  Manila  Baj', 
but  are  very  scarce,  or  entirely  absent,  there  during  the 
remainder  of  the  year.  I  once  visited  the  famous  fishing 
grounds  around  Tanguingui  Island,  north  of  Cebii,  in 
August,  only  to  be  assured  by  a  hght-keeper  that  I  would 
find  no  fish  at  that  season.    He  said  that  the  barracuda 


810  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

would  return  in  November  and  the  tanguingui  in  February. 
His  prediction  as  to  tlie  fishing  in  August  promptly  came 
true. 

Pampano  rank  high  among  the  game  fish  of  the  Philip- 
pines. What  will  California  coast  fishermen,  accustomed 
to  taking  little  fellows  weighing  a  pound  or  two,  say  to 
fifty-pound  individuals  ?  I  can  imagine  what  they  would 
say  if  not  confronted  by  hard  facts,  but  the  truth  is  that 
a  number  of  such  pampanos  have  already  been  taken  with 
rod  and  reel  in  the  Philippines,  and  that  there  are  plenty 
more  waiting  to  be  caught.  During  a  trip  to  Palawan 
in  December,  1911,  Captain  Tornroth  of  the  coast  guard 
cutter  Polillo  took  a  forty-nine-pound  specimen.  The 
same  evening  Dr.  Victor  G.  Heiser,  Director  of  Health, 
took  an  individual  weighing  thii'ty-two  pounds.  The 
following  August  the  record  was  raised  first  to  fifty-three 
pounds  and  then  to  sixty-three  and  a  half  pounds,  the 
latter  fish  being  caught  by  Mr.  Frank  W.  Sweitzer. 

The  pampano  takes  the  hook  with  a  rush  and  seldom 
misses  his  strike.  He  never  leaps  while  being  played, 
but  helps  himself  to  line  very  liberally  at  the  outset  and 
runs  deep  at  once.  A  large  specimen  is  never  satisfied 
until  almost  directly  under  the  boat  with  several  hundred 
feet  of  line  out,  and  will  get  bottom,  snag  the  line  on  a  sharp 
point  of  rock  or  a  branch  of  coral,  and  break  away,  if 
such  a  thing  is  materially  possible.  A  pampano  never 
quits  fighting  until  he  is  in  the  boat,  and  is  an  adept  at 
turning  up  his  broad  side  after  being  hooked  and  swim- 
ming in  a  circle,  resisting  to  the  utmost  all  efforts  to  raise 
him.  Under  reasonably  favourable  circumstances  it 
usually  takes  from  twenty  minutes  to  half  an  hour  to 
land  a  twenty-five-pound  individual.  Pampano  run  in 
schools  and  when  they  once  begin  to  bite  the  fun  is  fast 
and  furious. 

The  sergeant  fish  is  one  of  the  gamest  fighters  for  his 
weight  to  be  met  with  in  Philippine  waters.  He  keeps 
up  his  determined  rushes  until  brought  to  the  side  of  the 


ROD,   SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  811 

boat  and  leaps  frequently  while  being  played,  at  the  same 
time  making  vigorous  efforts  to  shake  the  hook.  None 
of  the  specimens  so  far  taken  have  exceeded  twenty 
pounds  in  weight. 

Ocean  bonito  are  often  met  with  in  great  schools  and 
present  a  wonderful  sight  when  one  drives  one's  boat 
among  them  and  sees  them  leaping  high  into  the  air, 
close  at  hand,  on  every  side.  The  largest  specimen  yet 
caught  with  rod  and  reel  is  a  sixty-pounder  taken  by 
Governor  Forbes.  I  have  seen  numerous  individuals 
which  must  certainly  have  weighed  a  hundred  pounds 
or  more. 

Red  snappers  weighing  five  to  twenty  pounds  also  occur 
in  great  schools.  They  are  usually  caught  with  bait  by 
sinking  in  deep  water,  but  at  times  take  the  spoon  freely. 
The  larger  individuals  make  a  game  fight.  Annually 
during  November  and  December  these  fish  run  in  very 
large  numbers  from  Naujan  Lake  in  Mindoro  to  the  sea. 
Wliether  or  not  they  can  be  captured  with  rod  and  line 
while  in  fresh  water  remains  to  be  determined. 

The  lapu-lapu,  or  "groupers,"  of  which  there  are  twenty- 
four  known  species  in  the  Phihppines,  do  not  attain  very 
great  size,  but  are  much  prized  on  account  of  the  delicious 
flavour  of  their  especially  tender  flesh.  Dr.  Heiser  has 
taken  one  weighing  twenty-two  pounds  and  I  have  seen  the 
dried  flesh  of  one  which  must  have  weighed  approximately 
forty  pounds.  The  colouring  of  a  number  of  the  species 
is  extraordinarily  beautiful.  Some  are  light  gray  with 
.  round  blue  spots  ;  others  carmine  red  with  blue  spots  over 
the  body  and  blue  lines  and  bars  about  the  head ;  others 
are  dark  blue  with  carmine  spots.  There  seems  no  end 
to  the  variety  and  beauty  of  the  colour  patterns,  and  each 
new  one  appears  for  the  moment  more  wonderful  than 
those  which  one  has  seen  before. 

Lapu-lapu  have  a  special  fondness  for  crevices  in  the 
rocks,  and  for  holes  in  coral  reefs,  and  in  consequence  are 
responsible  for  the  loss  of  much  good  tackle.     One  must 


812  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

fight  them  from  the  moment  they  strike  and  give  them  no 
slack.  The  penalty  for  any  carelessness  in  this  regard 
is  a  broken  line. 

Leather  jacks,  commonly  called  dorados  in  the  PhiUp- 
pines  on  account  of  their  beautifully  coloured  yellow 
bellies,  are  extraordinarily  abundant  at  certain  seasons 
of  the  year  when  they  run  into  the  shallow  waters  at  the 
heads  of  bays  and  sounds,  apparently  to  spawn.  When 
encountered  at  all  they  afford  good  sport  for  their  size, 
fighting  well  and  frequently  making  splendid  leaps  out 
of  the  water  even  after  they  are  brought  close  to  the  boat 
and  are  apparently  tired  out.  They  commonly  run  from 
five  to  fifteen  pounds  in  weight,  but  occasionally  reach 
eighteen  or  twenty  pounds. 

The  Phifippine  giant  sea-bass,  or  jewfish,  belongs  to 
the  same  family  as  does  the  California  species.  While 
I  was  on  shore  at  Mseander  Reef  in  August,  1911,  mmier- 
ous  hand  lines  with  which  sailors  were  fishing  from  the 
Polillo  were  carried  away  by  jewfish.  With  the  permis- 
sion of  the  captain,  the  ship's  log  fine  was  then  pressed 
into  service.  I  returned  to  the  steamer  just  in  time  to 
assist  in  landing  a  hundred-and-thirty  pound  specimen.  A 
steam  trawler,  which  operated  for  a  short  time  in  the 
Philippines,  took  a  specimen  seven  feet  three  inches  in 
length,  which  weighed  three  hundred  thirty-four  and  a 
fourth  pounds. 

In  Coron  Passage  during  July,  1911,  I  fought  a  very 
large  fish,  probably  a  jewfish,  for  an  hour  and  twenty 
minutes,  at  the  end  of  which  time  his  dead  weight  broke 
my  fine  when  Governor  Forbes,  who  was  with  me,  at- 
tempted to  lift  him  by  it  after  he  had  indulged  in  a  pro- 
longed sulk  in  deep  water.  Although  I  had  fought  him 
steadily,  I  could  not  see  that  I  had  tired  him  in  the  least. 
In  the  course  of  the  fracas  the  butt  of  my  rod  had  made  a 
two  by  three  inch  black  and  blue  spot  on  my  right  leg  and 
had  worn  the  skin  off  over  a  similar  area  on  my  left  leg, 
while  my  abdomen  lacked  a  good  deal  of  epidermis  and  I 


Typical  Scene  at  the  Edge  of  a  Hardwood  Forest. 


ROD,    SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  813 

was  tempted  to  believe  that  it  lacked  some  dermis  as  well. 
My  companions  who  witnessed  the  fruitless  fight  christened 
this  particular  fish  the  "sea  carabao."  ^ 

Belt  and  socket  should,  of  course,  be  used  in  fighting 
fish  of  such  size.  Heavy  cots  for  the  thumb  and  first 
finger  of  the  left  hand  and  the  thumb  of  the  right  hand 
are  very  essential.  I  once  got  a  badly  burned  thumb 
because  I  thought  that  I  was  not  likely  to  hook  a  fish 
which  would  make  a  quarter-inch-thick  leather  brake  heat 
through.     A  big  ocean  bonito  promptly  undeceived  me. 

Very  exciting  sport  may  be  had  by  harpooning  the  huge 
rays  which  come  to  the  surface  in  great  numbers  at  cer- 
tain seasons  of  the  year.  Specimens  thirty  feet  across 
have  been  taken  in  the  vicinity  of  the  island  of  Siquijor. 
When  one  of  these  great  fishes  is  harpooned,  Filipino 
fishermen  make  two  or  three  large  boats  fast  to  it  as  soon 
as  possible  for  the  reason  that  a  single  boat  might  be 
dragged  under.  Even  so  the  taking  of  giant  rays  is  not 
unattended  with  danger,  for  thej'  make  most  extraor- 
dinary leaps  into  the  air,  and  were  one  of  them  to  fall 
on  a  boat  the  result  would  be  disastrous. 

We  have  knowledge  of  the  existence  of  other  very  large 
game  fishes  which  we  have  not  as  yet  so  much  as  seen. 
One  species  is  taken  by  the  natives  of  Siquijor,  who  use 
a  three-quarter  inch  Manila  rope  and  fish  in  water  of 
considerable  depth.  A  number  of  boats  work  close  to- 
gether and  as  soon  as  a  fish  is  hooked  all  flock  to  the  as- 
sistance of  the  lucky  fisherman.  A  tremendous  struggle 
then  ensues  and  we  are  assured  that  if  the  fish  is  landed, 
it  makes  a  meal  for  a  whole  village.  TVTiat  this  species 
may  be  we  do  not  know. 

One  of  the  charms  of  fishing  in  the  Philippines  lies  in 
the  fact  that  one  can  never  tell  what  one  is  going  to  strike 
next.  At  Maeander  Reef  I  took  the  first  yellowtail  ever 
caught  in  the  islands  with  rod  and  line.  Doubtless  there 
are  plenty  more  where  that  one  came  from.     Indeed, 

'  Carabao  is  the  Filipino  name  for  water  buffalo. 


814  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

yellowtails  are  common  in  the  market  at  Zamboanga 
at  certain  seasons.  Off  the  coast  of  Mindoro  I  took  the 
first  dolphin  known  to  have  been  captured  in  these  waters 
On  a  recent  trip  I  took  a  large  porgy  of  a  species  new  to 
the  Phihppmes  and  likely  to  prove  new  to  science.  As 
yet  we  have  hardly  begun  to  explore  the  fishing  grounds. 
Wliat  shall  we  find  among  the  swift  currents  of  the  Batanes 
Islands,  and  what  along  the  barrier  reef  of  the  unexplored 
east  coast  of  northern  Luzon  ?     No  one  knows  ! 

Although  some  1400  species  of  fish  have  already  been 
reported  from  the  Philippines,  new  ones  are  constantly 
being  added  to  the  list,  and  it  is  rather  a  rare  event  when 
a  returning  party  of  fishermen  fails  to  present  the  ichthy- 
ologist with  one  or  more  puzzles.  On  my  first  trip  to 
Apo  Reef,  Dr.  Heiser  hooked  a  tremendous  fish  which 
leisurely  went  its  way  regardless  of  his  efforts  to  control 
its  movement.  At  one  time  it  deigned  to  come  under  the 
bottom  of  the  launch  and  within  forty  feet  of  the  surface, 
where  it  could  be  seen  with  perfect  distinctness.  It  was  a 
long,  slender,  gamy-looking  creature  weighing  perhaps  one 
hundred  fifty  pounds,  and  it  had  vertical  yellow  bars  on  its 
sides.  No  such  fish  is  known  from  these  waters.  Having 
viewed  the  boat  to  its  satisfaction,  it  proceeded  to  go  back 
to  the  reef  and  to  take  refuge  under  its  overhanging 
edge.  Vigorous  efforts  to  dislodge  it,  lasting  for  half  an 
hour,  resulted  only  in  sawing  off  a  heavy  wire  leader. 

One  may  tire  for  the  moment  of  catching  fish,  but  with 
a  glass-bottomed  boat  at  his  disposal  he  will  never  tire  of 
looking  at  them  as  he  floats  over  the  wonderful  coral  reefs 
for  which  the  archipelago  is  famous.  Certainly  there  are 
no  "sea  gardens"  anywhere  which  can  excel  those  of  the 
Phihppines.  The  powerful  tropical  sun  penetrates  the 
marvellously  clear  sea  water  to  a  great  depth,  reveaUng 
marine  animal  and  plant  life  in  endlessly  varied  and 
marvellously  beautiful  forms  which  beggar  description. 
Former  Secretary  of  War  Dicldnson  is  a  rather  serious- 
minded  man,  but  when  he  gazed  for  the  first  time  through 


ROD,   SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  815 

the  glass  bottom  of  a  boat  into  one  of  these  wonder  houses 
of  nature,  he  shouted  in  his  excitement  and  dehght  for  all 
the  world  like  a  small  and  enthusiastic  boy. 

In  a  few  moments  one  may  see  fish  of  the  most  amazing 
forms  and  extraordinarily  bizarre  colours :  huge  sharks ; 
enormous  rays ;  great  sea-turtles ;  clam  shells  big  enough 
f(jr  cliildren's  bath-tubs ;  sea-urchins ;  starfish ;  sea- 
anemones  ;  jellyfish  in  endless  variety  of  form  and  colour ; 
sea-fans ;  and  many  other  varied  forms  of  marine  animal 
and  plant  life. 

When  one  grows  weary  of  the  water,  one  may  land  on 
snowy  coral-sand  beaches,  bordered  by  cocoanut  palms, 
may  visit  old  deserted  Spanish  forts  rapidly  being  invaded 
by  rank  tropical  vegetation ;  may  gather  exquisite 
orchids ;  or  may  for  the  time  being  substitute  hunting 
for  fishing.  In  the  Sulu  Sea  he  may  visit  wonderful  bird 
islands  where  the  feathered  folk  refuse  to  get  out  of  his 
way  and  peck  viciously  at  his  legs  if  he  comes  too  near. 

All  these  dehghtful  experiences  may  be  had  without 
suffering  any  discomfort  from  the  Philippine  climate, 
concerning  which  such  absurd  ideas  prevail  among  the 
uninformed.  From  November  to  March  the  temperature 
is  dehghtful,  except  during  the  midday  hours  of  bright 
days,  when  fish  do  not  bite  well  in  any  event,  and  when 
sensible  people  keep  off  the  v/ater. 

Thus  far  I  have  referred  only  to  those  game  fishes  which 
I  myself  have  taken,  or  concerning  wliieh  I  happen  to  have 
personal  knowledge.  I  will  now  briefly  summarize  what 
is  at  present  known  about  the  game  fishes  of  the  Philip- 
pines. 

The  albacore  is  fairly  common,  especially  during  the 
cooler  months. 

Amberjacks,  reaching  a  length  of  two  feet  or  more,  are 
also  common. 

There  are  barracudas  of  seven  different  species,  some  of 
which  attain  a  length  of  six  feet  and  weigh  a  hundred 
pounds  or  more. 


816  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Bonitos  of  four  different  species  have  been  taken.  The 
"ocean  bonito"  and  the  "true  bonito"  are  both  abundant 
and  afford  fine  sport.  The  larger  individuals  sometimes 
attain  a  weight  of  a  hundred  pounds  or  more. 

There  are  six  different  species  of  croakers,  also  called 
roncadores.  Some  individuals  reach  a  weight  of  a  hundi'ed 
pounds. 

Groupers,  locally  Icnown  as  lapu-lapu,  are  found  in  great 
variety,  no  less  than  twenty-four  species  having  been  re- 
corded. 

Hardtails,  reaching  a  length  of  three  feet,  are  abundant. 

Leather-jacks,  commonly  called  dorados,  are  also  very 
abundant.  They  take  the  spoon  freely  and  fight  well. 
In  weight  they  commonly  run  from  five  to  fifteen  pounds. 

There  are  several  small  species  of  vmckerel  which  are 
excellent  table  fish  and  afford  fair  sport. 

Pampanos  are  found  in  great  variety,  no  less  than  thirty 
species  having  already  been  recorded.  Individuals  weigh- 
ing as  much  as  fifty  pounds  are  not  uncommon. 

Porgies  of  twelve  different  species  have  been  taken,  and 
some  of  the  individuals  have  weighed  up  to  thirty  pounds. 

Of  snappers  we  have  thirty-four  known  species.  The  red 
snappernotinfrequentlyattainsaweight  of  twelve  to  fifteen 
poimds,  and  the  larger  individuals  fight  well.  At  times 
they  take  the  spoon  freely.  The  gray  snapper  runs  up 
to  forty  pounds  in  weight  and  makes  a  good  fight.  The 
rioulated  snapper,  which  takes  its  name  from  the  form  of 
its  beautiful  colour  pattern,  is  a  good  game  fish,  and  I  have 
seen  specimens  which  weighed  up  to  twenty  pounds. 

Sea-bass  of  two  distinct  species  are  common.  Speci- 
mens weighing  fifty  to  seventy-five  pounds  are  fre- 
quently seen  in  the  markets.  The  largest  specimen  as  yet 
recorded  from  the  islands  weighed  three  hundred  thirty- 
four  and  a  fourth  pounds. 

Spanish  mackerel,  or  tanguingui,  are  common  through- 
out the  islands  at  the  proper  season.  A  very  intelligent 
Filipino  collector  of  natural  history  specimens  in  the  ser- 


ROD,   SHOTGUN    AND   RIFLE  817 

vice  of  the  government,  who  saw  my  sixty-five-pound 
specimen  landed,  assured  me  that  he  had  previously 
seen  larger  ones  caught. 

Swordfish,  nine  feet  or  more  in  length,  may  be  taken 
during  the  cooler  months. 

Tarpons  up  to  five  feet  in  length  may  be  taken  at  the 
proper  season,  off  the  mouths  of  large  streams.  The 
species  is  distinct  from  that  found  in  Atlantic  waters, 
and  the  young  take  the  fly  freely. 

Ten  pounders,  commonly  called  bid-bid  in  the  Philip- 
pines, are  not  uncommon,  and  in  spite  of  their  name  often 
attain  a  weight  of  thirty  pounds. 

Tunas.  The  great,  or  leaping,  tunas  are  met  with  in 
large  schools  during  the  winter  months.  The  natives 
call  them  "cachareta."  So  far  as  I  am  aware,  none  have 
yet  been  taken  with  rod  and  hne,  but  their  capture  is, 
of  course,  only  a  question  of  time. 

I  beheve  it  certain  that  the  Phihppines  will  become  a 
Mecca  for  deep-sea  fishermen,  and  to  the  end  that  pis- 
catorial pilgrims  may  not  come  in  vain,  reliable  data  are 
bemg  gathered  and  compiled  by  the  Division  of  Fisheries 
of  the  Bureau  of  Science.  The  exact  locations  where 
exceptionally  good  catches  are  made  are  being  marked 
on  a  comprehensive  series  of  charts  which  cover  the  entire 
archipelago,  and  an  accurate  card  record  is  also  kept 
giving  full  information  as  to  the  localities  where,  the  seasons 
when  and  the  weather  conditions  xmder  which  exceptional 
catches  have  been  made.  Fishermen  seeking  fine  sport 
and  novel  experiences  will  surely  not  be  disappointed  if 
they  come  to  the  Philippines. 

Wliile  it  is  possible  to  find  sheltered  waters  at  any  season, 
and  to  take  fish  throughout  the  year,  our  experience  thus 
far  seems  to  justify  the  behef  that  the  months  from  Jan- 
uary to  August  are  on  the  whole  the  most  favourable 
ones. 

Fishermen  may  establish  themselves  at  some  favourable 
point,  such  as  one  of  the  many  excellent  camping  grounds 


818  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

on  Malampaya  Sound,  and  work  from  this  as  a  base, 
with  no  other  water  transportation  than  the  motor  boats 
from  which  they  fish.  Those  who  wish  to  have  a  good 
movable  base  of  operations  and  to  explore  for  themselves 
may,  by  making  seasonable  application,  secure  the  use 
of  one  of  the  government  coast  guard  boats  at  a  cost  of 
$115  a  day.  These  convenient  little  vessels  measure  one 
hundred  forty-eight  feet  over  all  and  draw  nine  to  eleven 
feet  of  water,  according  to  the  amount  of  coal  carried 
and  its  distribution.  They  are  safe  in  all  weathers. 
Most  of  them  have  four  good  staterooms  for  passengers, 
with  berths  for  eight  people ;  but  as  they  are  provided 
with  good  double  a^\Tiings  and  have  abundant  deck 
room,  a  much  larger  nmnber  of  persons  can  be  made 
comfortable,  if  willing  to  sleep  on  deck,  using  the  state- 
rooms for  dressing-rooms.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  people 
who  have  been  long  in  the  islands  seldom  think 
of  sleeping  inside.  The  coast  guard  boats  readily  carry 
four  motor  boats  on  their  davits,  and  two  more  might 
be  placed  on  deck  forward.  The  Negros  is  espe- 
cially fitted  out,  and  has  stateroom  accommodations 
for  twenty  people.  All  of  these  vessels  have  electric 
light,  refrigerating  plants  and  distilling  plants. 

I  know  of  nothing  more  delightful  than  to  explore  the 
shores  and  bays  of  this  wonderful  archipelago  in  such  a 
vessel,  fishing  and  landing  when  and  where  one  pleases. 
With  the  certainty  of  fine  weather  during  the  winter 
months  the  nights  under  the  deck  awnings  are  a  delight, 
and  nothing  will  more  promptly  restore  jangling  nerves 
to  a  normal  state,  straighten  out  impaired  digestion  and 
bring  back  vigorous  health,  than  will  such  a  salt  water 
fishing  trip  in  the  Philippines. 

Ducks  and  snipe  are  the  stand-bys  for  the  hunters  who 
love  the  shotgun.  A  few  years  ago  magnificent  duck 
shooting  was  to  be  had  on  the  Laguna  de  Bay,  as  well  as 
in  the  province  of  Bataan  just  across  the  bay  from  Manila. 
Unfortunately  the  ducks  on  the  Laguna  were  educated 


ROD,    SHOTGUN   AND    RIFLE  819 

by  some  stupid  fellows  who  shot  at  them  vdth.  a  Colt 
automatic  gun.  The  ideas  which  they  then  developed  as 
to  danger  zones  seem  to  have  persisted  ever  since,  and  it 
is  now  difficult  to  get  within  range  of  the  great  flocks  which 
still  continue  to  frequent  this  the  largest  fresh-water  lake 
in  the  Philippines. 

Ducks  have  been  shot  in  season  and  out  of  season  around 
the  water-holes  in  Bataan  and  in  the  Candaba  Swamp, 
as  well  as  in  the  vicinitj^  of  the  fish  pens  in  Bulacan. 
The  shooting  has  fallen  off  rapidly  here,  and  in  Nueva 
Ecija  and  Tarlac,  for  the  same  cause.  We  are  powerless 
to  remedy  this  condition.  Some  j-ears  ago  a  law  was 
passed  authorizing  the  secretary'  of  the  interior  to  pro\'ide 
regulations  governing  the  seasons  during  which  game 
might  be  shot,  but  through  oversight  no  penalty  was 
pro\ided  for  the  infraction  of  these  regulations,  and  the 
assembly  has  persistently  refused  to  amend  the  law  in 
this  respect. 

On  Naujan  Lake  in  Mindoro,  and  elsewhere  in  the  prov- 
inces, magnificent  duck  shooting  may  still  be  had.  The 
whistling  tree-duck  and  the  Philippine  mallard  are  the 
two  species  which  afford  the  best  sport,  although  pin- 
tails, bluebUls,  widgeons,  and  blue-  and  green-wing  teal 
come  in  on  migration  as  does  a  tiny  goose,  smaller  than 
the  ordinary  duck.  Several  other  species  straj'  into  the 
southern  Philippines  from  the  Celebes,  while  at  least 
one  Formosan  species  sometimes  visits  the  Batanes 
Islands. 

Jacksnipe  come  to  the  islands  in  enormous  numbers 
from  Asia,  usually  arri^•ing  about  the  middle  of  August 
in  northern  and  central  Luzon  and  gradually  working 
their  way  south  to  ^Mindanao.  The  return  migration 
commonly  comes  during  February.  The  fhght  of  the 
Asiatic  jacksnipe  is  exactly  hke  that  of  his  American 
brother.  In  fact  only  an  omithologi.st  can  distinguish 
between  the  two  species.  A  bag  of  one  himdred  birds 
to  the  gun  is  by  no  means  imusual  at  the  height  of  the 


820  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

season,   and   a  strong  sentiment   is   developing  among 
Americans  in  favour  of  limiting  the  bag. 

There  are  very  numerous  species  of  pigeons  and  doves 
in  the  PliiUppines.  .\1I  of  them  are  excellent  table  birds 
and  several  of  them  offer  good  sport.  If  one  can  take  up 
his  position  under  a  fruit  tree  frequented  by  the  great 
gray  and  green  pigeons,  knoAvn  locally  as  baluds,  about 
the  middle  of  the  afternoon  he  will  get  a  wonderful 
series  of  shots  at  incoming  birds  flying  fifty  or  more  yards 
up  in  the  air.  They  approach  very  rapidly,  so  that  one 
must  lead  them  a  long  distance,  "pulling  them  out  of 
sight"  in  order  to  bring  them  down.  One  may  bum 
many  a  cartridge  before  he  learns  the  knack  of  stopping 
these  powerful,  swift-flying  birds.  Duiing  certain  seasons 
the  larger  pigeons  roost,  in  countless  thousands,  in  trees 
on  little  isolated  cays  remote  from  the  larger  islands, 
where  wonderful  shooting  may  be  had  during  the  morning 
and  evening  flights. 

Junglefowl,  the  ancestors  of  all  our  domestic  breeds  of 
poultry,  are  to  be  found  throughout  the  islands  but  only 
in  a  few  places  do  they  offer  much  opportunity  for  the 
sportsman  who  likes  to  kill  his  birds  on  the  wing.  Prior 
to  the  last  eruption  they  were  very  numerous  on  the  slopes 
of  Taal  Volcano. 

A  party  which  happened  to  visit  Cavilli,  a  small  isolated 
coral  island  in  the  Sulu  Sea,  once  found  it  alive  with 
junglefowl.  No  one  else  has  ever  seen  any  there.  Ob- 
viously a  great  flock  flew  in  and  then  flew  away  again. 

Particularly  fine  sport  may  be  had  on  Fuga  Island  by 
walking  along  the  edge  of  the  forest  in  the  late  after- 
noon. The  birds  which  are  then  feeding  in  the  open  fly 
straight  for  cover  and  present  difficult  cross  shots. 

The  larger  hornbills  are  very  good  to  eat,  but  as  easy 
to  hit  on  the  wing  as  a  fair-sized  door  sailing  through  the 
air  would  be,  so  do  not  offer  much  sport. 

Wild  hogs  are  abundant  throughout  the  archipelago. 
Deer  are  found  on  nearly  all  of  the  islands,  but  there  are 


I 


f-    3 


^    ^ 
&    i 


ROD,   SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  821 

several  noteworthy  exceptions,  such  as  Palawan  and 
Cebu.  The  Fihpinos  are  very  fond  of  hunting  deer. 
Sometimes  they  run  them  down  with  dogs  and  drive  them 
into  nets  where  they  lance  them  —  a  most  unsportsman- 
like proceeding.  The  wealthier  Filipinos  like  to  take 
up  their  stations  at  good  strategic  posts,  and  then  have 
the  country  beaten  toward  them.  In  this  way  they 
sometimes  get  fifty  or  more  deer  in  a  single  drive.  I  have 
never  been  able  to  see  anything  very  exciting  about  this 
method  of  hunting. 

It  is  very  good  sport,  on  occasion,  to  still-hunt  deer. 
The  best  deer  shooting  I  have  ever  had  was  at  what  is 
called  the  Cogonal  Grande  in  the  center  of  the  island  of 
Culion.  It  is  a  great  circular  valley  sloping  very  gradu- 
ally toward  the  center.  Its  higher  portions  are  over- 
grown ^dth  cogon  grass  which  gives  the  valley  its  name. 
Probably  it  was  once  the  bed  of  a  lake.  At  all  events  its 
centre  is  swampy  at  the  present  time  and  has  grown  up 
into  a  hopeless  jungle  of  pandanus,  bamboo  grass,  etc., 
through  which  runs  a  maze  of  deer  paths.  Numerous 
little  canons  lead  do\^Ti  from  the  neighbouring  hills  to  this 
valley  and  each  of  them  has  forest  in  it. 

In  the  month  of  December,  when  the  cogon  is  dry,  if 
fired  it  bums  toward  the  centre  on  all  sides  until  the  blaze 
reaches  the  wet  swampy  portion  where  the  vegetation 
is  not  dry  enough  to  burn.  If  dogs  are  then  put  into  the 
little  stretches  of  forest  which  run  down  the  ravines  toward 
the  open  valley,  they  almost  invariably  drive  out  deer 
which  run  straight  for  the  tangle  at  its  centre,  necessarily 
crossing  groimd  which  has  been  burned  bare. 

As  a  result  one  gets  hard  cross  shots  but  has  the  ad- 
vantage of  seeing  every  bullet  strike,  as  the  soil  is  very 
dry  at  this  season.  This  makes  interesting  shooting. 
One  gets  game  enough  to  keep  the  camp  in  meat  and  not 
enough  so  that  he  feels  like  a  butcher. 

Many  hunters  go  out  at  night  with  bull's-eye  lanterns, 
shine  the  deer  and  fire  at  their  eyes.     This  is  not  so  bad 

VOL.  II Y 


822  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

as  jacking  them  from  a  boat,  because  a  man  who  hunts 
on  foot  necessarily  makes  a  good  deal  of  noise,  and  they 
are  apt  to  become  alarmed  and  run  away,  whereas  one 
can  approach  in  a  boat  so  silently  that  they  do  not  hear 
the  noise  of  the  paddles  or  the  rippling  of  the  water. 

Hunting  at  night  in  this  way  in  the  Philippines  is  very 
interesting.  One  sees  all  sorts  of  nocturnal  animals 
which  are  never  met  with  by  day,  and  also  gets  a  good 
opportunity  to  pick  up  owls,  nighthawks  and  other  birds 
which  are  not  ordinarily  taken  except  by  accident. 
However,  the  ordinary  hunter  is  not  an  ornithologist, 
and  does  not  care  for  such  opportunities. 

Wild  hogs  are  hunted  much  as  are  deer.  They  drive 
readily.  On  account  of  the  habit  of  the  old  boars  of 
turning  and  facing  dogs  when  the  latter  molest  them,  it  is 
easy  to  bring  them  down. 

The  common  people  Idll  wild  hogs  with  spears  after  the 
dogs  have  brought  them  to  bay.  This  is  by  no  means 
a  safe  undertaking,  as  some  of  the  old  boars  attain  tre- 
mendous size,  have  very  formidable  tusks  and  are  capable 
of  killing  a  man  in  short  order  if  able  to  come  to  close 
quarters  with  him. 

The  wild  hogs  of  the  Philippines  are  very  cleanly  beasts. 
They  take  daily  baths  whenever  possible,  and  often  build 
for  themselves  beds  of  clean,  fresh  brush.  They  are 
extremely  inteUigent  animals,  and  it  is  therefore  very 
difficult  to  still-hunt  them.  In  view  of  their  huge  bulk 
and  ungainly  proportions  the  absolute  silence  with  which 
they  move  through  the  forests  cannot  fail  to  impress  one 
who  sees  them  stealing  quietly  along.  After  being  dis- 
turbed they  make  plenty  of  noise  as  they  rush  away. 

One  of  the  best  ways  to  still-hunt  them  is  to  secrete 
one's  self  near  a  water  hole  which  they  frequent  for  bath- 
ing purposes,  but  their  sense  of  smell  is  very  keen,  and  if 
the  wind  happens  to  blow  in  the  wrong  direction  they 
will  not  approach  the  place  where  a  hunter  is  lying  in 
wait. 


ROD,   SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  823 

Wild  hogs  are  fruit  eaters  for  the  most  part,  and  their 
flesh  is  delicious.  They  are  enormously  abundant  on  the 
island  of  Taw-i  Tawi,  where  the  durian  tree  abounds. 
The  More  inhabitants  will  not  touch  them,  and  as  food 
is  very  plentiful  during  much  of  the  year  the  island 
swarms  with  them,  and  they  attain  the  largest  size. 
Moros  say  that  during  the  fruit  season  they  become  so 
covered  with  fat  that  if  pursued  for  any  length  of  time 
they  fall,  overcome  by  the  heat  and  the  running  ! 

When  I  was  in  Tawi  Tawi  in  1901  with  Dr.  Bourns 
and  a  Filipino  helper,  one  of  us  took  a  rifle  along  each 
morning  when  we  went  out  to  collect  birds  and  in  a  few 
moments,  after  finishing  his  bird  shooting  for  the  day,  was 
able  to  kill  hogs  enough  to  keep  not  only  our  party  but 
the  local  Spanish  garrison  in  meat,  while  the  lard  which 
our  servants  tried  out  lasted  us  for  more  than  a  year 
thereafter. 

There  are  two  animals  in  the  Philippines  which  can 
with  propriety  be  dignified  by  the  name  of  "big  game." 
These  are  the  wild  carabao,  which  is  still  to  be  found  in 
various  parts  of  the  archipelago,  and  the  tamarau,  a  true 
buffalo  of  a  species  which  occm's  nowhere  in  the  world 
except  on  the  island  of  Mindoro. 

The  wild  carabao  is  a  formidable  antagonist,  hard  to 
stop  and  a  vicious  fighter  after  he  is  once  wounded.  Under 
ordinary  circumstances  he  is  very  wary  and  difficult  to 
approach.  It  is  highly  important  in  hunting  him  to 
use  bullets  with  great  stopping  power.  A  number  of 
men  have  been  killed  in  the  Philippines  by  wild  carabaos 
which  they  had  severely  wounded.  The  most  recent 
case  which  has  come  to  my  knowledge  was  that  of  a  Mr. 
Barbour,  in  Mindoro.  He  was  an  old  hand  at  the  game, 
and  had  killed  fifty-odd  specimens.  He  shot  a  bull  three 
times  and  it  dropped  apparently  dead.  Walldng  close 
up  to  it  he  dropped  the  butt  of  his  rifle  to  the  ground 
between  his  legs,  and  held  the  barrel  with  his  knees  while 
trying  to  light  a  cigarette.     Without  the  slightest  warn- 


824  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

ing  the  injured  bull  sprang  to  its  feet  and  drove  a  horn 
completely  through  him,  killing  him  instantly. 

There  is  an  interesting  and  unsettled  question  as  to 
whether  the  wild  carabaos  of  the  Philippines  are  indig- 
enous to  the  islands  or  are  merely  the  descendants  of 
imported  animals  which  have  made  their  escape  from 
captivity.  My  own  opinion  is  that  both  beliefs  are  true 
or,  in  other  words,  that  we  have  both  a  native  wild  race 
and  other  carabaos  just  as  wild  and  just  as  fierce  which 
are  the  descendants  of  tame  individuals.  The  ordinary 
wild  bulls  have  comparatively  short  and  thick  horns, 
while  the  bulls  of  the  species  found  in  Nueva  Ecija  and 
in  northern  Luzon  generally  have  long,  slender,  very 
sharp,  strongly  curved  horns.  I  believe  that  the  latter 
animals  belong  to  the  true  native  race. 

Wild  carabaos  are  found  not  only  at  various  points  in 
Luzon,  but  abundantly  in  Mindoro  and  the  Calamianes 
Islands.  They  appear  in  considerable  numbers  in  Mas- 
bate,  Negros  and  elsewhere  in  the  archipelago. 

To  the  inexperienced  hunters  who  are  inclined  to  try 
to  bring  them  down  my  advice  is  "Don't !" 

Few  indeed  are  the  men  who  have  killed  so  much  as  a 
single  specimen  of  the  tamarau  of  Mindoro.  It  is  a  small 
jungle-inhabiting  ruminant.  Its  color,  when  adult,  is 
precisely  that  of  the  carabao.  It  is,  however,  a  much 
smaller  and  more  active  animal.  The  bulls  lose  no 
opportunity  to  attack  carabaos,  both  domesticated  and 
wild,  and  in  spite  of  their  own  inferior  size  kill  them  with 
apparent  ease. 

The  tamarau  is  extremely  muscular  and  when  it  charges, 
which  it  is  prone  to  do  on  very  slight  provocation,  bores 
a  hole  through  the  jungle  vegetation,  coming  on  with  the 
speed  and  recklessness  of  a  rhinoceros.  Under  such  con- 
ditions it  is  excessively  hard  to  stop,  and  when  it  pushes 
its  charge  home,  woe  be  to  the  unlucky  hunter.  With 
rare  exceptions  it  attacks  when  wounded  if  it  so  m.uch  as 
catches  sight  of  a  human  being.     Even  when  unmolested 


ROD,   SHOTGUN   AND   RIFLE  825 

it  not  infrequently  charges,  without  warning,  when  one 
gets  unduly  near.  It  feeds  at  night,  and  never  lolls 
around  in  the  water  as  does  the  carabao. 

At  the  time  I  first  came  to  the  Philippines  to  collect 
natural  history  specimens  in  1887,  this  animal  was  known 
only  from  travellers'  tales  and  from  what  purported  to  be 
a  stuffed  individual  in  the  Dominican  museum.  It  was 
certainly  stuffed,  being  about  as  shapely  as  a  kerosene 
barrel.  Its  skin  looked  so  exactly  like  that  of  a  carabao 
that  uncharitable  persons  had  suggested  that  it  was  an 
artifact. 

At  this  time  the  most  absurd  tales  about  the  tamarau 
were  in  circulation.  I  was  solemnly  assured  by  one 
group  of  persons,  who  claimed  to  have  seen  it,  that  it  had 
only  one  horn  which  grew  out  of  the  top  of  its  head. 
Others  were  certain  that  it  had  two  horns  and  but  a  single 
eye. 

We  did  not  anticipate  the  good  fortune  of  discovering 
either  a  unicorn  or  a  cyclops,  but  thought  that  there  must 
be  something  behind  all  of  these  remarkable  stories. 

After  undergoing  many  hardships  and  performing  much 
hard  work,  our  party  succeeded  in  taking  five  individuals, 
the  first  ever  killed  and  properly  preserved. 

The  best  way  to  hunt  these  wary  and  dangerous  ani- 
mals is  to  pick  up  a  fresh  trail  early  in  the  morning  along 
some  water  course  where  they  come  to  drink  during  the 
night,  and  follow  it  as  noiselessly  as  possible.  One  is 
liable  to  jump  the  game  at  any  moment.  I  shall  never 
forget  my  astonishment  when,  on  climbing  up  a  steep 
river  bank  and  diving  into  a  tunnel  through  runo  grass,  I 
nearly  fell  over  an  old  bull.  Ordinarily,  however,  no 
such  luck  awaits  one.  It  is  frequently  necessary  to  trail 
the  quarry  five  or  ten  miles  before  one  comes  up  with 
it,  and  then  the  usual  reward,  after  crawling  through 
underbrush  and  wriggling  along  on  the  ground,  bitten  by 
ants  and  mosquitoes,  torn  by  thorns  and  covered  with 
pestiferous  land  leeches,  is  to  hear  a  terrific  crash  in  the 


826  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

brush  and  never  so  much  as  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  animal 
which  makes  it.  The  tamarau  sleeps  during  the  day, 
almost  invariably  lying  down  in  the  densest  of  jungle 
growth,  facing  back  upon  its  own  trail.  Furthermore, 
it  is  uncommonly  likely  to  put  a  bend  in  that  trail  before 
lying  down,  so  that  while  one  is  still  a  mile  or  two  from 
it  by  the  line  which  it  followed,  it  may  in  reality  be  not 
more  than  fifty  or  a  hundred  yards  away. 

A  very  skilful  tracker  is  necessary  if  one  is  to  have 
much  hope  of  success,  and  one  should  not  fire,  even  after 
the  game  is  in  sight,  unless  he  can  get  a  brain  shot  or 
can  be  certain  of  breaking  the  spinal  column  ;  otherwise, 
he  endangers  his  own  life  by  shooting,  if  the  tamarau  is 
at  moderately  close  quarters. 

I  believe  that  no  other  ruminant  is  harder  to  kill  out- 
right. Certainly  there  is  no  other  approximating  the 
tamarau  in  size  which  is  so  tough.  I  refrain  from  chroni- 
cling my  own  experiences,  as  I  am  certain  that  my  state- 
ments would  not  be  believed,  and  prefer  to  leave  hunters 
to  find  out  for  themselves  how  much  shooting  it  takes 
to  put  one  of  these  extraordinary  beasts  out  of  commission. 

There  is  one  place  in  Mindoro  called  Canturai,  where 
tamarau  may  be  taken  with  comparative  ease.  It  was 
described  to  me,  in  Spanish  days,  as  an  extensive  open 
area  with  a  conical  hill  near  its  centre,  and  I  was  told 
that  by  burning  the  grass  and  sleeping  on  the  hill  one  could 
readily  get  early  morning  shots  at  tamarau  which  came 
out  to  lick  up  the  ashes. 

But  various  other  stories  had  also  been  told  me,  and 
one  and  all  had  proved  false.  I  had  dug  pitfalls  for  the 
wary  beasts  in  vain.  I  had  perched  in  trees,  devoured  by 
mosquitoes,  and  with  hard  branches  cutting  into  my  flesh, 
waiting  for  some  pugnacious  bull  to  come  out  and  fight 
a  tame  carabao  fastened  at  a  convenient  distance  from 
my  hiding  place,  all  to  no  purpose.  Under  such  con- 
ditions a  tamarau  once  came  and  bellowed  around  in  the 
bushes,  but  did  not  show  himself.     I  had  heard  tales 


Old-style  Road  across  Lowlands. 
Tracks  of  this  sort  become  completely  impassable  during  the  rainy  season. 


New-style  Road  across  Lowlanus. 
Roads  like  this  are  passable  at  all  times. 


ROD,   SHOTGUN  AND   RIFLE  827 

of  men  who  rode  tamarau  down  on  horseback  and  lanced 
them,  and  these  yarns  I  knew  to  be  false.  So  I  never  took 
the  trouble  to  look  up  the  Canturai  story,  worse  luck, 
for  it  proved  to  be  true. 

American  soldiers  occupied  Mindoro  for  years  before 
one  of  them  succeeded  in  kilUng  a  tamarau.  Finally 
a  party  of  officers  went  to  Cantm-ai  and  the  first  morning 
they  shot  seven !  Various  other  persons  who  have  since 
gone  there  have  had  extraordinary  luck,  although  several 
have  narrowly  escaped  being  killed,  owing  to  their  folly 
in  following  wounded  animals  into  the  cogon  grass. 

A  tamarau  pursued  under  such  circumstances  will 
almost  invariably  back  off  at  right  angles  to  its  own  trail, 
wait  for  its  pursuers  to  come  up,  and  charge  them,  giving 
them  no  time  to  fire. 

Young  cah^es  are  as  wild  as  their  parents,  and  I  am 
credibly  informed  will  often  endeavour  to  attack  female 
carabaos  if  an  attempt  is  made  to  get  them  to  regard  these 
animals  in  the  light  of  foster  mothers. 

It  is  a  curious  fact  that  calves,  and  in  fact  young  ani- 
mals up  to  a  year  or  more  of  age,  are  of  a  fight  reddish 
colour  closely  resembfing  that  of  some  Jersey  cattle. 
Their  coats  turn  dark  later  on.  Their  horns,  too,  are  at 
first  circular  in  cross-section.  Later  they  become  tri- 
angular. 

When  pm-sued,  tamarau  cows  have  a  curious  fashion  of 
passing  their  heads  under  their  calves,  raising  them  with 
the  horns  pressed  down  in  such  a  way  as  to  hold  them 
against  their  necks,  with  forelegs  hanging  on  one  side 
and  hindlegs  on  the  other,  and  running  with  them.  All 
in  all,  they  are  very  interesting  beasts,  and  we  stiU  have 
much  to  learn  about  them.  The  man  who  attempts  to 
hunt  them  with  anything  but  a  heavy  and  thoroughly 
reliable  rifle  is  a  fool. 

Crocodiles  of  the  largest  size  frequent  many  of  the 
streams  and  most  of  the  lakes  in  the  PhiUppines.  They 
are  also  to  be  seen  occasionally  on  sandbars  rising  out  of 


828  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST    AND   PRESENT 

the  sea.  Doubtless  they  will  some  day  be  shot  for 
their  hides,  but  as  yet  they  are  left  undisturbed,  unless 
they  display  special  proclivities  for  eating  human  beings, 
valuable  horses  or  fat  cattle.  The  Filipinos  claim  that 
with  crocodiles  the  liking  for  human  flesh  is  an  acquired 
taste,  and  that  it  is  only  in  comparatively  rare  instances 
that  they  become  man-eaters,  as  do  tigers.  I  beheve  that 
this  is  true.  Certainly,  I  have  seen  a  clear  pool  full  of 
happy  Tagbanua  children  with  a  big  crocodile  lying  in 
plain  sight  at  the  bottom  of  it.  On  the  other  hand,  I 
have  known  of  individual  crocodiles,  of  evil  reputation, 
each  of  which  have  killed  numbers  of  human  beings. 
In  one  little  pool  crossed  by  a  trail  which  I  have  had 
occasion  frequently  to  use  in  Cagayan  province  ten 
persons  were  pulled  down  and  devoured  in  three  years. 
Most  men  who  use  the  rifle  sooner  or  later  become  in- 
terested in  putting  these  vicious  reptiles  out  of  the  way 
whenever  opportunity  offers. 

Hunters  and  fishermen,  in  search  of  new  and  exciting 
experiences,  will  not  fail  to  meet  with  them  in  the 
Philippines,  and  the  tourist  will  find  there  much  that  is 
picturesque,  strange  or  wonderful. 


CHAPTER  XXX 

Philippine  Lands 

Especial  interest  attaches  to  the  subject  of  Philippine 
lands  for  three  reasons :  first,  the  very  large  majority  of 
small  landholders  in  the  islands  have  no  titles ;  second, 
there  are  enormous  areas  of  unoccupied,  unclaimed,  un- 
cultivated land  which  are  doing  no  one  any  good  at 
present  and  ought  to  be  brought  under  cultivation  as 
rapidly  as  possible ;  third,  not  only  insular  government 
officials,  but  Mr.  Root  and  Mr.  Taft  have  been  very  un- 
justly attacked  for  the  land  policy  pursued  in  the  Phihp- 
pines. 

As  regards  ownership,  some  31,879  square  miles  may 
be  considered  to  be  private  land  to  which  owners  have 
obtained  titles  or  could  have  done  so  had  they  known  how 
to  assert  their  rights.  Only  about  8937  square  miles  of 
this  total  amount  are  estimated  to  be  under  cultivation  at 
the  present  time. 

Excepting  only  private  lands  and  a  few  acres  belonging 
to  municipal  or  provincial  governments  or  to  the  insular 
government  as  the  case  may  be,  the  remaining  land 
constitutes  the  public  domain  of  the  Philippine  Islands 
which  is  the  property  of  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  but  is  adininistered  by  the  insular  government. 
It  is  made  up  of  forest  land,  mineral  land,  agricultural 
land,  and  foreshore  and  land  under  water. 

Fifty-four  thousand  square  miles  are  estimated  to  be 
forest  land.  The  rest  is  now  provisionally  classified  as 
agricultural  land  for  the  reason  that  the  mineral  land 
and  foreshore  have  never  been  segregated. 

The  condition  in  which  private  land  titles  were  found 
at  the  time  of  the  American  occupation  was  very  distress- 

829 


830  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

ing.  It  had  been  a  difficult  matter  to  secure  title  under 
the  Spanish  regime  and  the  very  large  majority  of  the 
common  people  had  accordingly  put  it  off  until  a  mythical 
to-morrow  which  never  came.  Even  those  who  had 
succeeded  in  obtaining  formal  documents  had  in  many 
instances  lost  them  as  a  result  of  the  vicissitudes  of 
war. 

The  Public  Land  Act  of  the  Pliilippine  Commission, 
passed  under  the  provisions  of  the  Act  of  Congress  of 
July  1,  1902,  became  effective  on  July  26,  1904.  It 
contained  liberal  provisions  relative  to  Spanish  grants 
and  unperfected  titles. 

Any  citizen  of  the  Phihppine  Islands  or  of  the  United 
States  or  of  any  insular  possession  thereof  over  the  age 
of  twenty-one  years  or  the  head  of  a  family  can  obtain 
a  forty-acre  homestead  by  five  years  of  cultivation,  two 
years  of  occupancy  and  the  payment  of  $10. 

The  Public  Land  Act  also  provided  for  the  issuance  of 
a  free  patent  to  a  tract  not  exceeding  forty  acres  in  extent 
to  any  native  of  the  Philippine  Islands  then  an  occupant 
and  cultivator  of  um'eserved,  unappropriated,  agricultm'al 
public  land  who  had  continuously  occupied  and  cultivated 
such  land  either  by  liimself  or  through  his  ancestors 
since  August  1,  1898 ;  or  who  prior  to  August  1,  1898, 
continuously  occupied  and  cultivated  such  land  for 
three  years  immediately  prior  to  such  date,  and  who  had 
been  continuously  since  July  4,  1902,  until  the  date  of 
the  taking  effect  of  the  Public  Land  Act,  an  occupier  and 
cultivator  of  such  land. 

Most  Uberal  provision  was  thus  made  for  the  small 
landowner,  or  would-be  landowner,  but  neither  Congress 
nor  the  commission  reckoned  with  the  ignorance  of  the 
common  people  nor  with  the  opposition  to  the  acquisition 
of  land  by  poor  Filipinos  which  developed  on  the  part  of 
their  richer  and  more  intelligent  fellow-countrymen. 
This  latter  difficulty  has  proved  to  be  a  quite  serious  one. 
The  cacique  does  not  wish  liis  labourers  to  acquire  land  in 


PHILIPPINE  LANDS  831 

their  own  right,  for  he  knows  well  enough  that  if  they  did 
so  they  would  become  self-supporting,  and  it  would  cease 
to  be  possible  for  liim  to  hold  them  as  peons,  as  is  com- 
monly done  at  present.  Serious  obstacles  are  therefore 
frequently  thrown  in  the  way  of  poor  people  who  desire 
to  become  owners  of  land,  and  if  this  does  not  suffice, 
active  opposition  is  often  made  by  municipal  officers  or 
other  influential  Filipinos,  who  claim  as  their  own  private 
jH-operty  land  which  poor  men  are  trying  to  get.' 

•  Of  the  endless  eases  whicli  might  be  given  I  cite  the  following  as  a 
fair  sample :  — 

"  Personally  appeared  before  me  the  undersigned ,  this  24th  day 

of  July,  1913,  W.  A.  Northrop,  who  first  being  duly  sworn,  deposes 
and  says :  — 

" '  1 .  That  he  is  a  duly  appointed  Public  Land  Inspector  of  the  Bureau 
of  Lands  of  the  Government  of  the  Philippine  Islands  and  that  acting 
in  such  capaoitj'  on  the  3d  day  of  June,  1913,  he  visited  the  sitio  of 
Buyon,  barrio  of  Maddelaro,  Municipality  of  Camalaniugan,  province 
of  Cagayan  and  there  investigated  the  complaint  of  homestead  entry- 
men  Pascual  Valdez  and  Tomas  Valdez  whose  applications  for  land 
in  the  said  sitio  of  Buyon  under  provision  of  Act  No.  926  as  amended 
had  been  entered  by  the  Director  of  Lands  under  No.  92.53  and  No. 
9254  respectively,  that  they  were  prevented  from  occupying  said  home- 
steads and  deriving  the  benefits  therefrom  by  certain  persons  living  in 
the  barrio  of  Maddelaro : 

" '  2.  That  while  so  investigating  the  claim  of  the  said  entrymen  and 
their  opponents  he  was  told  by  Placido  Rosal,  one  of  the  opponents  to 
the  homestead  entrys,  that  "  it  was  immaterial  to  him  what  decision  was 
made  by  the  Director  of  Lands  concerning  the  land  as,  if  he  (Rosal)  lost 
the  land  he  and  others  would  burn  the  houses  of  the  entrymen  and  if  nec- 
essary kill  them"  ;  this  in  the  Spanish  language  with  which  he  is  familiar. 

"  '3.  That  at  that  time  he  was  accompanied  by  Mr.  Bias  Talosig 
of  the  barrio  of  Buyag,  who  was  acting  as  his  interpreter  in  speaking 
in  the  lloco  language  and  that  these  threats  were  made  in  his  hearing 
and  that  he.  W.  A.  Northrop,  was  informed  by  said  interpreter  that  he 
not  only  heard  them  but  that  he  heard  similar  threats  made  in  the  lloco 
language  by  various  other  persons,  henchmen  of  the  Placido  Rosal 
and  his  family. 

'"4.  That  on  the  9th  day  of  June,  1913,  said  entrymen  came  to  him 
in  the  City  of  Aparri  and  reported  that  on  the  night  on  the  7th  day  of 
June  the  granary  of  Eduardo  BacUg,  resident  in  the  said  sitio  of  Buyon 
and  a  son-in-law  of  Tomas  Valdez  had  been  burned  and  an  attempt 
made  to  burn  his  house  and  that  while  the  entrymen  were  not  in  posi- 
tion to  prove  that  said  Placido  Rosal  or  his  henchmen  had  started  the 
fires  they  were  sure  they  were  of  incendiary  origin,  as  due  to  the  diree- 


832  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

The  Bureau  of  Lands  now  interests  itself  actively  and 
directly    in    protecting    the    public    lands    against    such 

tion  of  the  wind  the  fires  could  not  have  originated  from  sparks  from 
kitchen  fires.' 

"  Further  deponent  sayeth  not. 

(Signed)     "  W.  A.  Northrop. 

"  Subscribed  and  sworn  to  before  me  this  24th  day  of  July,  1913, 
in  Tuguegarao,  Cagayan,  Philippine  Islands,  the  affiant  first  having 
exhibited  his  cedula,  No.  1516,  issued  in  Manila,  January  3,  1913. 

(Signed)  "Primitivo  Villanueva 
"Notario  Publico, 
"  Mi  nombramiento  expira  el 
"  31  de  Dieiembre  de  1913." 

"  Extract  from  a  report  of  H.  0.  Bauman,  chief  of  Bureau  of  Lands 
survey  party  No.  27.     Report  dated  June  30,  1913  : 

"  In  190o  the  applicant  (Fernando  Asirit)  entered  an  application 
for  homestead  and  proceeded  to  clear  the  remainder  of  the  land  not 
already  cleared.  Sometime  during  the  following  year  or  two,  this 
Catalino  Sagon  began  to  clear  a  piece  of  land  included  in  the  homestead 
application.  When  Fernando  Asirit  saw  the  man  cleaning  the  land, 
he  told  the  man  that  that  particular  land  was  included  in  the  homestead 
and  that  the  work  he  was  doing  was  useless.  Catalino  admitted  this 
to  me  personally.  However,  the  applicant  to  show  his  good  faith, 
paid  Catalino  a  sum  of  ten  pesos  for  the  small  area  that  he  had  cleaned 
and  took  a  receipt  therefor  and  Catalino  left  the  land.  Now  when 
the  private  surveyor  came  in  1910,  this  Catalino  appears  and  claims 
this  land  despite  the  fact  that  he  never  cultivated  nor  occupied  the 
land  and  that  he  received  payment  in  full  for  the  work  that  he  had 
done  in  clearing  an  acre  of  the  land.  When  the  land  was  surveyed  in 
1910,  Catalino  at  the  request  of  a  politician  of  Ilagan,  made  a  protest 
against  the  land  and  between  the  two  they  frightened  the  applicant 
into  letting  this  Catalino  have  possession  of  the  land.  Since  1910, 
Catalino  has  not  cultivated  the  land  but  loaned  it  out  to  another  per- 
son Frederico  Mayer  by  name.  Personally,  Catalino  did  not  ever 
cultivate  or  live  on  the  land.  The  politician  who  has  been  stirring 
up  this  trouble  is  Gabriel  Maramag,  third  member  of  the  Provincial 
board.  The  applicant  is  an  old  man  seventy  years  old  and  this  Mara- 
mag had  the  old  man  fined  P125.80  for  refusing  to  let  these  two  have 
his  land.  They  also  told  him  that  if  he  persisted  in  refusing  to  let 
them  have  the  land,  they  would  fine  him  P500.  As  the  old  man  has 
no  such  amount  and  being  thoroughly  buUdozed  by  these  cheap  poli- 
ticians, he  had  no  other  course  to  pursue.  The  co-partner  of  the  third 
member  is  the  Sheriff  Joaquin  Ortega  against  whom  the  people  are 
very  bitter  on  account  of  his  shady  dealings.  It  might  be  noted  here 
that  these  men  are  under  investigation  by  the  Constabulary  now  for 
accepting  money  illegally.  Furthermore  this  Maramag  has  the  plans 
of  the  land  of  a  great  many  men  in  his  house  and  thus  has  a  hold  on 
them  and  they  cannot  do  anything  without  his  consent." 


PHILIPPINE   LANDS  833 

spurious  claims,  and  thus  keeps  large  areas  open  to  claim 
by  the  common  people. 

Absolute  ignorance  of  the  law  was  the  commonest  of  all 
causes  of  the  failure  of  the  poor  to  take  advantage  of  its 
very  liberal  provisions.  Every  known  resource  was  ex- 
hausted in  endeavouring  to  enlighten  them.  PampMets 
informing  them  of  their  rights  were  published  in  all 
important  native  dialects,  and  widely  circulated.  The 
schools  cooperated  in  this  good  work.  Provincial  and 
municipal  officials  were  instructed  to  inform  the  people 
of  their  rights,  but  in  very  many  cases  these  instructions 
were  disregarded. 

Because  of  the  complete  illiteracy  of  practically  all 
of  the  members  of  the  non-Christian  tribes  in  Benguet 
and  Lepanto,  I  caused  a  survey  party  to  be  sent  out  from 
the  Bureau  of  Lands  to  inform  them  of  their  rights  and 
to  assist  them  in  making  the  necessary  applications. 
It  was  from  this  territory  that  proportionately  the  largest 
number  of  applications  were  sent  in. 

The  period  within  which  applications  might  be  made  was 
extended  from  January  1,  1907  to  January  1,  1909,  yet 
it  is  undoubtedly  true  that  when  it  finally  expired  the  vast 
majority  of  those  who  might  have  profited  by  the  free 
patent  privilege  had  failed  to  take  advantage  of  it  because 
of  ignorance  that  it  existed. 

With  the  rapid  spread  of  the  English  language  such  a 
condition  would  not  now  arise.  At  its  last  session  the 
Philippine  Legislature  passed  an  act  to  renew  for  a  period 
of  ten  years  the  right  to  secure  free  patent,  but  this  act, 
like  the  one  which  it  amends,  is  subject  to  the  approval 
of  the  President  and  of  Congress.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that 
such  approval  will  be  given.  In  my  opinion  every  reason 
which  made  it  advisable  to  grant  free  patents  in  the  first 
instance  is  still  of  full  force. 

The  total  number  of  homestead  applications  received 
since  the  Pubhc  Land  Act  took  effect  is  only  19,313, 
and  of   these  it  has  been  necessary  to  reject  4811  be- 


834  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

cause  the  provisions  of  law  were  not  complied  with. 
Forty-eight  patents  have  been  issued,  and  there  are 
8225  approved  appUcations,  while  6219  not  yet  approved 
by  the  bureau  are  pending. 

The  figures  for  free  patents  are  as  follows :  Number  of 
applications,  15,885 ;  free  patents  issued,  722 ;  cases 
still  pending,  11,871 ;  rejected  for  cause  3292. 

One  reason  why  so  many  of  the  free  patent  cases  are 
still  pending  is  that  there  never  has  been,  and  is  not 
now,  a  sufficient  force  of  surveyors  to  keep  the  work  of 
the  Bureau  of  Lands  up  to  date,  all  efforts  to  secure  the 
necessary  additions  to  this  force  having  failed. 

Under  the  Land  Registration  Act  provision  was  made 
for  the  issuing  of  so-called  Torrens  titles  for  which  the 
government  is  virtually  responsible,  once  they  are  given 
out,  so  all  that  is  now  necessary  to  make  it  possible 
rapidly  and  effectively  to  remedy  the  existing  situation  is 
the  appointment  of  a  sufficient  number  of  judges  in  the 
Court  of  Land  Registration. 

Government  lands  of  provinces  or  municipalities  are 
chiefly  those  needed  and  utilized  as  sites  for  public  build- 
ings, plazas  and  the  like.  The  insular  government 
owns  a  similar  class  of  lands,  and  has  certain  lands  in 
trust,  such  as  the  San  Lazaro  Estate,  wliich  was  set  aside 
long  ago  as  a  source  of  income  for  the  support  of  lepers, 
but  the  so-called  friar  lands,  which  have  a  history  of 
their  own,  are  its  most  important  holdings. 

Under  the  Spanish  regime  several  of  the  religious 
orders  acquired  large  wealth  in  the  form  of  estates,  most 
of  which  were  brought  under  high  cultivation,  although 
several  of  the  largest,  like  the  San  Jos6  Estate  in  Mindoro, 
and  the  Isabela  Estate  in  the  province  of  the  same  name, 
were  nearly  or  quite  uncultivated,  and  a  number  of  the 
others  contained  large  uncultivated  areas. 

Field  labour  was  performed  exclusively  by  tenants  who 
were  settled  on  the  estates  in  large  numbers  and  in  a 
number  of  instances  had  built  up  large  and  well-organized 


PHILIPPINE   LANDS  835 

towns.  For  various  reasons  bitter  hostility  arose  between 
them  and  their  landlords.  In  some  parts  of  the  islands 
the  friars  were  detested  by  the  populace  on  general 
principles.  Furthermore,  the  Filipino  becomes  greatly 
attached  to  his  home,  especially  if  his  fathers  have  lived 
there  before  him.  Tenants  on  the  friar  estates  could 
be,  and  not  infrequently  were,  arbitrarily  dispossessed, 
and  the  possibility  that  this  might  occur  was  a  thorn  in 
their  flesh. 

Dm-ing  the  insurrection  the  confiscation  of  the  friar 
estates  was  very  seriously  considered  by  the  so-called 
Insurgent  government,  which  nominally  took  over  their 
administration.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  there  was  then  no 
real  administration  of  them,  and  the  occupied  lands 
passed  under  the  control  of  the  tenants,  who  remained 
in  undisturbed  possession  for  years  and  came  to  consider 
themselves  the  virtual  owners  of  their  holdings.  We 
have  already  seen  how  hostility  to  the  friars  reached  its 
climax  at  this  time.  Some  were  killed  outright,  and 
others  imprisoned  under  such  conditions  as  to  make  death 
probable,  but  the  majority  of  those  captured  were  in 
effect  held  for  a  long  time  for  ransom,  their  liberty  being 
offered  on  condition  of  a  large  cash  payment. 

Upon  the  inauguration  of  civil  government  and  the 
reestablishment  of  law  and  order  the  friars  naturally 
endeavoured  to  reassert  their  rights.  With  few  exceptions 
their  former  tenants  absolutely  refused  to  pay  rent. 
The  friars  threatened  action  in  the  courts,  and  would 
have  been  abundantly  justified  in  bringing  it,  but  such  a 
course  would  unquestionably  have  led  to  serious  disturb- 
ances of  public  order. 

Agitators  and  demagogues  had  succeeded  in  firmly 
convincing  many  of  the  tenants  that  they  were  the  actual 
owners  of  their  lands,  and  those  of  them  who  knew  better 
were  bright  enough  to  take  advantage  of  the  peculiar 
situation. 

Hostility  between  Filipinos  and  friars  had  become  so 


836  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

general  that  the  return  of  the  latter  to  their  parishes, 
accustomed  as  they  had  been  to  the  exercise  of  a  large 
measure  of  control  over  their  parishioners,  and  with  the 
memory  of  grave  abuses  recently  suffered  fresh  in  their 
minds,  was  deemed  to  be  undesirable,  but  their  permanent 
withdrawal  from  the  provinces  was  hardly  feasible  so  long 
as  they  continued  to  hold  very  large  estates  there.  It 
was  beheved  to  be  in  the  public  interest  to  encourage 
the  several  tenants  to  buy  their  individual  holdings  so 
that  they  might  become  responsible  landowners  rather 
than  remain  discontented  and  ready  at  any  time  to  become 
ladrones.  It  was  believed  that  without  great  difficulty 
they  could  be  persuaded  to  attorn  to  the  government, 
and  that  if  the  estates  could  be  pm'chased  at  a  reasonable 
price  individual  holdings  could  eventually  be  sold  to 
their  occupants.  Because  of  the  beneficial  influence  of 
such  a  com-se  on  public  order  and  the  probable  resulting 
improvement  in  social  conditions,  the  purchase  of  these 
estates  was  believed  to  be  in  the  public  interest. 

Had  there  been  sufficient  funds  in  the  treasury  the 
insular  government  would  have  been  within  its  right  in 
making  this  purchase,  but  as  the  total  sum  involved  was 
large,  and  a  bond  issue  was  required  to  raise  it,  it  became 
necessary  to  get  the  consent  of  Congress.  This  was 
given  in  sections  63,  64  and  65  of  the  Act  of  July  1, 
1902.  Under  the  authority  thus  conferred  the  commission 
passed  the  so-called  Friar  Lands  Act,  which  provided 
among  other  things  for  the  temporary  leasing  and  ulti- 
mate sale  of  their  holdings  to  tenants  as  well  as  for  the 
determination  of  values  and  the  fixing  of  rentals  and  pur- 
chase prices. 

Naturally  the  first  thing  to  be  done  was  to  get  tenants 
to  acknowledge  the  ownership  of  the  government.  Until 
this  could  be  brought  about  little  could  be  accomplished 
toward  assisting  them  to  buy  their  holdings.  With  all 
possible  promptness  temporary  leases  were  issued  to  them. 
No  effort  was  made  carefully  to  ascertain  the  real  extent 


Typical  Old-style  Country  Road. 


Typical  New-style  Country  Road. 

Note  the  deposit  of  surfacing  material.  Also  the  caminero,  or  road  tender,  at 
work.  During  the  rainy  season,  one  man  looks  after  each  kilometer  of 
road,  keeping  it  constantly  in  repair.  During  the  dry  season  one  man 
cares  for  two  kilometers. 


o 


PHILIPPINE   LANDS  837 

or  value  of  their  holdings,  and  unless  their  statements 
were  upon  their  face  obviously  very  gravely  in  error 
they  were  accepted  as  a  basis  for  the  first  leases  issued. 
The  amount  of  opposition  which  was  encountered  was, 
under  the  circumstances,  surprisingly  small,  and  the  prog- 
ress of  the  work  was  unexpectedly  rapid. 

Planimeter  surveys  were  made  as  rapidly  as  possible, 
and  it  was  soon  found,  as  had  been  anticipated,  that  ten- 
ants in  general  had  understated  both  the  size  and  value  of 
their  holdings.  While  the  rate  of  rentals  as  compared 
with  values  remained  unchanged,  there  was  a  resulting 
general  increase  in  their  amounts,  and  this  caused  mur- 
muring, but  no  really  serious  trouble  resulted.  There 
followed  as  rapidly  as  possible  the  completion  of  accurate 
surveys  and  the  fixing  of  final  values  which  necessitated 
further  changes  in  rentals.  The  volume  of  work  was 
simply  enormous.  Many  of  the  estates  were  divided  into 
an  incredible  number  of  small  holdings  with  boundaries 
of  the  utmost  irregularity.  An  effort  was  made  to  get 
the  consent  of  the  tenants  to  a  readjustment  of  boun- 
daries on  a  rectangular  system,  leaving  the  size  of  their 
holdings  unchanged  but  straightening  them  out.  It 
had  to  be  abandoned.  A  tenant  would  be  unwilling  to 
part  with  a  given  clump  of  bamboo  or  a  magnificent 
mango  tree  planted  by  liis  great-great-grandfather.  The 
fact  that  these  valuable  possessions  occupied  salient 
angles  in  his  boundary  naturally  did  not  worry  him  at  all. 

The  definite  right  to  purchase  their  holdings  was  from 
the  outset  conferred  upon  lessees  so  that  from  the  time 
the  first  leases  were  issued  the  only  possible  reasons  for 
the  failure  of  a  tenant  to  purchase  his  holdings  would 
be  unwillingness  to  do  so  or  lack  of  funds. 

In  passing  the  Friar  Lands  Act,  which  they  did  during 
my  absence  on  leave,  the  commission,  none  of  whose 
members  were  posted  on  land  matters,  rather  thought- 
lessly made  applicable  to  the  sale  of  vacant  lands  the 
conditions  and  limitations  of  the  Public  Land  Act. 

VOL.  II Z 


838  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

We  had  been  compelled  to  purchase  some  vacant 
estates  and  to  forego  the  purchase  of  several  which  were 
thickly  occupied,  for  the  reason  that  the  friars  insisted 
on  selling  the  one  and  absolutely  refused  to  sell  the  other. 
We  had  to  take  the  best  bargain  we  could  get.  The 
vacant  lands  on  certain  of  the  estates  could  not  be  sold 
in  small  tracts. 

The  Friar  Lands  Act  was  accordingly  amended  by  the 
Philippine  Legislature,  of  which  the  Philippine  Assembly 
was  then  the  Lower  House,  and  all  restrictions  on  the 
areas  of  those  lands  which  might  be  sold  were  removed, 
so  as  to  make  it  possible  to  get  rid  of  the  vacant  friar 
lands. 

Interest  was  piling  up  on  the  purchase  price  of  the 
latter,  and  obviously  it  was  best  for  the  government, 
which  had  to  administer  them,  and  for  the  people,  who 
had  to  pay  the  bill,  that  they  should  be  disposed  of  as 
soon  as  possible. 

Ultimately  an  opportunity  presented  itself  to  sell  the 
San  Jose  Estate  of  some  fifty-eight  thousand  acres  in  its 
entirety  to  an  individual,  and  it  was  thus  sold  after  con- 
sultation with  the  attorney-general  of  the  Philippines  and 
the  attorney-general  of  the  United  States  as  to  the  rights 
of  the  government  in  the  premises,  and  with  the  approval 
of  the  secretary  of  war  and  of  President  Taft  first  had. 
The  buyer  acted  as  an  agent  for  Messrs.  Welch,  Have- 
meyer  and  Senf ,  who  were  all  heavily  interested  in  sugar 
growing  and  desired  to  establish  a  modern  sugar  estate 
in  the  PhiUppines.  This  fact,  when  it  became  known,  was 
the  beginning  of  trouble. 

Two  very  distinct  classes  of  men  were  interested  in  im- 
posing the  existing  legislative  restrictions  relative  to  the 
sale  of  Philippine  lands.  The  first  were  influenced  by  the 
most  honourable  of  altruistic  motives.  They  feared  the 
monopolization  of  agricultural  lands  and  the  evils  of 
absentee  ownershii).  The  other  class  were  the  represent- 
atives of  certain  important  sugar  interests  in  the  United 


PHILIPPINE   LANDS  839 

States  who  wished  to  keep  out  Philippine  sugar  at  all 
hazards  and  had  shrewdly  figured  out  that  the  simplest 
way  to  do  this  would  be  to  prevent  its  production  on  a 
commercial  scale.  They  therefore  sought  to  restrict  the 
sale  of  pubhc  land  so  as  to  make  it  impossible  for  an 
individual  or  an  association  to  buy  enough  to  establish 
a  modern  sugar  estate.  Tliis  they  succeeded  in  doing. 
They  even  went  further,  and  by  Umiting  the  land  which 
a  corporation  might  own  and  control  made  it  impossible 
for  a  corporation  to  purchase  enough  land  of  any  sort 
for  such  an  estate.  But  that  is  another  story  with 
which  we  are  not  here  concerned. 

They  built  a  fence  around  Philippine  lands  which 
they  deemed  to  be"pig-tight,  horse-high, and  bull-strong," 
but  we  unwittingly  cut  a  small  hole  through  it.  The 
limitations  on  the  sales  of  land  did  not  apply  to  land 
belonging  to  the  insular  government  which  had  first  im- 
posed certain  restrictions  on  the  size  of  the  areas  of 
vacant  friar  land  which  might  be  sold  and  had  then  re- 
moved them,  having  the  same  right  to  do  the  one  thing 
that  it  exercised  in  doing  the  other. 

The  San  Jose  Estate  was  sold  to  an  individual.  By 
him  it  was  sold  in  part  to  other  individuals  who  had  the 
undoubted  right  to  acquire  as  much  land  as  they  coidd  get, 
and  in  part  to  a  corporation  not  authorized  to  engage  in 
agriculture  which  acquired  only  such  land  as  it  needed  to 
conduct  its  legitimate  business  and  was  therefore  within 
its  legal  right.  The  transaction  was  a  perfectly  legitimate 
one  from  every  view  point.  It  spread  consternation 
among  the  beet-sugar  men,  and  Congressman  Martin  of 
Colorado,  a  state  which  has  extensive  beet-sugar  interests, 
made  upon  the  floor  of  the  House  a  sciurilous  attack 
upon  President  Taft,  Secretary  Root  and  the  insular 
government  officials  concerned  in  which  he  accused  them 
of  violating  the  law  and  of  having  formed  a  gigantic 
conspiracy  with  great  corporate  interests,  more  especially 
with  certain  sugar  interests,  not  only  to  deprive  the  friar 


840  THE   PHILIPPINES  PAST   AND   PRESENT 

land  tenants  of  their  holdings  but  to  prevent  FUipinos 
in  general  from  acquiring  land  and  to  turn  the  Philip- 
pines over  to  the  trusts.  Mr.  Martin  and  his  fellows 
insisted  that  section  sixty-five  of  the  Act  of  July  1,  1902, 
in  itself  imposed  the  restrictions  of  the  Public  Land  Act 
on  the  sale  of  friar  lands ;  that  the  commission  in  im- 
posing these  limitations  in  the  first  instance  had  merely 
voiced  the  will  of  Congress  and  that  its  act  in  subsequently 
withdrawing  them  was  illegal  and  iniquitous.  They 
apparently  lost  sight  of  the  fact  that  if  so,  the  iniquity  was 
shared  by  the  Philippine  Assembly.  Later  they  endeav- 
oured to  explain  the  action  of  the  assembly  by  saying 
that  it  did  not  know  what  it  was  doing,  and  certain  mem- 
bers of  that  body  made  a  similar  claim,  for  poUtical 
effect.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  I  myself  explained  to  the 
members  of  the  assembly  friar  lands  committee  the 
purpose  of  the  bill  with  which  they  were  then  in  full 
accord. 

I  requested  an  investigation.  One  was  authorized  by 
the  House.  It  was  made  by  the  Committee  on  Insular 
Affaks.  Its  cost  to  the  United  States  was  very  large. 
The  secretaiy  of  the  interior,  the  executive  secretary, 
the  attorney-general,  the  director  of  lands  and  other 
witnesses,  were  called  to  Washington  from  the  Philip- 
pines and  taken  away  from  their  work  at  a  rather 
critical  time.  The  result  was  a  complete  vindication  of 
the  several  persons  who  had  been  attacked.  Congress- 
man Martin  failed  to  make  good  his  charges  in  any 
particular,  and  incidentally  members  of  the  com- 
mittee and  such  other  persons  as  cared  to  follow  the 
proceedings  were  given  a  valuable  demonstration  of 
the  manner  in  which  the  insular  government  transacts 
its  business. 

There  was,  however,  one  unfortunate  indirect  effect. 
In  view  of  the  difference  of  opinion  among  congressmen 
as  to  whether  Congress  had  or  had  not  intended  to  make 
the  limitations  to  the  PubUc  Land  Act  relative  to  areas 


PHILIPPINE   LANDS  841 

which  could  be  sold  applicable  to  friar  lands  the  sec- 
retary of  war  issued  an  executive  order  providing  that 
their  sale  should  be  subject  to  such  hmitations,  pend- 
ing an  expression  by  Congress  of  its  will  in  the  matter. 
Congress  has  never  acted. 

There  are  large  tracts  of  vacant  friar  lands  which  cannot 
be  sold  for  years  to  come,  if  subject  to  existing  restrictions, 
either  because  they  are  situated  in  very  sparsely  inhabited 
I'egions  where  there  is  no  demand  for  them  on  the  part 
of  would-be  small  landowners,  or  because  the  price  as 
fixed  by  law  is  materially  in  excess  of  that  of  equally 
good,  adjacent,  unoccupied  pubhc  lands  which  can  be 
had  subject  to  identical  conditions  as  to  areas  purchasable. 
As  the  Philippines  are  "land  poor,"  the  inadvisabihty  of 
such  a  pohcy  would  seem  to  be  sufficiently  evident. 
The  argument  against  large  estates  is  without  force, 
both  because  the  amount  of  land  concerned  is  relatively 
insignificant,  and  because  there  are  already  in  the  islands 
so  many  large  estates,  owned  in  many  instances  by 
Filipinos,  that  the  addition  of  a  few  new  ones  more  or 
less  would  not  perceptibly  change  the  existing  situation. 

The  question  might  well  be  raised  as  to  the  authority 
of  the  secretary  of  war  to  suspend  by  an  executive  order 
the  operation  of  a  law  duly  enacted  by  the  Philippine 
legislature  pursuant  to  powers  conferred  by  Congress, 
especially  as  Congress  has  power,  and  has  had  opportunity, 
to  disapprove  it.  I  think  it  possible  that  the  director 
of  lands  could  be  compelled  by  mandamus  to  sell 
vacant  friar  lands  in  any  quantity  to  an  individual 
applicant. 

The  facts  as  regards  forest  lands  are,  set  forth  in  suffi- 
cient detail  in  the  chapter  on  the  Philippine  forests. 

The  existing  legislation  relative  to  mineral  lands  is 
defective,  or  objectionable,  in  several  minor  particulars, 
but  on  the  whole  is  reasonably  satisfactory  except  for 
the  provision  that  a  person  may  locate  but  one  claim  on  a 
given  vein  or  lode.     Such  a  provision  would  have  very 


842  THE   PHILIPPIN'EP   PAST   AXD   PRE5EXT 

greatly  hampered  the  development  of  the  mining  industry 
in  the  United  States  and  it  greatly  hampers  it  in  the 
Philippines. 

Recommendations  that  Congress  amend  the  law  relative 
to  mining  claims  have  been  persistently  made  by  the 
commission  and  have  been  persistently  ignored,  probably 
for  the  reason  that  Congress  is  too  busy  with  other 
matters  to  give  much  attention  to  such  requests  from 
the  Philippines. 

We  now  come  to  the  subject  of  pubhc  agricultural  lands. 
I  have  already  called  attention  to  the  fact  that  little 
advantage  has  been  taken  of  the  liberal  provision  of  the 
Pubhc  Land  Act  relative  to  free  patents  and  homesteads. 
There  has  been  some  agitation  in  favour  of  a  homestead 
of  one  hundred  sixty  acres  mstead  of  the  forty  acres  now 
allowed.  Pei-sonally  I  do  not  attach  great  importance  to 
this  matter.  Five  acres  is  as  much  as  the  average  Filipino 
will  cultivate^  and  if  he  has  forty  there  is  abundant  room 
for  him  so  to  distribute  his  cultivated  area  as  to  let  much 
of  his  land  "rest,"  which  he  is  very  fond  of  doing.  To 
increase  the  size  of  the  homestead  woidd  help  a  verj- 
liniited  number  of  Americans,  but  a  better  way  of 
accomphshing  this  would  be  to  allow  them  to  buy  what 
thej'  require,  within  reasonable  limits. 

No  one  who  has  not  traveUed  ■ft'idely  in  the  Phihppiaes 
can  be  adequately  impressed  with  the  insignificance  of 
the  areas  now  under  cultivation  as  compared  with 
those  which  would  richly  repay  it.  The  country'  is 
failing  to  produce  food  enough  for  eight  millions  of 
people,  yet  if  advantage  were  taken  of  the  opportunities 
which  nature  so  bountifuUy  affords  it  could  readih'  feed 
eighty  millions. 

Under  such  conditions  the  present  restrictions  on  the 

'  The  best  e\-idenee  of  wliat  the  average  Filipino  cultivates  is  found 
in  the  free  patents.  Of  the  15,88.5  free  patents  applied  for  the  aver- 
age area  is  declared  to  be  7|  acres ;  4,025  Free  Patents  have  been 
actually  surveyed ;    their  average  area  is  only  5  acres. 


PHILIPPINE   LANDS  843 

sale  of  public  lands,  which  make  it  impossible  for  an 
individual  to  buy  more  than  forty  acres,  or  for  a  corpora- 
tion or  association  of  individuals  to  buy  more  than  twenty- 
five  hundred  acres,  are  simply  absurd.  What  we  want  is 
not  the  indefinite  preservation  of  our  present  vast  track- 
less wastes  of  the  richest  public  agricultural  land,  but 
productive  farms. 

Every  opportunity  should  be  extended  to  each  native 
of  these  islands  who  desires  to  obtain  land  and  cultivate 
it  with  his  own  hands. 

The  same  statement  holds  for  persons  who  wish  to 
secure  land  and  to  employ  others  as  labourers.  Large 
estates  on  which  modern  machinery  and  modern  agri- 
cultural methods  are  employed  are  greatly  needed. 
The  methods  employed  by  Filipino  owners  of  such  estates 
are  primitive.  The  natives  believe  what  they  see,  and 
learn  far  better  by  example  than  in  any  other  way. 
Absolutely  no  harm  has  resulted  from  the  establishment 
of  large  sugar  plantations  on  the  San  Jos6  Estate  in  Min- 
doro  and  the  Calamba  Estate  in  Luzon.  On  the  con- 
trary, both  of  these  great  farms  have  supplied  abundant 
labour  at  increased  wages  to  a  very  large  number  of  needy 
people  ;  have  taught  labourers  much  about  sanitarj^  living, 
and  have  given  them  veiy  valuable  object  lessons  in 
agriculture.  Both  are  frequently  visited  by  intelligent 
agriculturists  glad  of  the  opportunity  to  acquire  the 
practical  knowledge  which  can  there  be  so  easily  obtained 
by  observation. 

It  may  be  a  revolutionary  statement  to  make,  but  if 
I  personally  controlled  the  public  lands  of  the  Phihppine 
Islands,  I  would  wathout  hesitation  give  them  to  persons 
who  would  cultivate  them,  making  the  amounts  con- 
ceded dependent  strictly  upon  the  abihty  of  their  would-be 
owners  to  cultivate,  and  restoring  to  the  public  domain 
any  lands  not  promptly  and  properly  utilized. 

The  monej'  which  the  government  now  derives  from 
the  sale  of  pubhc  lands  is  a  bagatelle  compared  with  the 


844  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND  PRESENT 

benefit  which  would  result  to  the  country  if  cultivated 
areas  were  widely  extended,  and  there  is  abundant  labour 
here  to  extend  them  very  rapidly.  All  that  is  needed 
is  the  introduction  of  modern  maclunery,  modern  agri- 
cultural methods  and  capital. 

The  existing  provisions  of  the  PubUc  Land  Act  relative 
to  leases  are  very  liberal,  but  the  average  man  wants  to 
owTi  land  before  he  spends  much  money  on  it. 

There  are  several  serious  omissions  in  the  provisions  of 
the  act  of  Congress  relative  to  the  sale  of  public  lands. 
No  authority  exists  for  their  sale  for  residence  purposes, 
business  purposes,  or  cemetery  purposes,  except  within 
town  sites.  The  need  of  land  for  cemetery  purposes 
became  so  acute  that  I  deemed  it  wise  to  stretch  the  law  a 
bit  in  meeting  it.  Many  of  the  old  cemeteries  were 
situated  in  the  midst  of  dense  centres  of  population,  or 
immediately  adjacent  to  sources  of  pubhc  water  supply. 
Their  areas  were  usually  grossly  inadequate  properly  to 
accommodate  the  very  large  number  of  bodies  requiring 
to  be  buried.  Shockingly  unsanitary  conditions  resulted, 
and  it  became  necessary  for  the  Bureau  of  Health  to 
close  many  of  them.  Because  of  the  trouble  between  the 
Aglipayan  and  Cathohc  churches,  it  was  often  im- 
possible for  representatives  of  the  Catholic  church  to 
purchase  private  lands  for  cemetery  purposes.  Their 
old  cemeteries  were  closed,  yet  they  could  not  open 
new  ones,  although  able  and  willing  to  pay  liberally  for 
the  necessary  laud.  Under  these  circumstances  I  ruled 
that  public  land  could  be  sold  to  them,  and  that  occupation 
by  caretakers,  and  such  cultivation  as  is  ordinarily 
given  in  beautifying  cemeteries,  would  be  held  to  con- 
stitute occupation  and  cultivation  within  the  meaning 
of  the  law,  so  that  title  could  eventually  pass. 

In  closing  let  me  emphasize  the  fact  that  the  only 
method  of  informing  the  common  people  of  the  Philippines 
relative  to  their  rights  in  the  matter  of  acquiring  pubhc 
lands  thus  far  found  practicable  has  been  to  send  special 


A  Canga,  or  Cahabao  Sledge. 
Sledges  of  this  sort,  which  were  formerly  in  common  use,  promptly- 
destroyed  Kood  roads. 


A  new-style  cart,  with  broad-tired  wheels,  which  does  not  injure  tlie  roads. 


PHILIPPINE   LANDS  845 

land  inspectors  from  house  to  house,  to  convey  the 
information  by  word  of  mouth.  A  considerable  number 
of  such  inspectors  are  now  employed,  and  more  are  badly 
needed. 

The  total  area  of  all  public  lands  sold  to  Americans 
or  foreigners  since  the  American  occupation  is  seventeen 
thousand  acres ;  that  of  all  public  lands  leased  by  such 
persons,  seventeen  thousand  three  hundred  ninety  acres. 
This  is  the  answer  to  those  who  claim  that  there  has  been 
exploitation  of  the  public  domain. 

The  needs  of  the  PhiUppine  Islands  in  the  matter  of 
land  legislation  may  be  briefly  summarized  as  follows  :  — - 

More  judges  in  the  Court  of  Land  Registration  so  that 
the  cadastral  survey  work  may  be  expedited,  and  the 
poor  man  may  be  able  to  obtain  title  to  his  holdings 
promptly  and  at  small  expense. 

The  employment  of  more  surveyors  on  public  land  work. 

A  renewal  of  the  privilege  of  obtaining  free  patents  on 
the  old  conditions  during  a  period  of  at  least  ten  years. 

The  employment  of  more  public  land  inspectors  to 
inform  the  poor  and  ignorant  of  their  rights,  and  to  assist 
them  in  obtaining  them. 

More  liberal  legislation  relative  to  the  size  of  the 
tracts  of  public  land  which  may  be  purchased,  and  the 
number  of  mining  claims  on  a  given  vein  or  lode  which 
an  individual  may  record. 

Authorization  for  the  sale  of  public  agricultural  lands 
outside  of  town  sites  for  residence  purposes,  business 
purposes,  and  for  cemeteries. 


CHAPTER  XXXI 

The  Philippine  Forests 

Would  that  I  had  adequate  words  in  which  to  describe 
the  wonders  of  the  PhiUppine  forests,  through  which  I 
wandered  ahnost  daily  for  four  years,  and  which  I  love 
to  revisit  whenever  the  opportunity  presents  itself  !  Their 
majestic  stateliness  and  magic  beauty  defy  description. 
I  have  seen  them  swept  by  hurricanes  when  huge  branches 
crashed  down  and  mighty  trees  thundered  to  earth,  imperil- 
Hng  life  and  limb,  and  I  have  seen  them  in  the  still  noons 
of  the  tropics  when  not  a  leaf  stirred.  At  times  they  are 
vocal  with  songs  of  birds  and  ceaseless  din  of  insects, 
and  again  they  are  as  silent  as  the  grave.  Who  could 
do  justice  to  the  endless  variety  and  beauty  of  tree-trunk, 
leaf  and  flower ;  the  exquisite  drapery  of  vines,  ferns  and 
orchids  which  covers  the  older  forest  monarchs ;  the 
weird  masses  of  aerial  roots  which  lead  superstitious 
natives  to  beheve  some  trees  to  be  haunted,  and  small 
wonder ;  the  ever  changing  Ught  and  shade  bringing 
out  new  beauties  where  one  least  expects  to  find  them ; 
the  endless  differences  in  the  flora  due  to  variations  in 
altitude  and  in  the  distribution  of  moisture  ? 

In  Mindoro,  Palawan  and  Mindanao  we  find  tropical 
vegetation  in  its  absolute  perfection ;  in  the  highlands 
of  northern  Luzon  we  meet  our  old  friends,  the  pine  and 
oak,  while  beside  them  grow  strawberries,  raspberries, 
huckleberries,  jacks-in-the-pulpit  and  other  friends  of 
our  childhood  days. 

Surely  the  Philippine  forests  should  be  preserv^ed,  but 
not  for  their  beautj^  alone !     In  them  the  people  have  a 

846 


THE   PHILIPPINE   FORESTS  847 

permanent  source  of  wealth,  if  they  can  only  be  made  to 
realize  it  and  to  take  proper  measures  to  protect  it.  Cer- 
tainly no  other  country  has  a  greater  variety  of  beautiful 
and  serviceable  woods.  Some  of  them  are  so  close- 
grained  and  hard  that  they  successfully  resist  the  attacks 
of  white  ants,  and  prove  almost  indestructible  even  when 
buried  in  the  earth.  Others  will  not  stand  exposure  to  the 
weather,  but  last  indefinitely  under  cover  and  are  excellent 
for  inside  framing  and  finishing.  We  have  the  best  of 
cabinet  woods,  such  as  ebony,  camagon,  narra,^  acle,  and 
tindalo.  From  some  of  our  trees  come  valuable  gums, 
such  as  almaciga  -  and  gutta  percha.  Others  produce 
alcohol,  tan  barks,  dyewoods,  valuable  vegetable  oils 
or  drugs.  The  so-called  "Singapore  cane,"  so  highly 
prized  by  makers  of  wicker  furniture,  grows  abundantly 
in  Palawan.  Great  areas  are  covered  with  a  bamboo 
which  makes  an  excellent  paper  pulp. 

In  short,  the  Philippine  forests  should  be  like  money 
in  the  bank  for  the  inhabitants  of  the  islands.  There 
are  in  this  world  wise  people  who  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances spend  only  the  interest  on  their  money  ;  and  there 
are  others  who  spend  the  principal  while  it  lasts.  To 
which  class  do  the  Filipinos  belong? 

It  has  been  said  that  the  ci\'iUzation  of  a  people  may 
be  measured  by  its  forest  practice,  and  in  a  sense  this  is 
true,  for  forestry  as  we  know  it  to-day,  and  as  the  leading 
nations  of  Europe  have  known  it  for  a  long  period,  means 
the  limiting  of  immediate  gain  in  the  hope  of  future  re- 
ward, direct  and  indirect ;  in  fact,  it  means  present-day 
sacrifice  for  the  sake  of  an  unborn  posterity.  A  wise 
national  forest  poUcy  therefore  involves  not  only  fore- 
sight, but  statesmanship  and  patriotism,  which  in  their 
most  advanced  degree  are  to  be  found  onlj^  among  the 
people  of  the  most  enlightened  nations.  The  manner  in 
which  a  people  regards  its  forest  resources  may  be  taken 
as  fairly  indicative  of  its  outlook  in  general.     What  then 

'  Frequently  and  wrongly  called  rosewood.  -  Damax. 


848  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

has  been  the  policy  of  the  Phihppine  government  and 
what  the  attitude  of  the  people,  toward  these  resources  ? 

There  is  little  room  for  doubt  that  practically  the 
entire  land  area  of  the  Philippines  from  the  plains  at 
sea-level  to  the  highest  mountain-tops  was  originally 
covered  with  forest  growth.  At  the  time  of  the  Ameri- 
can occupation  two-thirds  of  this  wonderful  heritage  had 
ceased  to  exist.  This  would  be  all  very  well  if  any  con- 
siderable portion  of  the  vast  deforested  areas  were  cul- 
tivated, or  put  to  any  permanent  profitable  use,  but  such 
is  not  the  case.  According  to  the  best  estimates  which  it 
has  thus  far  been  possible  to  make,  only  about  fifteen  per 
cent  of  the  land  from  which  the  original  forests  have  been 
stripped  is  to-day  under  any  form  of  cultivation.  The 
remainder  is  covered  with  conmiercially  worthless  second- 
growth  forest,  and  with  several  giant  grasses  which  are 
collectively  known  as  cdgon. 

The  cogondles  ^  make  up  approximately  sixty  per  cent  of 
the  deforested  area,  or  forty  per  cent  of  the  land  area  of 
the  entire  archipelago.  They  are  not  good  for  grazing 
unless  fed  down  very  closely.  They  are  difficult  to  bring 
under  cultivation  because  of  the  vitahty  of  the  grass 
roots  and  the  acidity  which  they  impart  to  the  soil. 
Cogondles  are  often  the  breeding  places  of  swarms  of 
locusts  which  devour  growing  crops  in  neighbouring  fields. 
They  have  been  produced  by  the  shiftless  form  of  agri- 
culture known  as  caingin  maldng. 

A  large  majority  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  Philippines 
will  not  fight,  for  any  length  of  time,  the  tropical  weeds 
and  grasses  which  invade  their  cultivated  fields,  and  rather 
than  attempt  to  do  so  prefer  to  clear  forest  lands,  slaugh- 
tering the  trees  indiscriminately  and  burning  them  where 
they  fall.  An  area  so  cleared  is  known  as  a  caingin.  It 
is  usually  planted  with  camotes,  corn,  rice  or  some  similar 
quick-growing  crop.  Cultivation  is  carried  on  in  a  hap- 
hazard way,  but  is  soon  abandoned  when  a  jungle  growth 

•  An  extensive  open  region  covered  with  cogon  is  called  a  cogondl. 


THE   PHILIPPINE   FORESTS  849 

of  grass,  weeds  and  seedling  trees  begins  to  spring  up. 
At  the  end  of  the  first,  the  second  or,  at  latest  the  third 
year  the  caingin  maker  abandons  his  clearing  and  starts 
a  new  one.  Fires  sweep  over  the  abandoned  areas,  kill- 
ing everything  except  the  cogon  grass  which  takes  posses- 
sion and  holds  it  against  all  comers.  The  forest  de- 
struction thus  wrought  in  the  past  is  appalhng.  Within 
limits,  it  still  continues,  although  unUcensed  caingin 
making  is  now  forbidden  by  law. 

In  cutting  timber  for  domestic  use  and  for  the  market, 
the  Fihpinos  have  in  the  past  been  absolutely  indifferent 
to  the  matter  of  reproduction,  making  a  clean  sweep  in 
those  places  where  merchantable  tree  species  could  be 
readily  and  cheaply  obtained. 

Six  weeks  after  the  Philippine  Commission  became 
the  legislative  body  of  the  islands,  it  passed  an  act  for 
the  reorganization  of  the  Forestry  Bureau,  which  had 
previously  been  created  by  military  order,  continuing  as 
its  chief  Major  George  P.  Ahem,  who  had  held  this  posi- 
tion under  the  military  regime,  and  who  is  to-day  in  length 
of  ser\'ice  the  ranking  bureau  chief  of  the  insular  govern- 
ment. 

Major  Ahern  was  thus  intrusted  with  the  management 
of  some  fifty-four  thousand  square  miles  of  forest  land, 
and  was  charged  with  the  duty  of  investigating  the 
forest  resources  of  the  Philippines,  and  of  developing  and 
protecting  them.  These  two  latter  objects  are  by  no 
means  incompatible.  Vastly  more  timber  falls  and  rots 
in  the  Philippines  than  is  cut  and  marketed,  and  the 
forest  wealth  of  the  islands  may  be  developed  in  such  a 
way  as  actually  to  improve  the  areas  that  are  cut  over 
by  removing  old  trees,  and  thus  gi^-ing  light  and  air 
to  younger  ones  which  then  rapidly  grow  up  and  take 
their  places. 

The  stand  of  hardwood  timber  in  the  Philippines  is 
now  probably  the  finest  in  the  world.  The  United  States 
and  Europe  are  ready  to  purchase  every  foot  of  the  selected 


850  THE   rHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

grades  of  lumber  that  we  can  ship.  China  offers  a  prac- 
tically inexhaustible  market  for  the  cheaper  grades. 
Stumpage  charges  are  moderate.  Yet  in  spite  of  all  these 
advantages  the  islands  do  not,  as  yet,  produce  lumber 
enough  to  supply  their  own  needs. 

This  condition  is  rapidly  changing,  however,  and  if 
adequate  measures  are  not  adopted  for  the  conservation 
of  the  forests,  we  shall  sooner  or  later  be  confronted  with 
the  danger  of  their  devastation  by  the  lumberman. 

Under  the  direction  of  the  Bm-eau  of  Forestry  the  trees 
which  are  to  be  felled  are  in  many  instances  marked,  and 
in  any  event  care  is  taken  to  prevent  the  cutting  of  any 
which  have  not  attained  to  certain  prescribed  diameters, 
while  the  leaving  of  enough  adequately  to  provide  for 
reproduction  is  obligatory. 

Up  to  the  time  of  the  American  occupation  forest 
operations  had  been  limited  to  a  very  small  number  of 
well-known  species  of  demonstrated  conunercial  value. 
The  total  number  of  tree  species  which  had  then  been 
identified  was  about  twelve  hundred.  The  number  identi- 
fied up  to  the  present  time  is  approximately  twenty-five 
hundred.  A  large  amount  of  important  work  has  been 
done  in  determining  what  ones  of  the  connnercially  un- 
known species  are  valuable,  and  in  what  ways  they  may 
best  be  utihzed. 

One  of  the  most  important  functions  of  the  Bureau 
of  Forestry  has  been  to  investigate  unexplored  and  un- 
known forests,  and  ascertain  definitely  the  stand  of  com- 
mercially valuable  trees,  at  the  same  time  giving  proper 
consideration  to  the  practicabiUty  of  getting  lumber 
from  them  to  the  market  at  reasonable  expense.  As  a 
result  of  this  work  the  bureau  has  been  able  to  furnish 
much  accurate  and  valuable  information  to  persons  desir- 
ing to  engage  in  the  lumber  industry. 

Some  forests  have  been  found  to  be  very  valuable, 
while  others  are  practically'  worthless  either  on  account 
of  the  absence  of  the  better  tree  species  or  because  of 


THE  PHILIPPINE  FORESTa  851 

difficulties  which  render  it  impossible  or  unprofitable  to 
transport  lumber  from  them  to  a  market. 

At  the  time  of  the  American  occupation  the  methods 
employed  in  felhng  trees  and  converting  them  into  lum- 
ber were  primitive  in  the  extreme.  The  small  Malay 
axe,  the  edge  of  which  is  hardly  wider  than  that  of  a  good- 
sized  chisel,  was  in  common  use.  Once  felled,  trees  were 
necessarily  cut  into  short  lengths,  as  all  logs  had  to  be 
hauled  by  carabaos.  The  logs  were  ultimately  cut  into 
lumber  by  hand  with  whip-saws  operated,  as  a  rule,  by 
two  men  each.  There  was  not  a  modem  sawmill  in  the 
Phihppine  Islands.  The  few  mills  which  existed  were  of 
the  most  antiquated  type,  and  with  one  or  two  negUgible 
exceptions  were  confined  to  Manila. 

To-day  there  are  about  sixty  steam  sawmills  in  opera- 
tion and  orders  have  been  placed  for  others,  some  of 
which  will  have  a  capacity  of  one  hundred  thousand 
board  feet  of  lumber  per  day.  The  actual  invest- 
ment in  logging  equipment  and  sawmills  runs  into  the 
milUons  of  dollars. 

Logging  was  formerly  closely  restricted  to  the  most 
valuable  species,  so  situated  that  they  could  be  rolled 
into  the  water  or  hauled  to  the  beach  by  carabaos.  Large 
tracts  are  now  being  logged  with  modem  machinery  under 
conservative  forest  methods,  and  the  logging  railway  and 
the  skidding  engine  are  rapidly  coming  into  use. 

Three  forest  reserves,  smiilar  in  purpose  to  the  national 
forests  of  the  United  States,  have  been  set  aside  to  insure 
a  permanent  timber  supply  in  certain  regions  and  to 
afford  permanent  protection  to  streams  capable  of  fur- 
nishing irrigation  water  upon  which  may  depend  the 
prosperity  of  the  inhabitants  of  neighbouring  plains. 
One  hundred  and  forty-nine  conmiunal  forests  have  been 
created  for  as  many  municipalities,  in  order  permanently 
to  provide  them  with  timber  and  firewood.  The  interests 
of  the  Filipinos  themselves  have  been  given  first  considera- 
tion, and  the  inhabitants  of  towns  for  which  communal 


852  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

forests  have  not  been  set  aside  may  freely  cut  and  gather 
from  any  public  forest,  without  license  and  without 
payment,  all  timber  of  the  second  and  lower  groups  which 
they  require  for  domestic  use,  while  gratuitous  licenses 
can  be  had  for  first-group  timber  to  be  employed  in  the 
construction  of  permanent  houses. 

Within  recent  years  the  revenue  derived  from  forest 
products  has  steadily  increased,  in  spite  of  the  fact  that 
the  government  charges  have  been  materially  reduced. 

The  public  forests  of  the  Philippines  are  not  sold,  but 
are  developed  under  a  hcense  system.  Small  operators 
usually  work  under  ordinary  yearly  Ucenses  for  definite 
small  areas.  Exclusive  licenses,  or  concessions  as  they  are 
popularly  called,  are  generally  in  the  form  of  twenty- 
year  exclusive  licenses  to  cut  and  remove  timber  and  other 
forest  products  from  certain  specified  tracts.  The  land 
itself  is  in  no  way  affected  by  such  Ucenses.  Merely 
the  timber  and  minor  forest  products  are  included. 
When  a  lumberman  is  seriously  considering  an  invest- 
ment in  the  Phihppines,  he  himself,  or  an  experienced 
representative,  should  state  to  the  director  of  forestry  ap- 
proximately the  extent  of  the  investment  he  contemplates. 
He  will  then  be  given  information  about  several  tracts 
which  promise  to  answer  his  needs,  and  arrangements  can 
be  made  for  an  experienced  forester  to  accompany  him 
over  the  tracts  in  question  so  that  he  may  size  up  condi- 
tions for  himself.  All  maps,  estimates  and  other  detailed 
information  which  may  have  been  collected  on  the  tracts 
will,  of  course,  be  placed  at  his  disposal,  and  he  can  count 
upon  the  heartiest  governmental  cooperation  and  assist- 
ance in  making  a  success  of  his  enterprise.  It  should  be 
understood,  however,  that  in  no  case  does  the  director  of 
forestry  guarantee  the  correctness  of  the  estimates  or 
other  data  which  he  furnishes.  These  are  given  to  the 
applicant  for  what  they  are  worth,  and  in  every  case  he  is 
advised  to  take  such  steps  as  may  be  necessary  to  satisfy 
himself  as  to  whether  or  not  they  are  correct.     If  the 


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THE   PHILIPPINE   FORESTS  853 

lumberman  then  decides  to  apply  for  a  concession,  he 
makes  a  formal  application  in  writing  to  the  director  of 
forestry  for  an  exclusive  twenty-year  privilege  for  the  tract 
he  has  selected.  His  application  is  then  forwarded  by  the 
director  of  forestry  with  recommendations  to  the  secretary 
of  the  interior,  who  may  approve  the  issuance  of  an  exclu- 
sive license  if  he  decides  that  such  a  course  is  in  the  public 
interest.  For  an  area  of  more  than  a  thousand  hectares 
(approximately  twenty-five  hundred  acres)  proposals  for 
bids  to  secure  the  desired  privilege  are  published  in  the 
Official  Gazette  and  other  papers.  At  least  six  weeks  inter- 
vene between  the  appearance  of  the  first  advertisement  and 
the  opening  of  the  bids,  but  in  order  to  give  interested  par- 
ties in  the  Philippines  ample  time  to  correspond  with  their 
principals  in  Europe  or  America,  this  period  is  usually 
extended  to  about  four  months.  The  advertisement  also 
enumerates  certain  minimum  requirements  which  princi- 
pally specify  the  minimum  amount  of  capital  which 
must  be  invested  within  a  certain  given  time  and  the  mini- 
mum cut  during  the  several  succeeding  years,  together 
with  certain  requirements  regarding  logging  and  milling 
equipment. 

Formal  bids  are  finally  submitted,  and  the  license  is 
ordinarily  granted  to  the  bidder  who  gives  the  best 
assurances  of  developing  the  tract  most  thoroughly  and 
promptly.  The  right  to  reject  any  and  all  bids  is  ex- 
pressly reserved. 

In  fixing  the  annual  production  there  is  taken  into  con- 
sideration, so  far  as  possible,  the  amount  of  over-mature 
timber  on  the  stand  and  the  amount  of  the  annual  incre- 
ment, with  the  object  of  rendering  the  investment  a  perma- 
nent one  instead  of  merely  permitting  the  operator  to 
strip  and  abandon  the  area  he  holds.  In  preparing  regu- 
lations under  which  the  operator  is  required  to  work,  first 
care  is  given  to  the  future  condition  of  the  area,  in  order 
that  the  land  after  logging  may  be  potentially  as  valuable 
as  before,  and  no  consideration  of  immediate  profit   is 

VOL.   II — 2  a 


854  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

allowed  to  interfere.  Nevertheless,  the  logger  in  the 
Philippines  will  find  that  in  comparison  with  similar 
conditions  elsewhere  he  will  have  few  restrictions  to  con- 
tend with,  and  in  practically  no  cases  are  these  such  as 
seriously  to  increase  the  cost  of  his  operations.  It  is  to 
permit  such  permanent  use  of  the  land  that  concessions 
are  granted  over  such  large  areas,  often  consisting  of  a 
hundred  square  miles  or  even  more. 

As  local  residents  are  given  the  right  to  cut  what  lumber 
and  firewood  they  may  need  for  their  private  use  in  the 
territory  covered  by  exclusive  licenses,  this  system  is  not 
open  to  objection,  especially  as  there  are  more  than  suffi- 
cient forest  areas  to  accommodate  all  applicants  desir- 
ing exclusive  licenses.  The  director  of  forestry  has 
the  right  to  reduce  cutting  areas  if  outputs  do  not  come 
up  to  requirements,  so  that  a  dog-in-the-manger  policy 
is  rendered  impossible. 

The  local  market  takes  about  one  hundred  million 
feet  per  year.  Only  a  few  million  feet  are  exported  an- 
nually at  present.  A  properly  distributed  cut  of  five 
hundred  million  feet  per  year  would  actually  improve 
the  forests. 

It  would  seem  that  the  pohcy  which  we  have  followed 
would  meet  with  the  almost  unanimous  approval  of  the 
Filipinos,  but  as  a  matter  of  fact  it  has  been  far  from 
popular  with  them.  The  forest  reserves  have  been  set 
aside  against  the  protest  of  the  very  people  who  will 
profit  by  the  conservation  of  their  resources,  and  would 
be  the  first  to  suffer  from  their  destruction.  The  native 
press,  and  the  Filipinos  generally,  have  opposed  the  open- 
ing up  of  timber  tracts  by  modern  logging  methods, 
despite  the  fact  that  such  tracts  are  usually  inaccessible 
to  persons  operating  with  old-fashioned  equipment,  and 
the  further  fact  that  the  establishment  of  important 
lumbering  enterprises  means  additional  emploj^ment  for 
well-paid  skilled  and  unskilled  labor,  increase  in  the  money 
in  circulation,  decrease  in  lumber  imports  and  the  ultimate 


THE  PHILIPPINE   FORESTS  855 

development  of  a  lucrative  export  trade.  Fear  of  Ameri- 
can capital  can  hardly  be  cited  as  an  explanation  of  this 
phenomenon.  Of  three  concessions  granted  last  year 
only  one,  which  was  subsequently  abandoned,  went  to 
American  capitalists. 

Thus  far  the  Fihpinos  have  made  no  attempt  to  share 
in  the  development  of  their  forests  on  any  save  a  very 
small  scale.  Of  the  total  amount  of  lumber  sawed  in  the 
islands  only  about  ten  per  cent  is  produced  in  mills  owned 
or  controlled  by  them.  It  is  useless  to  argue  that  the 
timber  should  be  saved  for  future  generations,  for  if  not 
cut  at  maturity  trees  fall  and  rot. 

So  far  as  concerns  conservation,  the  attitude  of  the 
Fihpinos  is  even  less  satisfactory.  There  is  abundant 
evidence  on  which  to  base  a  prediction  as  to  the  pohcy 
which  they  would  follow  in  practice,  if  the  compelling 
hand  of  an  enhghtened  nation  were  withdrawn. 

There  is  a  singular  indifference  to  the  results  of  wanton 
forest  destruction,  not  only  on  the  part  of  the  persons 
guilty  of  it  but  on  that  of  the  municipal,  provincial  and 
judicial  officials  who  should  prevent  it  by  enforcing  the 
law.  Even  when  the  employees  of  the  Bureau  of  Forestry 
have  laboriously  gathered  conclusive  evidence  against 
caingin  makers  it  often  proves  excessively  difficult,  or 
impossible,  to  secure  conviction.  The  existing  opposi- 
tion to  forest  protection  springs  from  a  desire  on  the  part 
of  the  Filipinos  to  consume  their  capital  as  well  as  their 
interest,  without  thought  of  the  morrow,  or  of  the  perma- 
nent advantage  to  their  country  as  a  whole  which  would 
result  from  conservation  of  its  forest  wealth.  If  they 
were  left  to  their  own  devices  the  forests  would  once  more 
blaze  with  caingin  fires  set  by  the  poor  peasant  at  the 
command  of  the  influential  cacique.  Unfortunately  that 
is  now  only  too  often  the  way  in  which  caingins  come 
to  be  made.  The  rich  landowners  compel  ignorant 
dependents  to  make  them,  furnishing  seed  for  the  first 
agricultural    crop.     Under    this   arrangement    the   poor 


856  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

labourer  runs  all  the  risk  of  being  prosecuted,  does  all 
the  work,  and  often  gives  half  or  more  of  his  crop  to  the 
cacique  as  a  return  for  the  seed  loaned  him.  After  the 
caingin  is  abandoned  the  coLcique  claims  the  land  as  his 
own,  and  through  his  influence  in  provincial  politics  can 
often  succeed  in  delaying,  or  avoiding,  prosecution  even 
if  detected  in  his  wrong-doing. 

What  the  result  would  be  were  all  restraint  withdrawn, 
and  were  the  Filipinos  permitted  to  destroy  their  forest 
resources  at  will,  may  easily  be  inferred  from  what  has 
happened  in  the  past,  as  well  as  from  the  difficulties  en- 
countered in  enforcing  the  present  law.  Cebu,  the  most 
thickly  populated  large  island  in  the  archipelago,  is 
already  practically  deforested,  and  until  recently  many 
other  islands  have  been  rapidly  approaching  the  same 
unfortunate  condition. 

Under  conservative  forest  management  the  existing 
annual  output  of  lumber  might  be  increased  fivefold  and 
the  unfortunate  results  from  reckless  cutting,  which 
have  so  frequently  occurred  in  the  past  and  which  not 
infrequently  still  occur,  might  be  completely  avoided. 

If  these  very  desirable  ends  are  to  be  attained,  the 
force  employed  by  the  Bureau  of  Forestry  must  be  mate- 
rially augmented.  It  has  been  conclusively  demonstrated 
that  every  increase  in  the  number  of  its  employees  is 
promptly  followed  by  a  sufficient  increase  in  the  insular 
revenues  derived  from  forest  products  to  more  than  offset 
the  expense  involved  in  the  payment  of  the  additional 
salaries  and  travel  expenses.  For  every  extra  peso  that  the 
government  expends  in  tliis  way  it  takes  in  about  two,  and 
if  this  can  be  done,  and  the  enormous  forest  resources  of 
the  islands  developed  and  conserved  at  the  same  time, 
there  ought  to  be  no  trouble  in  securing  the  necessary 
legislation. 

I  long  endeavoured  to  bring  about  the  establishment 
of  a  fixed  relationship  between  the  amount  annually 
collected  on  forest  products  and  the  amount  allotted  for 


THE   PHILIPPINE   FORESTS  857 

the  work  of  the  Bureau  of  Forestry.  Obviously  the  work- 
ing force  of  the  bureau  must  be  increased  as  the  lumber 
industry  develops,  or  adequate  supervision  cannot  be 
exercised. 

Increasing  the  working  force  of  the  bureau  makes 
possible  investigations  which  stimulate  the  development 
of  the  lumber  industry,  and  lead  to  a  largely  increased 
output. 

The  collection  of  revenue  on  forest  products  from 
government  lands  is  made  by  the  Bureau  of  Internal 
Revenue  under  the  general  supervision  of  the  secretary 
of  finance  and  justice.  I  have  recently  learned,  to  my 
amazement,  that  every  large  sawmill  owner  in  the  islands 
is  allowed  to  make  the  statement  of  the  output  of  his 
mill  upon  which  collections  are  based ;  a  procedure 
very  like  allowing  importers  to  assess  their  own  cus- 
toms dues.  The  ine\itable  result  is  that  the  goverrmient 
is  robbed  right  and  left.  Finding  that  an  attempt  was 
made  to  justify  this  procedure  on  the  ground  that  it 
was  impracticable  to  have  lumber  measured  at  the  mills, 
as  the  Bureau  of  Internal  Revenue  has  not  sufficient 
employees  for  this  purpose,  I  endeavoured  to  remedy  this 
extraordinarj'  situation. 

Under  existing  law,  timber  may  be  measured  in  the 
round,  in  the  square,  or  after  it  has  been  manufactured 
into  lumber.  Measurement  in  the  round  is  quick  and 
simple,  and  it  has  the  further  advantage  that  loss  due  to 
wasteful  sawing  falls  on  the  lumberman,  while  if  the 
sawed  lumber  only  is  measured  such  loss  falls  on  the  gov- 
ernment. I  therefore  drafted  and  submitted  to  the  com- 
mission a  law  pro^^ding  that  all  timber  should  be  meas- 
ured in  the  round,  with  proper  allowance  for  defects. 
Had  the  law  passed,  I  could  have  had  employees  of  the 
Bureau  of  Forestry  measure  the  logs  brought  into  each 
of  the  several  mills  which  collectively  turn  out  ninety  per 
cent  of  the  sawn  lumber  of  the  islands,  and  so  could  have 
effectively  prevented  frauds  upon  the  government. 


858  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST  AND   PRESENT 

A  system  which  practically  allows  the  individuals 
interested  to  fix  the  amounts  which  they  shall  pay  the 
government  for  its  timber  naturally  meets  with  the  un- 
qualified approval  of  the  lumbermen.  I  therefore  ex- 
pected that  they  would  strenuously  object  to  the  proposed 
change  in  law.  To  my  surprise  there  was  no  com- 
plaint while  it  was  pending  before  the  commission,  which 
passed  it. 

Then,  and  only  then,  I  learned  that  certain  lumber- 
men had  quietly  done  their  work  where  they  believed, 
rightly,  that  it  would  be  effective,  and  that  the  bill  would 
not  pass  the  assembly.  An  effective  lobby,  headed  by  a 
Filipino  representative  of  the  largest  Filipino  lumbering 
concern  in  the  islands,  had  been  organized  against  it, 
and  so  a  measure  having  no  other  object  or  effect  than  to 
prevent  frauds  on  the  government  and  increase  its 
revenue,  was  killed,  for  the  time  at  least,  consideration 
of  the  bill  being  "deferred,"  by  the  assembly,  with  the 
result  that  a  large  number  of  foreign  mill  owners  will  be 
allowed  to  continue  to  make  an  illegitimate  profit,  and  a 
very  limited  number  of  Filipino  mill  owners  will  do  the 
same. 

The  commercial  outlook  for  the  Philippine  lumber 
industry  is  very  encouraging.  No  more  greedy  lumber 
market  exists  than  jManila  has  offered  during  the  past 
few  years,  this  condition  being  due  primarily  to  the 
stimulus  given  to  all  lines  of  industrial  development  by 
the  economic  policy  of  the  insular  administration. 

Prices  are  high,  and  the  supply  is  still  unequal  to  the 
local  demand.  Forest  products  to  the  value  of  $696,407 
were  last  year  imported  into  the  Philippines  when  we 
should  have  exported  them  in  large  quantities.  A  lum- 
ber company  properly  equipped  and  managed,  and  operat- 
ing on  a  suitable  tract,  can  place  lumber  in  its  Manila 
yards  at  a  cost  of  half  or  even  less  than  half  the  price  at 
which  the  same  lumber  readily  sells.  The  export  trade, 
which  should  be  very  profitable,  has  as  yet  scarcely  been 


THE  PHILIPPINE   FORESTS  859 

inaugurated.  Tan  bark,  dyewoods,  valuable  gums  and 
rattans  find  a  ready  sale.  It  may  reasonably  be  expected 
that  the  world's  demand  for  forest  products  of  all  kinds 
will  increase  as  the  years  go  by,  and  that  the  resources 
of  older  countries  will  become  depleted,  or  at  least  inade- 
quate to  supply  steadily  growing  needs.  Forest  growth 
in  the  Phihppines  is  rapid,  and  under  suitable  conserva- 
tion methods  reforestation  comes  about  quickly.  With 
continued  enforcement  of  existing  law,  and  with  adequate 
supervision  over  cutting  and  reforestation,  the  cost  of 
which  should  be  paid  by  the  lumber  industry  itself,  the 
forests  of  the  islands  should  become  an  important  per- 
manent source  of  revenue  and  wealth.  Fihpinos  ought 
to  become  holders  of  forest  concessions  instead  of  labourers 
on  the  concessions  of  others.  Wliether  any  considerable 
number  of  them  will  care  to  do  so  remains  to  be  seen,  but 
at  all  events  their  forests  should  be  conserved,  so  that  the 
opportunity  may  be  ever  before  them.  At  the  present 
time  caihgin  makers  destroy  far  more  timber  in  the  course 
of  a  year  than  lumbermen  use. 

In  the  hope  of  awakening  an  interest  among  Fihpinos 
in  forest  conservation  and  development,  and  of  being 
able  to  train  an  adequate  Filipino  working  force,  a  forest 
school  has  been  started  at  Los  Banos,  m  the  immediate 
vicinity  of  one  of  our  forest  reserves,  where  practical 
instruction  can  advantageously  be  given.  It  is  antici- 
pated that  the  graduates  of  this  school  will  be  of  great  use 
in  bringing  about  a  radical  change  in  the  attitude  of  the 
Filipinos  toward  forest  conservation. 

It  is  an  astonishing  fact  that  the  Bontoc  and  Lepanto 
Igorots  have  been  the  only  ones  of  the  very  numerous 
Philippine  peoples  to  see  for  themselves  the  benefits 
derivable  from  forest  conservation. 

When  I  first  visited  their  country  I  noted  that  all  the 
trees  in  certain  pine  forests  were  carefully  trimmed  of  their 
lower  branches,  and  on  inquiry  found  that  trees  might 
not  be  felled  until  they  reached  a  certain  size,  although 


860  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

branches  might  be  cut  for  firewood.  The  prevention  of 
fires,  which  are  very  destructive  in  pine  forests,  and  the 
care  of  young  trees,  were  also  adequately  provided  for ! 
The  Bureau  of  Forestry  now  employs  Igorots  as  fire  war- 
dens in  Benguet  and  Bontoc. 

If  the  policy  were  adopted  of  appropriating  annually  an 
amount  equivalent  to  sixty  per  cent  of  the  forest  revenues 
for  the  work  of  the  Bureau  of  Forestry,  the  proper  con- 
servation and  development  of  the  great  potential  source 
of  wealth  intrusted  to  that  bureau  would  be  adequately 
provided  for.  The  commission  has  agreed  to  such  an 
arrangement ;  ten  per  cent  of  the  total  forest  revenues  to 
be  expended  in  the  provinces  under  its  exclusive  legis- 
lative control,  and  fifty  per  cent  in  the  other  provinces. 
Appropriations  for  the  territory  occupied  by  non-Chris- 
tians are  now  made  on  this  basis.  No  appropriation 
bill  has  been  passed  by  the  assembly  since  this  pohcy 
was  agreed  to  by  the  commission.  It  remains  to  be  seen 
whether  the  former  body  will  favour  the  expenditures  nec- 
essary to  support  the  work  of  forest  conservation  and  de- 
velopment, with  the  reasonable  certainty  that  such  work 
will  not  only  assure  to  them  and  to  coming  generations  a 
permanent  source  of  wealth,  but  will  more  than  pay  for 
itself  in  dollars  and  cents. 


CHAPTER  XXXII 

Improved  Means  of  Communication 

The  improvement  in  means  of  communication  which 
has  taken  place  in  the  Philippines  since  the  American 
occupation  is  almost  revolutionary.  I  well  remember 
my  tribulations  in  the  Spanish  days,  resulting  from  the 
inadequacy  of  the  mail  system.  There  were  long  delays 
in  receiving  letters  sent  from  Manila  to  the  more  impor- 
tant to\\T.is  in  the  archipelago,  but  if,  as  was  usually  the 
case  with  us,  one  was  hving  in  a  small  and  more  or  less 
isolated  provincial  to-mi,  he  was  fortunate  to  get  his 
letters  at  all.  They  would  be  forwarded  from  place  to 
place  by  irresponsible  native  carriers,  and  under  the  most 
favourable  circumstances  were  likely  to  be  greatlj^  de- 
layed in  transmission.  There  was  httle  respect  for  the 
privacy  of  letters.  On  one  occasion  I  arrived  at  Jolo, 
confidently  expecting  a  large  mail,  only  to  be  disappointed. 
A  week  later  my  companion,  Dr.  Bourns,  was  calUng 
upon  a  German  resident  of  that  place.  Lying  in  a 
waste-basket  he  saw  a  letter  written  in  a  hand  which  he 
recognized  as  that  of  one  of  my  friends.  He  thereupon 
called  upon  the  German  to  dehver  any  other  letters  he 
might  have  for  me,  and  some  were  produced,  but  others 
had  been  throwoi  away !  We  foimd  that  our  mail  had 
begun  to  come  prior  to  our  arrival,  and  as  the  Spanish 
postmaster  did  not  know  any  persons  named  Bourns 
or  Worcester  he  turned  it  over  to  this  man  to  see 
whether  he  could  make  out  whom  it  was  for.  The  latter 
opened  the  letters,  read  them,  and  threw  them  away. 

But  this  was  not  the  worst  of  it.     There  was  a  time 
when  for  months  I  received  no  letters,  and  my  companion 

861 


862  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

no  newspapers  or  magazines.  Then  the  arrangement 
was  reversed.  I  got  my  letters  but  no  papers  or  maga- 
zines, while  he  had  papers  but  no  letters. 

Under  the  Spanish  regime  letter  carriers  in  Manila 
received  the  munificent  salary  of  $46  per  annum,  but 
were  authorized  to  collect  a  charge  of  three-quarters  of  a 
cent  on  every  article  of  mail  delivered  by  them,  except 
letters  from  foreign  countries  and  letters  passing  between 
persons  hving  in  Manila. 

The  Spanish  government  did  not  admit  general  mer- 
chandise to  the  mails,  but  accepted  only  samples  and 
medicine.  We  admit  all  classes  of  merchandise  except 
certain  objectionable  things  and  certain  articles  dangerous 
to  the  mails  or  to  those  handling  them.  We  have  in- 
creased the  maximiun  allowable  weight  of  mail  packages 
to  eleven  pounds,  and  on  January  1,  1913,  established  a 
"collect  on  delivery"  service  under  which  merchants  and 
others  may  send  goods  through  the  mails  and  have  the 
charges  thereon  collected  from  the  addressee  before  de- 
livery. These  are  important  and  valuable  extensions  of 
the  service,  and  greatly  benefit  the  Fihpinos  as  well  as 
the  merchants  by  bringing  people  throughout  the  islands 
into  touch  with  shops  from  which  they  can  order  the  goods 
they  need. 

It  is  difficult  to  determine  the  difference  in  the  amounts 
of  business  done  under  the  Spanish  and  American  systems 
for  the  reason  that  the  Spanish  figures  are  in  many  cases 
obviously  unrehable.  The  latest  available  statistics, 
for  the  fiscal  year  1893,  show  an  enormous  discrepancy 
between  the  amount  of  mail  matter  claimed  to  have  been 
transported  and  the  revenue  received,  which  should 
theoretically  have  been  about  twice  as  large  as  seems  to 
have  been  collected.  It  is  believed,  however,  that  the 
following  figures  are  fairly  reliable. 

The  number  of  post-offices  has  increased  from  four  hun- 
dred sixty-six  to  five  hundred  ninety.  It  is  anticipated 
that  one  hundred  fifty  additional  post-offices  will  be  estab- 


IMPRO\'ED   MEANS  OF   COMMUNICATION  863 

lished  in  smaller  municipalities  and  out-of-the-way  places 
within  the  present  year,  and  as  it  is  these  places  are  re- 
cei\ang  postal  service  through  the  employment  of  com- 
petent letter-carriers,  who  are  collecting  and  deUvering 
their  mails. 

Only  sixty-five  of  the  Spanish  post-offices  were  in 
charge  of  officials  employed  by  the  general  government. 
The  remaining  four  hundred  one  were  looked  after  in  a 
way  by  local  municipal  officials.  All  postmasters  are  now 
paid  by  the  general  government. 

The  mails  are  being  carried  with  much  greater  frequency 
than  ever  before.  Durmg  the  last  j-ear  there  were  273 
contract  routes  on  wliich  mails  were  carried  a  total  of 
873,957  miles  at  a  cost  of  S40,440.75. 

So  far  as  can  be  judged  from  the  figures  available  the 
mails  despatched  from  the  islands  during  the  fiscal  year 
1912  were  about  five  times  those  annually  despatched 
during  the  late  years  of  the  Spanish  regime. 

In  1893  nine  parcel  post  packages  were  sent  to  foreign 
countries.  In  1912,  2640  such  parcels  went  abroad. 
In  1893  the  number  of  registered  articles  transmitted 
between  Pliilippine  post-offices  was  29,078.  In  1912 
it  was  535,137.  The  increased  use  of  newspapers  is 
shown  by  the  fact  that  in  1893  the  weight  of  the  news- 
papers mailed  for  delivery  within  the  Philippmes  was 
121 ,070  pounds,  while  in  1912  it  was  687,568  pounds.  This 
difference  is  no  doubt  largely  due  to  the  severe  restrictions 
imposed  on  the  press  under  the  Spanish  regime  as  com- 
pared with  the  freedom  which  it  enjoys  to-day. 

The  Spanish  postal  administration  paid  little  attention 
to  complaints  by  Fihpinos  relative  to .  losses  of  articles 
transmitted  through  the  mails.  Now  the  most  trivial 
complaint  is  painstakingly  investigated,  and  only  in  rare 
cases  is  there  failure  to  recover  the  value  of  lost  or  stolen 
articles  from  the  postal  employee  responsible.  The 
sanctity  of  the  mails  which  now  prevails  is  an  important 
factor  in  the  increased  use  which  the  people  make  of  them. 


864  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

It  is  claimed  that  under  the  Spanish  regime  few  matters 
of  importance  were  intrusted  to  the  mails  by  Filipinos 
because  their  letters  were  so  frequently  opened  and  in- 
spected by  government  officials. 

The  Spaniards  had  four  subsiiUzed  mail  routes  after 
1897.  We  have  nine  subsidized  routes,  and  six  others 
which  are  maintained  wholly  at  government  expense  by 
the  Bureau  of  Navigation. 

The  Spanish  government  provided  no  postal  money- 
order  service  whatever,  and  the  transmission  of  money 
by  mail  with  safety  was  impossible.  We  have  265  money- 
order  post-offices  and  during  1912  issued  160,524  money- 
orders  payable  in  the  islands,  the  total  sum  of  which  was 
$5,592,205.85.  We  also  issued  68,229  orders  amounting 
to  $1,764,608.02  payable  in  the  United  States,  and  2607 
orders  amounting  to  $68,364.83  payable  in  other  countries. 
These  amounts  were  transmitted  largely  by  Filipinos, 
who  now  do  a  considerable  mail  order  business  with  mer- 
chants in  the  United  States. 

A  further  great  convenience  not  furnished  by  the  Span- 
ish government  is  the  pajTnent  of  money-orders  trans- 
mitted by  telegraph.  During  the  last  fiscal  year  there 
were  forwarded  8333  such  orders,  covering  payments 
amounting  to  $1,128,229.79. 

The  improvement  in  the  telegraph  service  has  been 
quite  as  marked  as  that  in  the  mail  service.  In  1897 
there  were  only  65  telegraph  offices  in  the  islands,  49  of 
which  were  on  the  island  of  Luzon,  9  on  Panay,  4  on 
Negros  and  3  on  Cebu.  The  total  length  of  all  telegraph 
lines  was  some  1750  miles.  There  were  no  cables  or  other 
means  of  telegraphic  communication  between  the  islands. 

Practically  all  of  the  old  lines  were  destroyed  during 
the  revolution  wliich  began  in  1896,  so  that  the  lines  now 
existing  must  be  considered  as  having  been  built  since  the 
American  occupation.  There  are  282  telegraph  offices 
with  4781  miles  of  land  line  and  in  addition  1362  miles 
of  marine   cable  and  7  wireless  stations  in  operation. 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF    COMMUNICATION  865 

Every  provincial  capital,  with  the  exception  of  Basco  in 
the  remote  Batanes  Islands,  and  Butuan  in  Agusan 
Province,  now  has  telegraphic  facilities  as  does  almost 
every  other  place  of  commercial  importance  in  the  Pliilip- 
pines.  The  advantage  of  prompt  telegraphic  communi- 
cation with  such  oxitlying  points  as  Puerto  Princesa, 
Jolo,  Zamboanga,  Davao,  Suriago  and  the  east  coast  of 
Samar  is  enormous,  while  the  extension  of  the  cable  ser- 
vice to  Catanduanes  has  been  a  great  boon  to  the  hemp 
growers  of  that  island.  The  latest  available  figures  rel- 
ative to  the  telegrapliic  business  conducted  by  the  Span- 
iards are  for  the  year  1889,  during  the  second  six  months 
of  which  there  were  handled  33,697  coimnercial  telegrams. 
During  the  fiscal  year  1912  our  business  of  the  same  class 
reached  a  total  of  496,643  telegrams.  Tliis  class  of  busi- 
ness has  been  increasing  from  25  to  30  per  cent  yearly  for 
several  years. 

The  expenditures  of  the  Spanish  government  for  all 
postal  and  telegraphic  service  for  the  fiscal  year  1895 
amounted  to  $484,960.50.  Those  of  the  Bureau  of  Posts 
for  1912  were  $1,072,684.48.  No  statement  of  the  Span- 
ish revenues  can  be  found.  Our  revenues  for  1912  were 
$627,724.70.  The  personnel  of  the  Spanish  service  for 
1895  shows  only  31  positions  paying  salaries  of  more  than 
$500  per  year,  most  of  which  were  filled  by  Spaniards. 
There  are  now  96  positions  paying  salaries  of  more  than 
$500  per  year  filled  by  Filipinos.  Filipino  post-office 
employees  receive  salaries  50  to  100  per  cent  larger  than 
those  of  employees  of  similar  rank  during  the  Spanish 
regime.  Think  how  much  these  figiu'es  mean  in  increased 
opportunity  for  employment  of  Filipinos,  and  m  increased 
communication  not  only  between  the  people  in  the  islands 
but  between  them  and  the  outside  world. 

In  a  number  of  instances  the  telegraph  lines  which  are 
controlled  by  the  Bureau  of  Posts  are  supplemented  by 
provincial  telephone  systems,  which  are  of  great  value  in 
maintaining  quick  communication  with  towns  not  reached 


866 


THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 


by  telegraph  wires.  Such  Hnes  are  especially  useful  in 
the  Mountain  Province,  Mindoro,  Palawan,  Nueva 
Vizcaya,  and  the  sub-province  of  Bukidnon,  where  mes- 
sengers who  travel  by  land  have  to  go  on  horseback  or  on 
foot. 

The  following  table  shows  the  growth  of  the  postal  and 
telegraph  business  of  the  Islands  :  — 

Post-Office  and  Telegraph  Statistics 


Monet  Orders  Sold 

Postage 
Receipts 

Telegraph  Receipts 

Fiscal  Yeae 

Amount 

Increase 

(+)  or  . 

decrease 

(-) 

Amount 

Increase 

C+)or 

decrease 

(-) 

1900 

$1,526,310 
1,514,435 
1,854,927 
2,842,587 
3,102,606 
3,444,053 
3,687,127 
3,229,446 
3,645,123 
4,008,678 
4,890,835 
6,132,582 
7,425,173 
8,272,858 

Per  cent 

-  i" 

+22 
+53 
+  9 
+  11 
+  7 
-12 
+  13 
+  10 
+22 
+25 
+21 
+  6 

$117,848 
122,833 
126,375 
132,445 
121,714 
121,648 
198,583 
198,546 
220,306 
245,482 
282,317 
313,549 
349,407 
380,942 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1905 

1906 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910' 

1911 

1912 

19132 

■$56,351 
118,360 
136,138 
139,208 
168,402 
184,555 
236,679 
283,306 

+iid 

+  15 
+     2 
+   21 
+     9 
+   28 
+     4 

As  I  have  elsewhere  remarked,  the  Philippines  have  a 
coast  line  longer  than  that  of  the  continental  United 
States.  A  very  large  percentage  of  the  municipalities 
are  situated  on,  or  close  to,  the  sea  and  the  maintenance 
of  adequate  marine  transportation  is  therefore  a  matter 
of  vital  miportance  to  the  peace  and  commercial  pros- 

'  First  year  for  which  statistics  are  available. 

-  Twice  the  actual  figures  for  the  first  half  of  the  year  :  $3,942,647 ; 
$194,296;  $123,339. 

'  First  year  after  Payne  TariS  Bill  took  effect. 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION  867 

perity  of  the  archipelago.  In  the  early  days  of  American 
occupation  conditions  were  most  unsatisfactory.  Most 
of  the  boats  in  the  coastwise  trade  were  antiquated,  foul 
and  had  no  decent  facilities  for  transporting  passengers. 
As  the  number  of  vessels  was  too  small  to  handle  the  busi- 
ness of  the  country,  ship-owoiers  occupied  a  very  indepen- 
dent position.  The  freight  rates  on  such  things  as  lumber 
and  currency  were  practically  prohibitive.  It  was  a 
common  thing  for  vessels  to  refuse  to  receive  hemp,  sugar 
and  perishable  products  that  had  been  brought  to  the 
beach  for  shipment,  giving  as  an  excuse  the  fact  that 
they  were  employed  in  the  private  business  of  Messrs. 
Smith,  Bell  &  Co.,  Warner,  Barnes  &  Co.,  or  whoever 
happened  to  own  them,  and  could  not  transport  freight 
for  the  public  as  the  volume  of  their  private  business  would 
not  permit  it.  However,  if  the  owners  of  the  freight  were 
willing  to  sell  it  to  the  ships'  officers  for  a  fraction  of  its 
value,  they  encountered  no  difficulty  in  transporting  it ! 

Furthermore,  there  existed  the  danger  of  Moro  raids, 
the  necessity  for  checking  the  operations  of  smugglers, 
and  that  of  preventing  the  ingress  of  firearms,  which  in 
the  hands  of  irresponsible  persons  might  cause  great 
damage  and  expense  to  the  government  and  the  pubhc. 

In  view  of  these  facts  it  was  decided  to  establish  a  fleet 
of  twenty  coast-guard  vessels,  which  were  not  only  to 
do  pohce  duty  and  to  assist  in  the  transportation  of  troops, 
but  were  to  carry  freight  and  passengers  when  opportunity 
offered.  Fifteen  such  vessels  were  ordered  from  Messrs. 
Farnham,  Boyd  &  Co.,  of  Shanghai,  and  five  from  the 
Uraga  Dock  Company  of  Japan.  The  Japanese  vessels 
proved  unsatisfactory,  and  only  two  were  accepted,  mak- 
ing the  total  fleet  seventeen.  As  the  condition  of  public 
order  improved  the  coast-guard  boats  became  available 
to  a  constantly  increasing  extent  for  cormnercial  service. 

Prior  to  July,  1906,  there  were  practically  no  established 
steamship  routes  over  which  conmiercial  vessels  operated 
on  regular  schedules.     With  the  exception  of  the  service 


868  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

between  Manila,  Cebii  and  Iloilo,  vessels  traded  here 
and  there  without  regular  ports  of  call  or  fixed  dates  of 
arrival  or  departure.  The  policy  which  guided  their 
owners  was  one  of  privilege  and  monopoly,  and  by  agree- 
ment between  them  competition  was  rigidly  excluded. 
Trade  was  discouraged  and  the  commercial  development 
of  the  islands  seriously  retarded. 

In  accordance  with  a  plan  formulated  by  Mr.  Forbes, 
then  secretary  of  commerce  and  police,  the  coast-guard 
vessels  were  placed  on  regular  commercial  routes  and  were 
operated  on  schedules  which  gave  efficient  service  to  all 
important  islands  of  the  archipelago.  Ten  routes  were 
maintained  and  many  isolated  points,  and  small  towns  or 
villages  which  offered  so  little  business  at  the  outset  as 
to  make  them  unprofitable,  and  therefore  unattractive 
as  ports  of  call  for  commercial  vessels,  were  put  in  close 
communication  with  the  larger  towns  and  distributing 
centres,  so  that  the  small  planters  could  market  their  prod- 
ucts with  little  trouble.  This  promptly  led  to  increased 
production  and  trade,  and  greater  prosperity  through  the 
islands. 

Business  increased  to  such  an  extent  that  in  July,  1906, 
it  proved  practicable  to  withdraw  the  government  vessels 
and  turn  these  routes  over  to  commercial  firms  which 
entered  into  a  definite  contract  with  the  government  to 
maintain  an  adequate  service.  Their  vessels  were  allowed 
substantial  subsidies,  amounting  in  the  aggregate  to 
$100,000  per  year,  in  order  to  assure  the  prompt  despatch 
of  mail,  adherence  to  schedule,  and  efficient  service.  The 
ten  old  coast-guard  routes  were  divided  into  fourteen  new 
conunercial  routes  which  gave  excellent  service  to  all  parts 
of  the  islands. 

Secondary  routes  were  then  arranged  and  coast-guard 
cutters  were  placed  on  them.  A  number  of  these  were  in 
turn  given  over  to  commercial  vessels  after  they  had 
developed  enough  trade  to  be  commercially  profitable. 
Three  such  routes  are  now  maintained  by  the  Bureau  of 


'inE  VIA)  Way  of  (kossixg  a   River. 


The  New  Way  of  Crossing  a  River. 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION  869 

Navigation,  and  it  is  planned  to  establish  two  more  in  the 
near  future. 

The  importance  of  the  change  thus  brought  about  by 
the  government  in  transportation  facilities  can  be  ap- 
preciated only  by  those  who  have  had  actual  experience 
with  the  intolerable  state  of  affairs  which  previously  existed. 
Meanwhile  conditions  on  the  inter-island  steamers  have 
been  enormously  improved  by  the  enforcement  of  proper 
sanitary  regulations,  and  insistence  that  staterooms  be 
decent  and  food  reasonably  good. 

Of  the  original  cutters  two  were  for  a  long  time  under 
charter  by  the  military  authorities  for  use  as  despatch 
boats  and  transports ;  two  are  employed  as  lighthouse 
tenders,  and  two  have  been  assigned  to  the  Bureau  of 
Coast  Surveys  for  coast  and  geodetic  work ;  one  collects 
lepers  and  takes  them  to  the  Leper  Colony  at  Culion. 
The  cable-ship  Rizal,  operated  by  the  Bureau  of  Naviga- 
tion, has  succeeded  in  repairing  and  keeping  in  repair 
the  marine  cables  throughout  the  islands.  Such  cables 
are  especially  subject  to  injury  in  Philippine  waters  on 
account  of  the  strength  of  the  currents  between  the  islands, 
the  frequency  with  which  stretches  of  sea  bottom  are  over- 
grown with  sharp  coral,  and  the  common  occurrence  of 
earthquakes.  When  not  otherwise  engaged  the  Rizal 
carries  conmiercial  cargoes  if  opportunity  offers.  She 
has  proved  useful  for  bringing  in  rice  when  a  shortage  of 
this  commodity,  which  is  the  bread  of  the  Filipino  people, 
threatened,  and  for  handling  cargoes  of  lumber  of  sizes 
such  that  regular  inter-island  steamers  could  not  load  it. 

In  addition  to  the  vessels  above  mentioned,  the  Bureau 
of  Navigation  owns  and  operates  a  fleet  of  launches,  some 
of  which  are  seagoing,  and  a  number  of  dredges  which  are 
employed  in  improving  the  harbours  and  rivers  of  the  isl- 
ands as  funds  permit.  The  bureau  also  owns  and  oper- 
ates its  own  machine  shop  and  marine  railway,  and  repairs 
its  own  vessels. 

A  section  of  the  machine  shop  is  set  aside  for  lighthouse 

VOL.  II  —  2  b 


870  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND   PRESENT 

work,  and  in  it  lighthouse  apparatus  of  every  description 
is  fabricated  and  repaired.  While  lighthouses  and  buoys 
are  not  means  of  communication  they  are  aids  to  it. 

The  thousand  and  ninety-five  inhabited  islands  and  ap- 
proximately two  hundred  and  fifty  ports  of  varying  im- 
portance, depending  as  they  do  entirely  upon  water  trans- 
portation for  communication  with  each  other  and  with  the 
outside  world,  had  no  wharfage  whatever  available  for 
large  vessels,  and  no  publicly  owned  wharfage  within  ten 
yards  of  which  even  the  larger  inter-island  steamers  could  be 
berthed.  Manila  had  no  protected  anchorage,  and  during 
the  season  of  southwest  monsoons  and  typhoons  vessels 
were  sometimes  compelled  to  lie  in  the  harbour  for  weeks 
before  they  could  unload,  a  fact  which  gave  the  port  a 
deservedly  bad  name. 

The  Spaniards  had  commenced  harbour  work  at  Manila 
in  1892,  twenty-five  years  after  preliminary  study  began 
and  sixteen  years  after  prospective  plans  had  been  sub- 
mitted. Their  operations  were  stopped  by  the  insurrec- 
tion in  1896,  at  wliich  time  the  present  west  breakwater 
had  been  about  half  completed,  but  as  the  completed  por- 
tion was  at  the  shore  end  and  in  shallow  water  it  afforded 
no  protection  to  ships.  There  had  been  constructed 
twenty-four  hundred  feet  of  masonry  wall  partly  enclos- 
ing one  of  the  basins  provided  for  in  the  Spanish  plans, 
and  fourteen  hundred  eighty-five  feet  of  wall  fining  canals 
connecting  the  proposed  new  harbour  with  the  Pasig  River. 
These  also  were  temporarily  useless,  because  there  had  been 
no  dredging  in  front  of  them,  or  backfilling  in  their  rear. 

Outside  of  Manila  practically  nothing  had  been  done 
to  facilitate  the  loading  and  discharge  of  vessels,  or  to 
protect  them  from  the  elements. 

We  now  have  at  Manila  a  deep-water  harbour  dredged 
to  a  uniform  depth  of  thirty  feet  and  enclosed  by  two 
breakwaters  having  a  total  length  of  nearly  eleven  thou- 
sand five  hundred  feet.  Two  hundi'ed  and  sixty-one  acres 
of  land  have  been  reclaimed  with  the  dredged  material. 


J 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION  871 

Two  steel  piers  extend  from  the  filled  land  into  the  deep- 
water  harbour.  One  of  these  is  six  hundred  fifty  feet  long 
and  one  hundi-ed  ten  feet  wide,  the  other  six  hundred  feet 
long  and  seventy  feet  wide.  Both  are  housed  in,  the 
sheds  covering  them  having  a  total  area  of  ninety-two 
thousand  square  feet.  These  piers  and  sheds  are  prac- 
tically fireproof,  and  the  largest  ocean-going  steamers  on 
the  Pacific  can  he  alongside  them.  Additional  work 
planned,  which  should  be  undertaken  when  funds  permit, 
includes  two  more  piers ;  and  bulkheads  to  connect  the 
inner  ends  of  the  present  piers,  so  as  to  give  inter-island 
steamers  opportunity  to  unload. 

At  Cebii  the  sea-wall  has  been  completed  to  a  length 
of  two  thousand  sixty  feet  and  the  channel  in  front  of 
it  dredged  in  part  to  ten  and  a  half  and  in  part  to 
twenty-three  feet  at  low  water.  Some  ten  and  a  half 
acres  of  land  have  been  reclaimed  with  the  material  re- 
moved. Streets  and  roadways  have  been  built  on  the 
reclaimed  area,  and  a  wharf  eight  hunch-ed  twelve  feet 
in  length,  designed  as  an  extension  to  the  wall,  is  now 
fifty  per  cent  completed.  The  harbour  at  Cebii  should 
ultimately  be  dredged  so  as  to  give  thirty  feet  of  water 
along  the  piers. 

At  Iloilo  the  dredging  of  a  fifteen-foot  channel  up  to  the 
custom-house  was  completed  in  March,  1907.  Seven 
hundred  and  eighty-three  feet  of  river  wall  and  twelve 
hundred  ninety  feet  of  reenforced  concrete  wharf,  both 
to  accommodate  vessels  of  eighteen  feet  di-aft  at  low 
water,  have  been  built  along  the  south  bank  of  the  middle 
reach  of  the  river.  The  lower  reach  has  been  dredged  to 
twenty-fom-  feet  at  low  water,  the  middle  reach  to  eighteen 
feet  and  the  upper  reach  to  fifteen  feet,  while  two  hun- 
dred ten  thousand  square  metres  of  land  have  been  re- 
claimed and  two  hundred  six  thousand  improved  with 
the  dredged  material.  Wharves  for  ocean-going  steamers 
should  ultimately  be  constructed  at  this  important  port. 

At  Paracale,  in  Ambos  Camarines,  a  reenforced  concrete 


872  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

pier  four  hundred  ninety  feet  in  length  has  been  built. 
It  extends  out  to  a  depth  of  fifteen  feet  at  low  water. 

At  Bais,  Negros,  a  timber  pier  for  vessels  of  sixteen 
feet  draft,  with  a  stone  causeway  approach  a  mile  and 
a  half  in  length,  and  a  warehouse  for  the  temporary  stor- 
age of  sugar,  have  been  constructed. 

Channels  have  been  blasted  through  the  coral  reefs 
surrounding  the  islands  Batan,  Sabtang  and  Itbayat  in 
the  Batanes  group,  where  the  annual  loss  of  life  had  pre- 
viously been  great,  owing  to  the  occurrence  of  sudden 
storms  which  often  made  it  impossible  for  people  to  re- 
turn to  their  towns  through  the  sm-f.  The  port  of  Pandan, 
in  Ilocos  Sur,  has  been  improved  by  means  of  a  stone 
revetment  twenty-nine  hundred  seventy-five  feet  in  length 
along  the  north  bank  of  the  Abra  River,  thus  maintain- 
ing the  channel  in  one  position  and  affording  vastly 
better  means  of  loading  and  discharging  cargo  for  the 
important  town  of  Vigan.  A  self-propelhng  combina- 
tion snag  boat,  pile  driver  and  dredge  for  the  improve- 
ment of  the  great  Cagayan  River  has  been  built,  and  is 
now  in  operation  on  that  stream. 

Very  numerous  other  works  of  repair  and  construction 
have  been  carried  out.  Some  80  surveys  have  been  made 
in  minor  ports  to  determine  the  feasibility  of  improve- 
ments, and  in  many  cases  plans  have  been  prepared  for 
proposed  work. 

The  Spaniards  had  devoted  much  time  and  study  to  a 
project  for  coast  illumination.  At  the  outbreak  of  the  in- 
surrection in  1896  they  had  twenty-eight  lights,  fourteen 
of  which  were  flashing  and  fourteen  fixed  minor  lights, 
while  fovu-  additional  stations  were  under  construction. 
Then  all  work  was  stopped,  and  when  systematic  in- 
spection was  made  by  American  lighthouse  engineers  five 
years  later,  extensive  repairs  were  found  to  be  necessary. 
The  repairs  were  made  as  promptly  as  possible,  and  new 
construction  then  began.  To-day  there  are  a  hundred 
forty-five  lights  in  operation,  and  the  waters  of  the  PhiUp- 


IMPROVED    MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION 


873 


pines  are  among  the  best  lighted  in  the  world.  One 
hundred  and  eleven  buoys  of  various  classes  axe  being 
maintained. 

The  following  table  shows  the  progress  made  in  the 
construction  of  lighthouses  : — 


Fiscal  Yeah 

Light- 
houses IN 
Operation 

Fiscal  Year 

Light- 
houses IN 
Operation 

1 

Fiscal  Year 

LlOHT- 
HOnSES  IN 

Opebation 

1902   .... 

57 

1906    .   .    . 

105 

1910  .  .  . 

143 

1903    .... 

66 

1907  .  .  . 

117 

1911  .  .  . 

142 

1904    .... 

76 

1908  .  .  . 

129 

1912  .  .  . 

146 

1905   .... 

89 

1909  .  .  . 

139 

1913».  .  . 

145 

In  all  nearly  $7,000,000  have  been  expended  in  the 
improvement  of  ports  and  harbours,  and  about  $750,000 
in  the  construction  of  hghts. 

At  the  time  of  the  American  occupation,  knowledge  of 
the  waters  of  the  archipelago  was  in  a  most  unsatisfactory 
state.  There  was  not  even  an  accurate  chart  of  Manila 
Bay.  Navigating  officers  followed  certain  well-known 
trade  routes  which  experience  had  shown  to  be  safe,  but 
did  not  dare  to  leave  them.  Uncharted  dangers  were 
soon  discovered  at  IloUo  and  in  other  important  ports, 
and  the  necessity  for  a  systematic  survey  of  the  waters 
became  immediatel}'  apparent. 

On  September  6, 1901,  the  Bm-eau  of  Coast  and  Geodetic 
Surveys  was  organized.  The  work  is  conducted  under  a 
joint  agi'eement  such  that  it  is  supervised  by  the  superin- 
tendent of  coast  and  geodetic  surveys  at  Washington, 
who  is  represented  in  the  Phihppines  by  an  officer  called 
the  director  of  coast  surveys.  The'  latter  reports  to 
the  head  of  the  insular  government  so  far  as  concerns 
the  expenditure  of  funds  furnished  by  that  government, 
which  has  the  power  of  approval  over  his  assignment  to 
duty.     There  is  a  division  of  expenses  between  the  two 

'  On  March  1,  1913. 


874 


THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 


governments.  The  United  States  has  paid  approximately 
fifty-five  per  cent  of  the  total  cost,  and  the  insular  govern- 
ment has  paid  the  balance. 

The  Bureau  is  engaged  in  a  systematic  survey  of  the 
coasts,  harbours  and  waters  of  the  Philippine  Islands  and 
of  the  topography  of  the  shore-line.  It  determines  posi- 
tions astronomically  and  by  triangulation,  investigates 
reported  dangers  to  navigation,  and  observes  tides,  cur- 
rents and  the  magnetic  elements.  Five  steamers  are  now 
engaged  in  this  very  important  work.  It  is  estimated 
that  fifty-four  per  cent  of  the  surveys  of  the  coast  and 
adjacent  waters  have  already  been  completed.  When  one 
remembers  that  the  coast-line  of  the  Philippines  is  longer 
than  that  of  the  continental  United  States,  one  reaUzes  that 
this  is  a  remarkable  achievement. 

The  Bureau  has  pubhshed  one  hundred  twenty-four 
charts  covering  the  entire  boundaries  of  the  islands,  and 
six  volumes  of  sailing  du'ections  which  are  kept  constantly 
up  to  date  by  additions  whenever  new  facts  of  importance 
to  mariners  are  ascertained.  The  greater  part  of  the  in- 
formation thus  made  available  represents  results  obtained 
by  the  Bureau,  but  these  are  supplemented  by  the  most 
reliable  data  that  can  be  obtained  from  other  sources. 

The  following  table  shows  the  number  of  miles  of  coast 
surveyed  at  the  end  of  each  year,  beginning  with  1901 : — 

Number  of  Miles  of  Coast  Surveyed 


Fiscal  Year 

Miles 

Fiscal  Yeah 

Miles 

1901 

89 

1908 

6,109 

1902 

576 

1909 

7,126 

1903     .  • 

1,208 

1910 

8,763 

1904 

1,921 

1911 

9.992 

1905 

2,415 

1912 

11,308 

1906 

3,041 

19131 

11,748 

1907 

4,536 

1  On  January  1,  1913 ; ,  increase  of  six  months  only. 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION 


875 


Not  only  have  all  important  waterways  through  the 
islands  been  surveyed  and  hghted,  but  travel  and  the 
transportation  of  merchandise  on  land  have  been  enor- 
mously facilitated  by  the  construction  of  additional  rail- 
ways and  of  a  system  of  first-,  second-  and  third-class  roads 
and  of  trails. 

Prior  to  1907  the  only  railroad  Line  in  operation  in  the 
Philippines  was  the  so-called  Manila-Dagupan  Railway, 
which  was  122  miles  long. 

The  following  table  shows  the  steady  increase  in  mileage 
since  that  time  and  also  the  steady  increase  in  railroad 
earnings :  — 

Railroad  Statistics 


Fiscal  > 

'ear 

Total 
Mileage 
IN  Opera- 
tion 

Earnings  of 

Philippine 

Railway 

Co.,  Amount 

Inckeaoe 

Calendar 
Year 

Earnings  of  Manila 
Railway  Co. 

Amount 

Increase 

19071 

1908  . 

1909  . 

1910  . 

1911  . 

1912  . 

1913  . 

122 
221 
290 
400 
455 
599 
611' 

$74,815  = 

118,646 

142,888 
386,970 

.       .       . 

59 

20 

171 

1907 

1908 
1909 
1910 
1911 
1912 

$25,823 
961,936 
1,023,812 
1,233.794 
1,919,244 
2,304,436 

'l6    ' 

6 

21 
56 
20 

The  north  line  of  the  Manila  Railroad  Company,  which 
is  the  successor  to  the  Manila  and  Dagupan  Railway 
Company,  now  extends  to  Bauaug  in  the  province  of  La 
Union.     It  has  laterals  terminating  at  Camp  One,  on  the 

1  Only  railroad  line  in  operation  prior  to  1907  was  122  miles  of  the 
main  line  of  the  Manila  Railroad  Company. 

*  First  year  of  operation. 

'  On  February  1,  1913 ;   increase  of  six  months  only. 

*  The  Philippine  Railway  Company  has  recently  changed  its  ac- 
counting from  the  basis  of  the  Government  fiscal  year  (beginning  July 
1)  to  a  calendar  year  basis.  Figures  are  not  therefore  available  for 
a  complete  twelve  months  subsequent  to  June  30,  1912.  The  figure 
for  the  first  year  on  the  new  basis  (ending  December  31,  1912,  and 
dupUeating  part  of  the  last  amount  given  above)  is  $376,512. 


876 


THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 


Benguet  Road ;  Resales  in  Pangasinan ;  Mangaldang  in 
Pangasinan ;  CabanatuaninNuevaEcija;  CampStotens- 
berg  in  Pampanga ;  Florida  Blanca  in  Pampanga ;  Mon- 
talban  in  Rizal,  and  Antipolo  in  Rizal. 

The  main  south  line  of  this  road  extends  from  Manila 
to  Lucena  in  Tayabas.  It  has  branches  to  Cavite  in  the 
province  of  the  same  name ;  to  Naic  in  Cavite ;  to  Pag- 
sanjan  in  La  Laguna,  and  to  Batangas  in  the  Province  of 
Batangas. 

The  Philippine  Railway  Company  has  built  and  is  now 
operating  a  line  on  Panay  which  extends  from  Iloilo  to 
Capiz,  and  a  line  on  Cebii  which  extends  north  from  the 
city  of  the  same  name  to  Danao  and  south  to  Argao. 

The  development  of  the  road  system  is  even  more  im- 
portant than  that  of  railroads. 

The  following  tables  show  the  mileage  of  first-,  second- 
and  third-class  road,  and  the  total  number  of  permanent 
bridges  and  culverts,  in  existence  at  the  end  of  each  year, 
beginning  with  1907  :  — 

Public  Works  Statistics 


Total  Mileage  of  Roads  in  Existence 

Fiscal  Year 

First-class 
Roads 

Increase 

Second-class 
Roads 

Third-class 
Roads 

1907 

1908 

1909 

1910 

1911 

1912 

1913' 

303 » 
423 
609 
764 
987 
1,143 
1,187 ' 

Per  Cent 
40 

44 
25 
29 
16 

6411 

664 
1,342.P 
1,305.3 

2,074 1 
1,837 
1,999 
1,967 

'  No  accurate  statistics  before  1907  and  1910,  respectively. 

'  Increase  clue  to  change  in  definition. 

'  On  January  1,  1913. 

*  Increase  of  six  months  only. 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION 


877 


Fiscal  Year 

Total  of  Permanent 
Bridges  and  Cul- 
verts IN  Existence 

Fiscal  Year 

Total  op  Permanent 
Bridges  and   Cul- 
verts IN  Existence 

Number 

Per  Cent 

Number 

Per  Cent 

1907'     .     .     . 

1908.  .     .     . 

1909.  .     .     . 

1910.  .     .     . 

3,280' 

3,631 
3,865 
4,372 

11 

6 
13 

1911  .     .     . 

1912  .     .     . 

1913  .     .     . 

4,842 

5,181 
5,660 

11 

7 
9 

The  old  Spanish  road  system  was  quite  extensive  and 
very  well  planned,  but  the  amount  of  really  good  construc- 
tion was  very  limited.  The  system  of  maintenance  was 
faulty,  and  the  abandonment  of  maintenance  during  the 
insurrection  against  Spain  and  the  war  with  the  United 
States  resulted  in  the  almost  complete  destruction  of 
many  roads  which  were  in  fairly  good  condition  at  the 
time  pubhc  order  became  seriously  disturbed.  The  total 
value  of  Spanish  work  on  existing  roads  is  estimated  at 
$1,800,000.  The  total  value  of  all  American  work  up  to 
June  30,  1911,  is  estimated  at  $6,100,000. 

The  imperative  need  of  better  highways  throughout 
the  islands  was  brought  home  by  the  difficulties  encoun- 
tered by  the  army  during  the  insurrection,  and  the  first 
act  of  the  Phihppine  Commission,  passed  on  the  twelfth 
day  after  the  comnussion  became  the  legislative  body  of 
the  islands,  appropriated  $1,000,000  ($2,000,000  Mexican) 
for  the  construction  and  repair  of  highways  and  bridges. 

Much  of  this  money  was  very  advantageously  expended 
by  the  military,  who  contributed  a  large  amount  of  trans- 
portation free  of  cost.  Unfortunately,  while  the  necessity 
for  roads  was  at  this  time  fully  appreciated,  there  was 
failure  to  appreciate  the  extraordinary  rapidity  with 
which  tropical  rains  and  vegetation  destroy  good  roads  in 
the  Philippines.  We  further  failed  to  appreciate  the  ab- 
solute indifference  of  the  Filipinos  themselves  as  to  whether 
roads  once  built  are  or  are  not  maintained. 


'  No  accurate  statistics  before  1907. 


878  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND  PRESENT 

One  of  the  first  large  pieces  of  work  undertaken  was  a 
road  from  Calamba  on  the  Laguna  de  Bay  to  Lipa,  an 
important  town  in  the  province  of  Batangas,  and  thence 
to  the  town  of  Batangas  itself.  This  road  ran  for  its  en- 
tire extent  through  a  rich  agricultural  district.  I  passed 
over  it  when  the  dirt  work  had  all  been  completed, 
and  when  all  but  two  short  stretches  were  surfaced.  I 
certainly  had  vigorously  impressed  upon  me  the  ne- 
cessity of  surfacing.  Over  that  portion  of  the  road 
which  had  been  so  treated  an  automobile  could  have 
been  di-iven  at  sixty  miles  an  hour.  Over  the  remainder 
of  it,  built  by  the  same  engineer,  shaped  up  in  the  same 
way,  and  as  good  a  dirt  road  as  could  be  constructed,  four 
mules  could  not  haul  the  ambulance  in  which  we  were 
riding  without  our  assistance.  We  had  to  get  out  and 
literally  put  our  shoulders  to  the  wheel,  or  tug  at  the  spokes, 
in  order  to  enable  the  faitliful  beasts  to  extricate  the  am- 
bulance from  the  morasses  into  which  the  two  unsurfaced 
stretches  had  been  converted. 

Needless  to  say,  the  surfacing  was  completed  as  soon  as 
possible,  and  then  came  what  the  Filipinos  call  a  great 
desengaho}  I  venture  to  say  that  from  the  time  the 
road  was  finished  until  it  was  completely  destroj^ed  there 
was  never  a  shovelful  of  dirt  nor  a  basketful  of  gravel 
placed  upon  it.  In  190S  I  attempted  to  drive  over  it  in 
one  of  the  two-wheeled  rigs  known  as  carromatas,  which 
will  go  almost  anj-where.  I  was  upset  twice  in  as  many 
miles  and  gave  up  the  attempt. 

For  a  considerable  time  the  destruction  of  roads  almost 
kept  pace  with  their  construction,  and  until  1907  the  small 
amount  of  provincial  funds  available  usually  resulted  in 
failure  to  attempt  repans  until  both  surfacing  and  founda- 
tion had  been  badly  injured  or  destroyed.  The  remnants 
of  old  Spanish  roads  still  existing,  and  the  new  roads  con- 
structed by  Americans,  were  in  danger  of  being  wiped  out. 
It  was  then  decided  that  further  insular  aid  for  road  con- 

' Literally  "disillusion." 


A  Typical  Old-style  Bridge. 


A  Typical  Reenfohced  Concrete  Bridge. 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION  879 

struction  should  not  be  given  until  the  indifference  of 
provincial  officials  could  be  overcome,  and  funds  provided 
for  proper  maintenance.  It  was  further  decided  that 
roads  and  bridges  should  be  considered  as  on  a  basis 
similar  to  that  of  other  government  property,  and  that 
maintenance  must  take  precedence  over  new  construction. 
Regulations  providing  for  it  were  outlmed  and  incorpo- 
rated in  a  proposed  resolution  which  was  submitted  to  the 
several  provincial  boards  with  the  information  that  further 
insular  funds  would  not  be  appropriated  for  any  province 
until  its  board  passed  this  resolution,  thereby  agreeing 
to  provide  road  and  bridge  funds  by  means  of  the  so- 
called  double  cedula  tax,  and  perpetually  to  maintain  the 
heavily  surfaced  roads  then  in  existence  within  its  hmits. 

The  cedula  tax  is  an  annual  personal  or  poll  tax.  The 
amount  originally  fixed  by  the  commission  was  one  peso, 
but  legislation  was  subsequently  enacted  empowering 
provincial  boards  to  increase  it  to  two  pesos,  the  additional 
amount  to  go  for  road  and  bridge  work. 

Most  of  the  provinces  promptly  took  the  suggested 
action,  and  the  few  which  at  first  stood  out  were  soon  com- 
pelled by  popular  opinion  to  follow  suit.  It  is  not  too 
much  to  say  that  real  progress  in  permanent  road  and 
bridge  construction  in  the  Phihppines  dates  from  1907 
when  the  present  regulation  relative  to  maintenance  was 
put  into  effect. 

Provision  was  made  for  a  yearly  provincial  maintenance 
appropriation  of  not  less  than  $282  per  mile  of  duly  desig- 
nated road.  Stone  kilometer  posts  were  erected  beside  all 
improved  roads. 

During  the  rainy  season  one  caminero,  or  roadman,  is 
stationed  on  each  kilometer  section.  During  the  dry 
season  one  caminero  cares  for  a  two-kilometer  section. 
These  men  are  constantly  at  work  cutting  the  encroaching 
vegetation  from  the  lateral  banks,  keeping  drams  clear, 
and  immediately  filling  depressions  in  the  road-bed  as 
they  appear,  using  for  the  purpose  material  stored  in 


880  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND  PRESENT 

specially  constructed  bins  placed  at  regular  intervals 
and  kept  filled  with  broken  stone  and  gravel.  Heavy 
repair  work  which  may  be  necessary  after  great  typhoons 
or  floods  must  be  specially  provided  for. 

The  inspection  of  each  kilometer  of  road  is  made  as 
follows :  daily,  by  the  sub-foreman ;  bi-weekly,  by  the 
foreman ;  monthly,  by  the  district  engineer ;  and  tri- 
monthly  by  the  division  engineer. 

Under  this  system,  in  spite  of  unfavourable  climatic 
conditions  the  reconstructed  or  newly  constructed  Philip- 
pine roads  are  to-day  maintained  far  better  than  are  most 
of  the  roads  in  the  United  States,  and  one  may  drive  auto- 
mobiles over  them  at  top  speed.  Numerous  freight  and 
passenger  automobile  lines  have  already  been  established. 

The  average  present  cost  of  constructing  heavily  sur- 
faced roads,  including  bridges  which  are  apt  to  be  numer- 
ous and  expensive,  is  $8250  per  mile. 

Only  first-class  bridges,  of  concrete,  masonry  or  steel, 
are  permitted  on  main  roads  in  the  lowlands.  Arbitrary 
enforcement  of  this  rule  is  the  one  thing  about  the  present 
road  system  which  in  my  opinion  affords  grounds  for 
legitimate  criticism. 

Wliile  no  one  can  dispute  the  wisdom  of  constructing 
bridges  of  hard  materials  whenever  this  can  be  done,  it  is 
possible  to  carry  too  far  the  poUcy  of  limiting  construction 
to  such  materials,  and  in  my  opinion  it  has  been  carried 
too  far  in  a  number  of  instances. 

Years  ago  a  good  automobile  road  was  constructed  from 
Cagayan  de  Misamis  to  and  beyond  the  barrio  of  Agusan, 
which  is  the  point  of  departure  for  the  main  trail  into  the 
sub-province  of  Bukidnon.  Numerous  small  streams  on 
this  road  were  bridged  with  reenf  orced  concrete,  but  proper 
allowance  was  not  made  for  their  terrific  rise  during  heavy 
rains  in  the  highlands  and  almost  without  exception  the 
bridges  were  destroyed  during  the  first  severe  typhoon. 
Funds  are  not  yet  available  for  their  reconstruction  with 
strong  materials.  Meanwhile  nothing  has  been  done.    The 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION  881 

road  is  therefore  impassable  during  hea\'y  rains,  as  the 
streams  cannot  then  be  forded.  Meanwhile,  our  "tem- 
porary" wooden  bridges  on  the  connecting  trail  system, 
constructed  before  the  bridges  on  the  coast  road  were 
built,  remain  intact,  and  render  it  possible  always  to  cross 
streams  much  larger  than  any  of  those  which  intersect  the 
coast  road. 

Of  course  if  the  hard  and  fast  rule  governing  bridge  con- 
struction in  the  lowlands  is  once  departed  from,  its  en- 
forcement may  become  difficult.  Nevertheless,  I  am  of 
the  opinion  that  existing  regulations  should  be  so  modified 
as  to  authorize  and  encourage  the  construction  of  tem- 
porary bridges  m  such  cases  as  that  above  cited. 

The  enormous  change  which  road  construction  has  pro- 
duced in  ease  of  travel,  and  in  reduced  cost  of  transporting 
farm  products,  cannot  be  appreciated  bj^  one  unfamiliar 
with  conditions  in  Spanish  days.  Then  the  ordinary 
country  road  was  a  narrow  ditch  sloping  in  on  both  sides 
toward  the  bottom,  this  condition  being  brought  about 
by  failure  to  provide  proper  drainage  so  that  there  was 
tremendous  erosion  during  the  rainy  season,  at  which 
time  these  so-called  roads  became  converted  into  deep 
quagmires  by  the  action  of  very  narrow-tired  solid  wooden 
cart  wheels,  most  of  which  were  fixed  upon  their  axles. 
It  was  not  unusual  to  see  carts  in  mud  up  to  their  bodies, 
seeming  to  float  on  it  while  being  pulled  by  floundering 
carabaos.  Many  of  the  roads  were  so  bad  that  wheeled 
vehicles  could  not  be  used  even  during  the  drj'  season,  and 
their  place  was  taken  by  so-called  cangas,  or  bamboo 
sledges,  which  also  caused  rapid  road  destruction.  When 
all  else  failed,  the  Filipino  mounted  his  faithful  carabao, 
which  could  swim  the  unbridged  streams  if  the  current 
was  not  too  swift,  and  could  successfull}'  negotiate  deep 
quagmires,  and  thus  he  journej^ed  from  place  to  place, 
leaving  the  transportation  of  his  products  until  the  coming 
of  the  dry  season. 

The  use  on  improved  roads  of  cangas,  and  of  carts  with 


882  THE  PHILIPPINES  PAST  AND  PRESENT 

narrow-tired  wheels  or  with  wheels  fixed  on  their  axles,  is 
now  forbidden  by  law.  The  carts  permitted  to  be  used 
have  broad  tires  that  help  to  smooth  the  roads  instead  of 
cutting  them  to  pieces. 

As  already  stated,  this  road  system  is  supplemented  in 
the  wilder  parts  of  the  archipelago,  so  far  at  least  as  the 
special  government  provinces  are  concerned,  by  a  trail 
system  which  is  rapidly  being  extended.  The  traUs, 
which  are  at  first  built  only  wide  enough  to  permit  the 
passage  of  horses,  are  on  grades  such  that  they  can  be 
converted  into  roads  by  widening  and  surfacing,  and  are 
gradually  widened  in  connection  with  the  maintenance 
work  so  as  to  permit  the  passage,  first  of  narrow-tired  carts, 
and  later  of  carts  of  ordmary  width.  Indeed  one  such 
trail  extending  from  Baguio,  in  Benguet,  to  Naguilian, 
in  the  lowlands  of  the  neighbouring  province  of  Union, 
has  already  been  sufficiently  widened  to  permit  the  pas- 
sage of  automobiles,  and  the  same  thing  can  be  done  with 
any  of  the  others  when  occasion  requires. 

It  has  been  most  interestmg  to  note  to  what  an  extent 
the  construction  of  good  roads  and  trails  and  the  cultiva- 
tion of  the  land  in  their  vicinity  have  gone  hand  in  hand. 
The  prosperity  of  the  country  has  been  enormously  in- 
creased by  the  carrying  out  of  the  present  sensible  road 
pohcy  for  which  Governor-General  W.  Cameron  Forbes 
is  primarily  responsible. 

The  policy  of  the  Forbes  administration  contemplated 
the  steady  continuance  of  road  and  bridge  construction 
and  maintenance  until  a  complete  system,  which  had  been 
carefully  worked  out  for  the  entire  archipelago,  should 
have  been  finished. 

What  would  result  if  road  and  bridge  work  were  turned 
over  to  a  Filipino  government?  Judging  from  their 
absolute  failure  to  maintain  any  roads  until  the  insular 
government  assumed  control  in  1907,  and  from  the  pres- 
ent neglect  of  municipalities  to  care  for  the  sections  of 
road  for  which  they  are  responsible,  we  are  justified  in 


IMPROVED   MEANS   OF   COMMUNICATION  883 

saying  that  new  construction  would  promptly  cease; 
maintenance  would  be  neglected ;  existing  roads  would 
be  destroyed ;  bridges  would  be  left  up  in  the  air  by  the 
destruction  of  their  approaches,  and  would  ultimately 
go  to  pieces,  and  the  whole  system  would  come  to  rack  and 
ruin. 

To  be  sure,  the  FUipino  politicians  loudly  assert  that 
they  are  heartily  in  sympathj'^  with  the  present  road  policy 
of  the  government,  but  this  is  largely  because  the  securing 
of  government  aid  for  roads  in  their  respective  provinces 
increases  their  popularity  with  the  people,  and  the  prob- 
ability that  they  will  be  reelected.  If  it  were  left  for 
them  to  determine  whether  money  should  be  expended  for 
this  purpose  or  for  some  other  which  would  more  imme- 
diately inure  to  their  private  benefit,  there  can  be  no  two 
opinions  as  to  the  result. 

The  continuance  of  American  control  for  the  present 
is  absolutely  essential,  if  proper  means  of  communication 
and  aids  to  navigation  are  to  be  estabUshed  and  main- 
tained in  the  Philippine  Islands. 


CHAPTER  XXXIII 

COMMEKCIAL    POSSIBILITIES    OF    THE    PHILIPPINES 

If  the  commercial  possibilities  of  any  region  are  to  be 
attractive  to  Europeans  or  Americans,  it  must  have  a  just 
and  stable  government ;  a  reasonably  healthful  climate ; 
fairly  good  means  of  communication  and  transportation ; 
forest,  agricultural,  mineral  or  other  wealth,  and  labour 
with  which  to  develop  it.  Proximity  to  main  lines  of 
travel  and  to  markets  is  also  an  important  consideration. 

The  present '  government  of  the  Philippines  is  highly 
effective  and  the  state  of  public  order  leaves  little  to  be 
desired.  Doubt  has  been  expressed  as  to  the  stability 
of  the  existing  regune,  but  it  is  at  the  very  least  safe  to 
assume  that  the  United  States  will  never  withdraw  from 
the  islands  without  leaving  behind  a  government  which 
will  assure  to  the  residents  of  the  archipelago,  foreign  and 
native,  personal  safety,  just  treatment  and  security  of 
property  rights. 

Health  conditions  are  now  excellent,  and  the  death  rate 
among  whites  at  Manila  is  lower  than  that  in  many 
European  and  American  cities.  If  one  will  only  vary  the 
monotony  of  the  continuous  warmth  by  making  an  oc- 
casional trip  to  Baguio,  and  take  reasonable  precautions 
as  to  food,  drink  and  exercise,  there  is  no  reason  why  one 
should  not  die  of  old  age. 

Means  of  conmiunication  by  land  are  now  fairly  good 
and  steadily  improving.  The  seas  are  well  lighted  and 
the  main  lines  of  sea  travel  have  been  carefully  surveyed. 

The  islands  have  many  beautiful  harbors  and,  as  we 
have  seen,  at  Manila,  Cebu  and  Iloilo  extensive  harbour 
improvements  have  already  been  made.     There  are  no 

1  Oct.  1,  1913. 

884 


COMMERCIAL   POSSIBILITIES   OF   THE   PHILIPPINES         885 

special  difficulties  attendant  upon  the  loading  or  unloading 
of  ships  anywhere  in  the  archipelago.  The  rapid  exten- 
sion of  highways,  and  the  construction  of  additional  rail- 
ways, are  faciUtating  and  cheapening  land  transportation. 

The  natural  resources  of  the  country  are  unquestion- 
ably vast.  I  have  ab-eady  devoted  a  chapter  to  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  forests  and  their  wealth. 

As  to  the  mineral  resources,  while  we  have  much  still 
to  learn  we  already  know  that  there  are  excellent  lig- 
nite, some  coking  coal  and  extensive  deposits  of  high- 
grade  iron  ore  and  of  copper.  One  flourishing  gold 
nune  is  now  giving  handsome  returns,  and  several  others 
seem  to  lack  only  the  capital  needed  to  develop  them 
on  a  considerable  scale  in  order  to  make  them  pay; 
dredges  are  operating  for  gold  with  great  success  in  the 
vicinity  of  Paracale  in  eastern  Luzon,  and  there  are  other 
gold  placer  fields  m  the  islands  which  are  worthy  of  care- 
ful investigation.  The  prospect  of  obtaining  in  quantity 
a  high-grade  petroleum  with  paraffine  base  rich  in  low- 
boiling  constituents  is  very  good. 

Difficulties  in  the  way  of  the  development  of  the  mining 
industry  are  to  be  found  in  the  disturbances  of  geological 
formations  which  are  inevitably  met  with  in  volcanic 
countries,  in  the  dense  tropical  vegetation  which  in  many 
regions  covers  everything  and  renders  prospecting  diffi- 
cult, and  in  the  unevenness  of  the  rainfall  which  in  some 
parts  of  the  archipelago  results  in  severe  floods  at  one 
season  and  in  the  lack  of  sufficient  water  to  furnish  hy- 
drauUc  power  at  another.  But  we  are  at  least  free  from 
the  troubles  incident  to  freezing  cold,  and  in  my  opinion 
a  prosperous  mining  industry  will  ultimately  be  built  up 
in  the  Phihppines. 

Agriculture  has  always  been,  and  will  doubtless  long 
continue  to  be,  the  main  source  of  wealth.  In  the  low- 
lands may  be  found  conditions  of  soil  and  climate  favour- 
able to  the  growing  of  all  unportant  tropical  products. 
Owing  to  the  position  of  the  islands  with  reference  to  the 

VOL.  II  —  2c 


886  THE    PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

northeast  and  southwest  monsoons,  practically  any  de- 
sired conditions  as  regard  humidity  and  the  distribution 
of  rainfall  can  be  found.  There  are  regions  which  have 
strongly  marked  wet  and  dry  seasons,  and  regions  in 
which  the  rainfall  is  quite  uniformly  distributed  through- 
out the  year.  In  some  provinces  the  heaviest  rains  come 
in  January,  while  in  others  they  come  in  July  or  August. 
The  Philippine  Weather  Bureau  has  gathered  an  immense 
amount  of  very  valuable  rainfall  statistics  and  is  con- 
stantly adding  to  its  present  store  of  knowledge.  Father 
Jose  Algue,  its  distinguished  director,  can  always  be  de- 
pended upon  to  furnish  any  obtainable  information. 

But  this  is  not  all.  We  are  not  confined  to  tropical 
products.  In  the  highlands  of  Luzon  and  of  Mindanao 
practically  all  the  vegetables  and  many  of  the  grains  and 
fruits  of  the  temperate  zone  may  be  produced. 

When  well  fed,  properly  directed  and  paid  a  reasonable 
wage,  the  Filipino  makes  a  good  field  labourer.  Much  of 
his  so-called  laziness  is  unquestionably  due  to  malnu- 
trition. A  diet  made  up  largely  of  rice,  especially  if 
that  rice  be  polished,  does  not  develop  a  maximum  of 
physical  energy. 

When  threshing  machines  were  first  introduced  it  was 
impossible  to  get  Filipinos  to  handle  the  straw.  The 
work  was  too  strenuous  for  them.  We  soon  discovered 
that  by  picking  fairly  strong  men,  and  feeding  them  plenty 
of  meat,  we  could  make  them  able  and  willing  to  do  it. 

Some  extraordinary  misstatements  have  been  made  as 
to  Manila's  position  with  reference  to  main  lines  of  travel 
and  to  markets.  In  this  connection  Blount  says  that  it  is 
an  out-of-the-way  place  so  far  as  regards  the  main  travelled 
routes  across  the  Pacific,^  and  adds  that  shippers  would 

' "  Of  course,  the  writer  did  not  mention  that  Manila  is  an  out-of- 
the-way  place,  so  far  as  regards  the  main-travelled  routes  across  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  and  also  forgot  that,  as  has  been  suggested  once  before, 
the  carrying  trade  of  the  world,  and  the  shippers  on  which  it  depends,  in 
the  contest  of  the  nations  for  the  markets  of  Asia,  would  never  take 
to  the  practice  of  unloading  at  Manila  by  way  of  rehearsal,  before 


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COMMERCIAL   POSSIBILITIES   OF   THE    PHILIPPINES        887 

not  take  to  unloading  cargo  there  before  finally  discharg- 
ing it  on  the  mainland  of  Asia. 

With  singular  inconsistency  he  also  says  that  Manila 
could  never  succeed  Hongkong  as  the  gateway  to 
Asia.i 

One  might  almost  believe  him  ignorant  of  the  fact  that 
Hongkong  is  an  island,  separated  from  the  continent  of 
Asia,  and  that  the  very  thing  which  he  says  would  not 
happen  at  Manila,  to  wit  the  "unloading  by  way  of  re- 
hearsal, before  finally  discharging  on  the  mainland  of 
Asia,"  is  the  thing  which  has  made  Hongkong  harbour  one 
of  the  busiest  ports  in  the  world. 

Manila  has  numerous  very  definite  advantages  over 
Hongkong.  Health  conditions  are  vastly  better,  and 
there  is  far  less  danger  that  crews  of  vessels  will  become 
infected.  Ocean  going  steamers  come  alongside  piers 
and  unload  directly  into  great  sheds  which  protect  goods 
during  stonns.  The  pier  sheds  have  direct  connection 
with  the  electric  railway  system  of  the  city,  so  that  freight 
can  be  quickly  and  cheaply  transported  under  cover. 
The  Manila  breakwater  affords  excellent  protection  during 
typhoons,  whereas  Hongkong  harbour  is  periodically  swept 
by  storms  which  cause  great  damage  to  shipping  and 
very  serious  loss  of  life. 

Hongkong  is  a  free  port,  but  the  construction  of  bonded 
warehouses  at  IManila  for  the  reception  of  goods  intended 
for  reshipment  would  largely  make  up  for  the  fact  that 
Manila  is  a  port  of  entry. 

The  reply  to  the  claim  that  IManila  is  far  from  markets 
and  established  hues  of  travel  is  simple.  Look  at  the 
map  and  compare  it  with  Hongkong  ! 

finally  discharging  cargo  on  the  mainland  of  Asia,  where  the  name  of 
the  Ultimate  Consumer  is  legion."  —  Blount,  p.  49. 

'  "  .  .  .  Manila,  being  quite  away  from  the  mainland  of  Asia,  could 
never  supersede  Hongkong  as  the  gateway  to  the  markets  of  Asia, 
since  neither  shippers  nor  the  carrying  trade  of  the  world  will  ever  see 
their  way  to  unload  cargo  at  Manila  by  way  of  rehearsal  before  unload- 
ing on  the  mainland ;   .  .  . "  —  Blount,  p.  44. 


888  THE   PHILIPPINES   PAST   AND   PRESENT 

Let  US  now  consider  more  in  detail  the  resources  of  the 
PhiUppines. 

The  first  thing  that  impresses  one  who  studies  their 
agriculture  is  the  extremely  primitive  state  of  develop- 
ment to  which  it  has  attained.  Rice  is  the  bread  of  the 
people  and  is  produced  in  large  quantities,  but  as  a  rule 
land  is  prepared  for  planting  it  by  ploughing  with  what  is 
little  better  than  a  crooked  stick,  which  may  or  may  not 
have  an  iron  point,  and  by  subsequent  puddling  with  a 
muck  rake,  both  instruments  being  drawn  by  carabaos. 
As  the  ground  cannot  be  worked  in  this  fashion  until  the 
rains  come  on,  and  the  young  plants  should  be  set  in  the 
ground  very  shortly  thereafter,  the  period  during  which 
the  soil  can  be  prepared  is  brief,  and  the  amount  brought 
under  cultivation  is  correspondingly  small.  Rice  is 
usually  planted  in  seed  beds  and  transplanted  by  hand, 
the  object  of  this  procedure  being  to  give  it  a  start  over 
the  weeds  which  would  otherwise  swamp  it.  It  is  a 
common  thing  to  see  a  crowd  of  men,  women  and  children 
setting  it  to  the  music  of  a  small  string  band,  with  which 
they  keep  time.  Organizations  which  have  the  reputation 
of  maintaining  a  rapid  rhythm  are  quite  in  demand  be- 
cause of  the  increased  amount  of  rice  set !  Ordinarily, 
in  the  lowlands  at  least,  comparatively  little  attention  is 
paid  to  subsequent  weeding,  and  when  harvest  time  comes 
the  crop  is  usually  gathered  by  cutting  off  the  heads  one  at 
a  time.  Threshing  is  frequently  performed  in  the  open  air 
on  a  floor  made  of  clay  and  carabao  dung.  Often  the  grain 
is  trodden  out  under  the  feet  of  the  owners  themselves ; 
sometimes  it  is  stripped  off  by  drawing  the  heads  between 
the  teeth  of  an  instrument  somewhat  resembling  an  in- 
verted iron  rake ;  again  it  is  beaten  off  against  stones ; 
a  more  advanced  method  is  to  drive  horses,  carabaos  or 
cattle  over  the  straw  until  the  grain  has  been  loosened 
from  the  straw.